The latest medical research on Radiation Oncology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about radiation oncology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Prediction of extensive necrotic change in acute gangrenous cholecystitis.

Emergency Radiology

Gangrenous cholecystitis (GC) is a severe type of acute cholecystitis that implies higher mortality and morbidity rates than uncomplicated cholecystitis. The characteristics of GC are various for each case. However, preoperative predictors of GC with extensive necrotic change have not been investigated well.

A total of 239 patients who were pathologically diagnosed with GC underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy at our hospital between January 2013 and December 2021. Of these, 135 patients were included in this study and were subdivided into the extensive necrosis group (patients with necrotic change extending to the neck of the gallbladder, n = 18) and the control group (patients with necrotic change limited to the fundus or body, not extending to the neck, n = 117) according to each operation video. Patient characteristics and perioperative factors predicting extensive necrotic change were investigated.

Pericholecystic fat stranding (83.3 vs. 53.8%, p = 0.018) and absence of wall enhancement on preoperative CT images (50.0 vs. 24.7%, p = 0.026) were significantly associated with extensive necrosis. Seven of 18 patients in the extensive necrosis group showed necrotic changes beyond the infundibulum. The absence of wall enhancement on preoperative CT images (71.4 vs. 28.8%, p = 0.018) was significantly associated with necrotic changes beyond the infundibulum.

Pericholecystic fat stranding and absence of wall enhancement on preoperative enhanced CT are predictors of extensive necrotic change in patients with GC. In addition, the absence of wall enhancement also predicts the presence of necrotic changes beyond the infundibulum.

Traumatic spondylolisthesis of axis: clinical and imaging experience at a level one trauma center.

Emergency Radiology

Traumatic spondylolisthesis of the axis (TSA) with bilateral pars interarticularis fracture (a pattern also known as Hangman's fractures) accounts for 4-5% of all cervical fractures. Various classification systems have been described to assist therapeutic decision-making. The goal is to reassess the utility of these classifications for treatment strategy and evaluate additional imaging associations.

This is an IRB approved, retrospective analysis of patients with imaging diagnosis of TSA from 2016 to 2019. Consensus reads were performed classifying TSA into various Levine and Edwards subtypes and typical vs. atypical fractures. Other imaging findings such as additional cervical fractures, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, and vertebral artery injury were recorded. Treatment strategy and outcome were reviewed from clinical charts. Fisher exact test was used for statistical analysis.

A total of 58 patients were included, with a mean age of 62.7 ± 25 years, and male to female ratio of 1:1.2. Motor vehicle collision was the most common cause of TSA. Type I and III injuries were the most and the least common injuries, respectively. Patients with type I injuries were found to have good healing rates with conservative management (p < 0.001) while type IIa and III injuries were managed with surgical stabilization (p = 0.04 and p = 0.01, respectively). No statistical difference was observed in the treatment strategy for type II fractures (p = 0.12) and its prediction of the associated injuries. Atypical fractures were not found to have a higher incidence of SCI (p = 0.31). A further analysis revealed significantly higher-grade vertebral artery injuries (grades III and IV according to Biffl grading) in patients with type IIa and III injuries (p = 0.001) and an 11-fold increased risk of TBI compared to type I and type II fractures (p = 0.013).

TSA fracture types were not associated with any clinical outcome. Levine and Edwards type II classification itself is not enough to guide the treatment plan and does not account for associated injuries. Additional imaging markers may be needed.

Variation in CTA evaluation of ED patients suspected of aortic dissection.

Emergency Radiology

This study was performed to investigate the variation in CTA imaging for AoD in an ED to determine if limiting the scanned region to the chest can effectively rule-out AoD without delaying care.

A retrospective chart review was performed for all patients belonging to a geographically isolated health maintenance organization who underwent CTA evaluation for possible acute AoD in the emergency department between 2016 and 2020. We evaluated for the regions included in the CTA, the presence of an acute AoD, and clinical outcomes. For those who were ruled-out of an AoD with a CTA limited to the chest, we investigated clinical follow-up up to 6 months after their initial presentation.

