The latest medical research on Spinal Surgery

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about spinal surgery gathered by our medical AI research bot.

The selection below is filtered by medical specialty. Registered users get access to the Plexa Intelligent Filtering System that personalises your dashboard to display only content that is relevant to you.

Want more personalised results?

Request Access

Association of Craniocervical Sagittal Alignment With the Outcomes of Cervical Disc Replacement.

Global Spine Journal

Patients who underwent 1-level and 2-level CDR were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical outcomes were evaluated using scores on the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and Neck Disability Index (NDI). The craniocervical sagittal alignment parameters, including the C0-C2 Cobb angle, C2-C7 Cobb angle, C2 slope, T1 slope, C2-C7 sagittal vertical axis (SVA), C1-C7 SVA, the center of gravity of the head (CGH)-C7 SVA, and range of motion (ROM) at the surgical segments were measured.

To explore the association between craniocervical sagittal balance and clinical and radiological outcomes of cervical disc replacement (CDR).

A total of 169 patients were involved. Significantly lower pre- and postoperative C2 slope and CGH-C7 SVA were found in arthroplasty levels with better ROMs. Patients with a higher preoperative C2 slope and CGH-C7 SVA had lower cervical lordosis and ROM after surgery. There were no significant differences in the clinical outcomes between patients with different sagittal balance statuses. C2-C7 SVA and CGH-C7 SVA were significantly associated with radiographic adjacent segment pathology (rASP).

Craniocervical sagittal balance is associated with cervical lordosis and ROM at the index level after CDR. A higher preoperative SVA is related to the presence and progression of rASP. A relationship between sagittal alignment and clinical outcomes was not observed.

Risk Factors for 30-day Unplanned Readmission following Surgery for Lumbar Degenerative Diseases: A Systematic Review.

Global Spine Journal

The Cochrane Library, Embase, and Medline electronic databases were searched from inception to April 2022 to identify relevant studies reporting risk factors for 30-day readmission following surgery for LDD.

Surgical procedures for lumbar degenerative diseases (LDD), which have emerged in the 21-century, are commonly practiced worldwide. Regarding financial burdens and health costs, readmissions within 30days following surgery are inconvenient. We performed a systematic review to integrate real-world evidence and report the current risk factors associated with 30-day readmission following surgery for LDD.

Thirty-six studies were included in the review. Potential risk factors were identified in the included studies that reported multivariate analysis results, including age, race, obesity, higher American Society of Anesthesiologists score, anemia, bleeding disorder, chronic pulmonary disease, heart failure, dependent status, depression, diabetes, frailty, malnutrition, chronic steroid use, surgeries with anterior approach, multilevel spinal surgeries, perioperative transfusion, presence of postoperative complications, prolonged operative time, and prolonged length of stay.

There are several potential perioperative risk factors associated with unplanned readmission following surgery for LDD. Preoperatively identifying patients that are at increased risk of readmission is critical for achieving the best possible outcomes.

Current Practice of Acute Spinal Cord Injury Management: A Global Survey of Members from the AO Spine.

Global Spine Journal

A survey was distributed to members of AO Spine. The questionnaire was structured to obtain demographic data and preferred acute SCI practices surrounding steroid use, hemodynamic management, and timing of surgical decompression.

To examine current international practices as well as knowledge, adoption, and barriers to guideline implementation for acute spinal cord injury (SCI) management.

593 members completed the survey including orthopaedic surgeons (54.3%), neurosurgeons (35.6%), and traumatologists (8.4%). Most (61.2%) respondents were from low and middle-income countries (LMICs). 53.6% of physicians used steroids for the treatment of acute SCIs. Respondents from LMICs were more likely to administer steroids than HICs (178 vs. 78; P < .001). 331 respondents (81.5%) answered that patients would receive mean arterial pressure (MAP) targeted treatment. In LMICs, SCI patients were less likely to be provided with MAP-targeted treatment (76.9%) as compared to HICs (89%; P < .05). The majority of respondents (87.8%) reported that patients would benefit from early decompression. Despite overwhelming evidence and surgeons' responses that would offer early surgery, 62.4% of respondents stated they encounter logistical barriers in their institutions. This was particularly evident in LMICs, where 57.9% of respondents indicated that early intervention was unlikely to be accomplished, while only 21.1% of respondents from HICs stated the same (P < .001).

This survey highlights challenges in the implementation of standardized global practices in the management of acute SCI. Future research efforts will need to refine SCI guidelines and address barriers to guideline implementation.

Global Validation of the AO Spine Upper Cervical Injury Classification: Geographic Region Affects Reliability and Reproducibility.

Global Spine Journal

A total of 275 AO Spine members assessed 25 upper cervical spine injuries and classified them according to the AO Spine Upper Cervical Injury Classification System. Reliability, reproducibility, and accuracy scores were obtained over two assessments administered at three-week intervals. Kappa coefficients (ƙ) determined the interobserver reliability and intraobserver reproducibility.

To determine the accuracy, interobserver reliability, and intraobserver reproducibility of the AO Spine Upper Cervical Injury Classification System based on surgeons' AO Spine region of practice (Africa, Asia, Central/South America, Europe, Middle East, and North America).

On both assessments, participants from Europe and North America had the highest classification accuracy, while participants from Africa and Central/South America had the lowest accuracy (P < .0001). Participants from Africa (assessment 1 (AS1):ƙ = .487; AS2:0.491), Central/South America (AS1:ƙ = .513; AS2:0.511), and the Middle East (AS1:0.591; AS2: .599) achieved moderate reliability, while participants from North America (AS1:ƙ = .673; AS2:0.648) and Europe (AS1:ƙ = .682; AS2:0.681) achieved substantial reliability. Asian participants obtained substantial reliability on AS1 (ƙ = .632), but moderate reliability on AS2 (ƙ = .566). Although there was a large effect size, the low number of participants in certain regions did not provide adequate certainty that AO regions affected the likelihood of participants having excellent reproducibility (P = .342).

The AO Spine Upper Cervical Injury Classification System can be applied with high accuracy, interobserver reliability, and intraobserver reproducibility. However, lower classification accuracy and reliability were found in regions of Africa and Central/South America, especially for severe atlas injuries (IIB and IIC) and atypical hangman's type fractures (IIIB injuries).

The Clinical Significance of the Modic Changes Grading Score.

Global Spine Journal

Patients from the Danish national spine registry, DaneSpine, scheduled for lumbar discectomy were identified. MRI of patients with MC were graded based on vertical height involvement: Grade A (<25%), Grade B (25%-50%), and Grade C (>50%). All MRIs were reviewed by 2 physicians to evaluate the reliability of the MC grade.

To evaluate the reliability and clinical utility of the Modic changes (MC) grading score.

Of 213 patients included, 142 patients had MC, 71 with MC-1 and 71 with MC-2; 34% were Grade A, 45% were Grade B, and 21% were Grade C. MC grade demonstrated substantial intra-rater (κ = .68) and inter-rater (κ = .61) reliability. A significantly higher proportion (n = 40, 57%) of patients with MC-1 had a severe MC grade compared to patients with MC-2 (n = 30, 43%, P < .001). Severe MC grade was associated with the presence of severe lumbar disc degeneration (DD) (Pfirrmann grade = V, P = .024), worse preoperative ODI (52.49 vs 44.17, P = .021) and EQ-5D scores (.26 vs .46, P = .053). MC alone including type was not associated with a significant difference in patient-reported outcomes (P > .05).

The MC grade score was demonstrated to have substantial intra- and inter-observer reliability. Severe MC grade was associated with both severe DD and MC type, being more prevalent in patients with MC-1. The MC grade was also significantly associated with worse disability and reduced health-related quality of life. Results from the study suggest that MC grade is more clinically important than MC type.

How common is acute pelvic fixation failure after adult spine surgery? A single-center study of 358 patients.

J Neurosurg Spine

There is a paucity of literature on pelvic fixation failure after adult spine surgery in the early postoperative period. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of acute pelvic fixation failure in a large single-center study and to describe the lessons learned.

The authors performed a retrospective review of adult (≥ 18 years old) patients who underwent spinal fusion with pelvic fixation (iliac, S2-alar-iliac [S2AI] screws) at a single academic medical center between 2015 and 2020. All patients had a minimum of 3 instrumented levels. The minimum follow-up was 6 months after the index spine surgery. Patients with prior pelvic fixation were excluded. Acute pelvic fixation failure was defined as revision of the pelvic screws within 6 months of the primary surgery. Patient demographics and operative, radiographic, and rod/screw parameters were collected. All rods were cobalt-chrome. All iliac and S2AI screws were closed-headed screws.