Over the study period, there were 1143 CT scans ordered by ED physicians to evaluate for AoD in patients without a history of AoD. Only 23.0% of screening studies were of the chest only. There were 29 acute AoDs diagnosed (14 type A and 15 type B) making for a prevalence of 2.5%. Only one patient with an acute AoD detected on a chest-only CTA required farther imaging, which did not delay clinical care. No patients ruled-out for acute AoD with a chest-only CTA had a return ED visit or repeat CTA within 6 months diagnosing a missed AoD. There were no AoDs limited to the abdominal aorta that would have been missed on a chest-only study.

In patients in the ED with suspected new acute AoD, a CTA limited to the chest can effectively evaluate the condition without delaying care in this integrated healthcare system with 24/7 CT availability.

Traumatic arterial injuries in upper and lower limbs: what every radiologist should know.

Emergency Radiology

Traumatic arterial injuries of the extremities are a rare but potentially fatal event. Computed tomography (CT) angiography of the extremities has ...

Facial injury patterns in victims of intimate partner violence.

Emergency Radiology

To evaluate the imaging findings of facial injuries in patients reporting intimate partner violence (IPV).

A retrospective review of radiology studies performed for 668 patients reporting IPV to our institution's violence prevention support program identified 96 patients with 152 facial injuries. Demographics, imaging findings, and clinical data obtained from a review of the electronic medical records (EMR) were analyzed to categorize injury patterns.

The study cohort consisted of 93 women and 3 men with a mean age of 35 years (range 19-76; median 32). At the time of presentation, 57 (59.3%) patients reported IPV as the mechanism of injury. The most frequent site of injury was the midface, seen in 65 (67.7%) patients. The most common fracture sites were the nasal bones (45/152, 29.6%), followed by the mandible (17/152, 11.1%), and orbits (16/152, 10.5%). Left-sided injuries were more common (90/152; 59.2%). A vast majority of fractures (94.5%) showed minimal or no displacement. Over one-third of injuries (60/152, 39.4%) demonstrated only soft tissue swelling or hematoma without fracture. Associated injuries were seen most frequently in the upper extremity, occurring synchronously in 11 (11.4%) patients, and preceding the index facial injury in 20 (21%) patients.

/advances in knowledge. The midface was the most frequent location of injury in victims of intimate partner violence, and the nasal bone was the most commonly fractured facial bone. Recognizing these injury patterns can help radiologists suspect IPV and prompt them to discuss the possibility of IPV with the clinical providers.

Systematic review and meta-analysis on coronary calcifications in COVID-19.

Emergency Radiology

Chest CT is valuable to detect alternative diagnoses/complications of COVID-19, while its role for prognostication requires further investigation. ...

Quantification of bone marrow edema using dual-energy CT at fracture sites in trauma.

Emergency Radiology

The purpose of our study was to analyze the change in water and fat density within the bone marrow using the GE Revolution dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) platform using two-material decomposition analyses at extremity, spine, and pelvic fracture sites compared to normal bone marrow at equivalent anatomic sites in adult patients who sustained blunt trauma.

This retrospective study included 26 consecutive adults who sustained blunt torso trauma and an acute fracture of the thoracolumbar vertebral body, pelvis, or upper and lower extremities with a total of 32 fractures evaluated. Two-material decomposition images were analyzed for quantitative analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using the paired t-test and Shapiro-Wilk test for normality.

There were statistically significant differences in the water and fat densities in the bone marrow at the site of an extremity, vertebral body, or pelvic fracture when compared to the normal anatomic equivalent (p < 0.01).

In this preliminary study, DECT basis material images, using water (calcium) and fat (calcium) decomposition illustrated significant differences in water and fat content between fracture sites and normal bone in a variety of anatomical sites.

Varied imaging and clinical presentations of acute bacterial cerebritis.

Emergency Radiology

Infectious diseases affecting the central nervous system remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries and in immuno...

Imaging in extremity vascular trauma: can MDCT angiography predict the nature of injury?

Emergency Radiology

This study aims to evaluate the utility of computed tomography angiography (CTA) signs of vascular injury in the differentiation of vessel transection from pure thrombosis with intact vessel wall.

Retrospective analysis was done on 146 consecutive patients who had undergone CTA and surgical exploration from January 2015 to September 2019. Twelve imaging parameters were assessed. Chi-square was used to test the difference between groups. In addition, a scoring system was devised where one point each was added for the presence of 5 signs and absence of 3 signs. ROC analysis was done for the variables which had shown significant difference between groups and for the composite score.

On surgical exploration, 87 patients had transection of vessel, while 59 had thrombosis. Significant difference was found among the two groups in non-opacification, pseudoaneurysm, extravasation (p = 0.04 each), thrombosed cord (p < 0.001), collaterals (p = 0.001) and hematoma (p = 0.002), while other signs did not show significant difference. The AUC value for each of these variables was < 0.650, while for the score, AUC was .843(.773-.913). A cut-off value of ≥ 1.5 gave 83.1% sensitivity and 70% specificity for diagnosing transection.

CTA is a useful tool to classify the nature of vascular injury. It is advisable to use a composite score for maximum diagnostic value.

Incidence of pulmonary embolism in COVID-19 infection in the ED: ancestral, Delta, Omicron variants and vaccines.

Emergency Radiology

This retrospective review examines the incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE) during computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) exams performed in the emergency room setting of a tertiary care center over dominant periods of the ancestral, Delta, and Omicron variants of COVID-19.

Demographic information, patient comorbidities and risk factors, vaccination status, and COVID-19 infection status were collected from patient's charts. Incidence of PE in COVID positive patients was compared between variant waves. Subgroup analysis of vaccination effect was performed.

CTPA was ordered in 18.3% of COVID-19 positive patients during the ancestral variant period, 18.3% during the Delta period and 17.3% during the Omicron wave. PE was seen in 15.0% of the ancestral COVID-19 variant cohort, 10.6% in the Delta COVID cohort and 9.23% of the Omicron cohort, reflecting a 41% and 60% increased risk of PE with ancestral variants compared to Delta and Omicron periods respectively. The study however was underpowered and the difference in rate of PE did not reach statistically significance (p = 0.43 and p = 0.22). Unvaccinated patients had an 2.75-fold increased risk of COVID-associated PE during the Delta and Omicron periods (p = .02) compared to vaccinated or recovered patients.

Vaccination reduces the risk of COVID-19 associated PE. Patients infected with the Delta and Omicron COVID-19 variants may have a lower incidence of pulmonary embolism, though a larger or multi-institution study is needed to prove definitively.

Enhancing the value of radiology reports: a primer for residents.

Emergency Radiology

The radiology report is the primary work product of the diagnostic radiologist. Its quality is a direct reflection of his or her knowledge, experience, and confidence. Certain factors hindering one's ability to deliver a diagnostically accurate and concise report are sometimes unavoidable (e.g., study limitations and insufficient history); however, radiologists who routinely produce deficient reports not only erode their credibility and reputation amongst colleagues, they magnify their risk of litigation.

This article is directed toward radiology residents to help facilitate the adoption of effective reporting habits.

Up to 92% of referring physicians and 95% of radiologists agree that learning to report should be an "obligatory and well-structured" component of radiology residency education as discussed by Bosmans JM, Weyler JJ, De Schepper AM, and Parizel PM. Unfortunately, this remains the exception rather than the rule. This article is written with the following objectives: (1) to identify strategies that improve the value of radiology reporting, (2) to define the features of a high-quality radiology report, (3) to instill trust and respect from referring clinicians through clear, accurate, and effective communication, and (4) to understand and avoid potential medicolegal ramifications of deficient radiology reports.

Nontraumatic orbital emergencies: a pictorial essay - CT and MRI features for an imaging findings-based approach.

Emergency Radiology

Orbital imaging plays a pivotal role in each hospital with an Ophthalmological Emergency Department. Unenhanced orbital computed tomography (CT) us...