In 358 patients, the mean age was 59.5 ± 13.6 years, and 64.0% (n = 229) were female. The mean number of instrumented levels was 11.5 ± 5.5, and 79.1% (n = 283) had ≥ 6 levels fused. Three-column osteotomies were performed in 14.2% (n = 51) of patients, and 74.6% (n = 267) had an L5-S1 interbody fusion. The mean diameter/length of pelvic screws was 8.5/86.6 mm. The mean number of pelvic screws was 2.2 ± 0.5, the mean rod diameter was 6.0 ± 0 mm, and 78.5% (n = 281) had > 2 rods crossing the lumbopelvic junction. Accessory rods extended to S1 (32.7%, n = 117) or S2/ilium (45.8%, n = 164). Acute pelvic fixation failure occurred in 1 patient (0.3%); this individual had a broken S2AI screw near the head-neck junction. This 76-year-old woman with degenerative lumbar scoliosis and chronic lumbosacral zone 1 fracture nonunion had undergone posterior instrumented fusion from T10 to pelvis with bilateral S2AI screws (8.5 × 90 mm); i.e., transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion L4-S1. The patient had persistent left buttock pain postoperatively, with radiographically confirmed breakage of the left S2AI screw 68 days after surgery. Revision included instrumentation removal at L2-pelvis and a total of 4 pelvic screws.

The acute pelvic fixation failure rate was exceedingly low in adult spine surgery. This rate may be the result of multiple factors including the preference for multirod (> 2), closed-headed pelvic screw constructs in which large-diameter long screws are used. Increasing the number of rods and screws at the lumbopelvic junction may be important factors to consider, especially for patients with high risk for nonunion.

Patient satisfaction after multiple revision surgeries for adult spinal deformity.

J Neurosurg Spine

Revision surgery is often necessary for adult spinal deformity (ASD) patients. Satisfaction with management is an important component of health-related quality of life. The authors hypothesized that patients who underwent multiple revision surgeries following ASD correction would exhibit lower self-reported satisfaction scores.

This was a retrospective cohort study of 668 patients who underwent ASD surgery and were eligible for a minimum 2-year follow-up. Visits were stratified by occurrence prior to the index surgery (period 0), after the index surgery only (period 1), after the first revision only (period 2), and after the second revision only (period 3). Patients were further stratified by prior spine surgery before their index surgery. Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22r) health-related quality-of-life satisfaction subscore and total satisfaction scores were evaluated at all periods using multiple linear regression and adjustment for age, sex, and Charlson Comorbidity Index.

In total, 46.6% of the study patients had undergone prior spine surgery before their index surgery. The overall revision rate was 21.3%. Among patients with no spine surgery prior to the index surgery, SRS-22r satisfaction scores increased from period 0 to 1 (from 2.8 to 4.3, p < 0.0001), decreased after one revision from period 1 to 2 (4.3 to 3.9, p = 0.0004), and decreased further after a second revision from period 2 to 3 (3.9 to 3.3, p = 0.0437). Among patients with spine surgery prior to the index procedure, SRS-22r satisfaction increased from period 0 to 1 (2.8 to 4.2, p < 0.0001) and decreased from period 1 to 2 (4.2 to 3.8, p = 0.0011). No differences in follow-up time from last surgery were observed (all p > 0.3). Among patients with multiple revisions, 40% experienced rod fracture, 40% proximal junctional kyphosis, and 33% pseudarthrosis.

Among patients undergoing ASD surgery, revision surgery is associated with decreased satisfaction, and multiple revisions are associated with additive detriment to satisfaction among patients initially undergoing primary surgery. These findings have direct implications for preoperative patient counseling and establishment of postoperative expectations.

Cervical spondylotic myelopathy with severe axial neck pain: is anterior or posterior approach better?

J Neurosurg Spine

The aim of this study was to determine whether multilevel anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) or posterior cervical laminectomy and fusion (PCLF) is superior for patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) and high preoperative neck pain.

This was a retrospective study of prospectively collected data using the Quality Outcomes Database (QOD) CSM module. Patients who received a subaxial fusion of 3 or 4 segments and had a visual analog scale (VAS) neck pain score of 7 or greater at baseline were included. The 3-, 12-, and 24-month outcomes were compared for patients undergoing ACDF with those undergoing PCLF.

Overall, 1141 patients with CSM were included in the database. Of these, 495 (43.4%) presented with severe neck pain (VAS score > 6). After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, we compared 65 patients (54.6%) undergoing 3- and 4-level ACDF and 54 patients (45.4%) undergoing 3- and 4-level PCLF. Patients undergoing ACDF had worse Neck Disability Index scores at baseline (52.5 ± 15.9 vs 45.9 ± 16.8, p = 0.03) but similar neck pain (p > 0.05). Otherwise, the groups were well matched for the remaining baseline patient-reported outcomes. The rates of 24-month follow-up for ACDF and PCLF were similar (86.2% and 83.3%, respectively). At the 24-month follow-up, both groups demonstrated mean improvements in all outcomes, including neck pain (p < 0.05). In multivariable analyses, there was no significant difference in the degree of neck pain change, rate of neck pain improvement, rate of pain-free achievement, and rate of reaching minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in neck pain between the two groups (adjusted p > 0.05). However, ACDF was associated with a higher 24-month modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association scale (mJOA) score (β = 1.5 [95% CI 0.5-2.6], adjusted p = 0.01), higher EQ-5D score (β = 0.1 [95% CI 0.01-0.2], adjusted p = 0.04), and higher likelihood for return to baseline activities (OR 1.2 [95% CI 1.1-1.4], adjusted p = 0.002).

Severe neck pain is prevalent among patients undergoing surgery for CSM, affecting more than 40% of patients. Both ACDF and PCLF achieved comparable postoperative neck pain improvement 3, 12, and 24 months following 3- or 4-segment surgery for patients with CSM and severe neck pain. However, multilevel ACDF was associated with superior functional status, quality of life, and return to baseline activities at 24 months in multivariable adjusted analyses.

Adding sacral anchors through an S1 alar screw and multirod construct as a strategy for lumbosacral junction augmentation: an in vitro comparison to S1 pedicle screws alone with sacroiliac fixation.

J Neurosurg Spine

Achieving solid fusion of the lumbosacral junction continues to be a challenge in long-segment instrumentation to the sacrum. The purpose of this study was to test the condition of adding sacral anchors through an S1 alar screw (S1AS) and multirod construct relative to using S1 pedicle screws (S1PSs) alone with sacroiliac fixation in lumbosacral junction augmentation.

Seven fresh-frozen human lumbar-pelvic spine cadaveric specimens were tested under nondestructive moments (7.5 Nm). The ranges of motion (ROMs) in extension, flexion, left and right lateral bending (LB), and axial rotation (AR) of instrumented segments (L3-S1); the lumbosacral region (L5-S1); and the adjacent segment (L2-3) were measured, and the axial construct stiffness (ACS) was recorded. The testing conditions were 1) intact; 2) bilateral pedicle screw (BPS) fixation at L3-S1 (S1PS alone); 3) BPS and unilateral S2 alar iliac screw (U-S2AIS) fixation; 4) BPS and unilateral S1AS (U-S1AS) fixation; 5) BPS and bilateral S2AIS (B-S2AIS) fixation; and 6) BPS and bilateral S1AS (B-S1AS) fixation. Accessory rods were used in testing conditions 3-6.

In all directions, the ROMs of L5-S1 and L3-S1 were significantly reduced in B-S1AS and B-S2AIS conditions, compared with intact and S1PS alone. There was no significant difference in reduction of the ROMs of L5-S1 between B-S1ASs and B-S2AISs. Greater decreased ROMs of L3-S1 in extension and AR were detected with B-S2AISs than with B-S1ASs. Both B-S1ASs and B-S2AISs significantly increased the ACS compared with S1PSs alone. The ACS of B-S2AISs was significantly greater than that of B-S1ASs, but with greater increased ROMs of L2-3 in extension.

Adding sacral anchors through S1ASs and a multirod construct was as effective as sacropelvic fixation in lumbosacral junction augmentation. The ACS was less than the sacropelvic fixation but with lower ROMs of the adjacent segment. The biomechanical effects of using S1ASs in the control of long-instrumented segments were moderate (better than S1PSs alone but worse than sacropelvic fixation). This strategy is appropriate for patients requiring advanced lumbosacral fixation, and the risk of sacroiliac joint violation can be avoided.

Is intervertebral disc degeneration associated with reduction in serum ferritin?

European Spine Journal

Ferritin autophagy is characterized by intracellular ferroptosis and selective ferritin degradation. However, the role of ferritin in the development of intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) has not been elucidated. The study aimed to investigate the role of serum iron metabolism markers, especially serum ferritin (SF), in IDD.

217 patients who came to the spine surgery department of our hospital for low back pain were recruited, and blood samples were collected for routine examination after admission. The cumulative grade was also calculated by summing up the Pfirrmann grade of all lumbar discs.

Correlation analysis showed that cumulative grade was correlated with SF (r = - 0.185, p = 0.006), not with serum iron (SI), transferrin saturation (TS), unsaturated iron-binding capacity (UIBC) and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) (all p > 0.05). In addition, SF levels in the low severity IDD were significantly higher than high severity IDD in cumulative grade (p = 0.003) and single disc grade. No statistically significant difference was found in the other four indicators. A statistically significant difference was observed between the high (cumulative grade > 17) and low score (cumulative grade ≤ 17) groups in terms of age. According to the ROC curve, the cut-off value of SF levels was 170.5. Patients with SF < 170.5 ng/mL had severe disc degeneration. The sensitivity and specificity were 0.635 and 0.602, respectively.

This study preliminarily showed that SF was negatively correlated with the degree of IDD and can be used to predict IDD severity.

Significance of body mass index on thoracic ossification of the ligamentum flavum in Chinese population.

European Spine Journal

To investigate the risk factors for thoracic ossification of the ligamentum flavum (TOLF), especially the relationship between BMI and TOLF.

A total of 856 individuals consisting of 326 controls without ossification of spinal ligaments and 530 TOLF inpatients who underwent thoracic spine decompression surgery at our hospital between January 2013 and September 2020 were included. All subjects were classified into 4 grades: Grade 0) control; Grade 1) single-segment TOLF; Grade 2) multi-segment TOLF; and Grade 3) TOLF combined thoracic ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (T-OPLL). Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the risk factors for TOLF. The TOLF index was calculated to assess the severity of TOLF, and its relationship with BMI was investigated by correlation analysis.

Overall, TOLF patients are most numerous in the 50-59 age group. Age and gender were considered as independent risk factors for Grades 1 and 2. BMI was identified as an independent risk factor for TOLF. Furthermore, BMI was significantly higher in Grade 1 (26.1 VS 24.5 kg/m2, P = 0.0001), Grade 2 (28.2 VS 24.5 kg/m2, P < 0.0001), and Grade 3 (29.1 VS 24.5 kg/m2, P < 0.0001) than Grade 0. Notably, in TOLF patients without combined T-OPLL, BMI was positively correlated with TOLF index, while BMI was negatively correlated with age in younger individuals.

BMI is a crucial risk factor for TOLF. It highlights the necessity of close follow-up of asymptomatic TOLF patients with high BMI to detect and treat their TOLF progression promptly.

A Novel Clinical Tool to Predict Cancer-specific Survival in Postoperative Patients With Primary Spinal and Pelvic Sarcomas: A Large Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study.

Global Spine Journal

A total of 452 patients were enrolled from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. They were divided into a training cohort and a validation cohort. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to identify these patients' CSS-related independent prognostic factors. Then, those factors were used to construct a prognostic nomogram for predicting the 3-, 5-, and 10-year CSS probability, whose predictive performance and clinical value were verified by the calibration curve, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and decision curve analysis (DCA). Finally, a mortality risk stratification system was constructed.

Primary osseous sarcomas originating from the spine and pelvis are rare and usually portend inferior prognoses. Currently, the standard treatment for spinal and pelvic sarcomas is surgical resection, but the poor prognosis limits the benefits to postoperative patients. This study aims to identify the independent prognostic factors of cancer-specific survival (CSS) in postoperative patients with primary spinal and pelvic sarcomas and construct a nomogram for predicting these patients' 3-, 5-, and 10-year CSS probability.

Sex, histological type, tumor stage, and tumor grade were identified as CSS-related independent prognostic factors. A nomogram with high predictive performance and good clinical value to predict the 3-, 5-, and 10-year CSS probability was constructed, on which a mortality risk stratification system was constructed based to divide these patients into 3 mortality risk subgroups effectively.

This study constructed and validated a clinical nomogram to predict CSS in postoperative patients with primary spinal and pelvic sarcomas. It could assist clinicians in classifying these patients into different mortality risk subgroups and realize sarcoma-specific management.