The latest medical research on Radiation Oncology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about radiation oncology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Natural history of pediatric morphine leukoencephalopathy on CT and MRI.

Emergency Radiology

An increased awareness of opioids and the imaging appearance in opioid overdose-related leukoencephalopathy has rapidly become crucial with respect...

Know your way around acute unenhanced CT during global iodinated contrast crisis: a refresher to ED radiologists.

Emergency Radiology

Due to a contrast shortage crisis resulting from the decreased supply of iodinated contrast agents, the American College of Radiology (ACR) has iss...

Outcomes in pediatric patients with documented delays between ileocolic intussusception diagnosis and therapeutic enema attempt: evaluation of reduction efficacy and complication rate.

Emergency Radiology

Ileocolic intussusception is considered a pediatric emergency, with concerns for risk of significant morbidity in children with a prolonged intussusception state. Emergent therapy is standard of care, as prior studies have shown poor outcomes in patients with long delays (> 24 h) before intervention. Various factors can result in shorter delays, and there are limited studies evaluating outcomes in these patients. This study aimed to determine if there were differences in reduction success rates associated with short in-hospital time delays.

This study is to determine enema success rate and morbidity in patients with documented time delays between intussusception diagnosis and therapeutic enema.

A retrospective evaluation of pediatric patients with intussusception at a single children's hospital between 2007 and 2019 was performed. Patient's records were reviewed for time of symptom onset, radiologic diagnosis, and attempted enema. Ultrasounds and radiographs were reviewed for bowel obstruction, free peritoneal fluid, trapped fluid around the intussusceptum, and absent bowel wall perfusion. Patients were evaluated for efficacy of reduction attempt, requirement for surgical reduction, and complications including bowel resection and bowel perforation.

There were 175 cases of ileocolic intussusception requiring enema reduction. Successful reduction occurred in 72.2% (13/18) of cases performed within 1 h of diagnosis; 74.3% (78/105) between 1 and3 h; 73.2% (30/41) between 3 and 6 h; and 81.2% (9/11) with greater than 6 h. Need for bowel resection was not associated with short delays between diagnosis and reduction attempts (p = .07).

There was no difference in intussusception reduction efficacy or complication rate in patients with increasing time between imaging diagnosis of ileocolic intussusception and reduction attempt, including delay intervals up to 8 h.

Rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease in patients with anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5-positive dermatomyositis: serial changes on HRCT.

Emergency Radiology

Anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (anti-MDA5) antibodies in patients with dermatomyositis are associated with rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease (RP-ILD). Computed tomography (CT) plays a central role in the diagnosis of RP-ILD and may help characterize the temporal changes.

We report five anti-MDA5-positive dermatomyositis patients with serial CT scans spanning their acute RP-ILD disease course.

Our case series highlights the variable imaging pattern that can manifest in this setting, including diffuse alveolar damage and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia patterns. Three patients in our series died within 4 months of their disease onset, whereas the other two patients survived.

The serial CT changes in anti-MDA5 disease are dynamic and variable; therefore, it is imperative to maintain a broad differential when faced with these HRCT patterns to improve the diagnosis and management of this underrecognized entity.

Coronary artery calcification-does it predict the CAD-RADS category?

Emergency Radiology

Coronary calcium scores (CCSs) in cardiac-gated computed tomography (CCT) are diagnostic for coronary artery disease (CAD). This study aims to investigate if CCSs can foretell CAD-reporting and data system (CAD-RADS) without performing computed tomography angiography (CTA).

Profiles of 544 patients were studied who had gone through CCT and CTA; the number of calcified regions of interest (ROIs), the Agatston, area, volume, and mass CCSs were calculated. Among the CAD-RADS categories (1 to 5), the mean values were compared for each CCS separately. A cut-offfor each CCS was declared using ROC curve analysis, more than which could predict significant CAD (CAD-RADS 3 to 5). Also, logistic regression models indicated the most probable CAD-RADS category based on the CCSs. P < 0.05 was considered significant.

Among 53% male and 47% female participants with a mean (SD) age of 62.57 (0.84) years, numbers of calcified ROIs were significantly different between each pair of CAD-RADS categories. While other CCSs did not show a significant difference between CAD-RADS 1 and 2 or 2 and 3. All CCSs were significantly different between the non-significant and significant CAD groups; cut-offs for the number of calcified ROIs, the Agatston, area, volume, and mass scores were 9, 128, 44mm2, 111mm3, and 22 mg, respectively. Formulae A and B predicted the most probable CAD-RADS category (accuracy: 79%) and the probability of significant/non-significant CAD (accuracy: 81%), respectively.

CCSs could predict CAD-RADS with an accuracy of 80%. Further studies are needed to introduce more predictive calcium indices.

Body computed tomography in sepsis: predictors of CT findings and patient outcomes in a retrospective medical ICU cohort study.

Emergency Radiology

Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that requires immediate focus identification and control. However, international sepsis guidelines do not provide information on imaging choice.

To identify predictors of CT findings and patient outcomes in a population of septic patients from a medical ICU.

A full-text search in the radiological information system (RIS) retrieved 227 body CT examinations conducted to identify infectious sources in 2018. CT reports were categorized according to identified foci and their diagnostic certainty. Diagnostic accuracy of CT was compared to microbiological results. Clinical and laboratory information was gathered. Statistical analysis was performed using nonparametric tests and logistic regression analysis.

CT revealed more positive infectious foci 52.4% (n = 191/227) than microbiological tests 39.3% (n = 79/201). There were no significant differences between focus-positive CT scans with regard to positive microbiological testing (p = 0.32). Sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores were slightly but nonsignificantly higher in patients with a focus-positive CT, odds ratio (OR) = 0.999 (95% CI 0.997-1.001) with p = 0.52. Among C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), and leukocytes, in focus-positive versus focus-negative CT scans, CRP showed a minor but statistically significant elevation in the group with focus-positive CT scans (OR = 1.004, 95% CI = 1.000-1.007, p = 0.04). No significant association was found for PCT (OR = 1.007, 95% CI = 0.991-1.023; p = 0.40) or leukocytes (OR = 1.003, 95% CI = 0.970-1.038; p = 0.85). In 33.5% (n = 76/227) of cases, the CT findings had at least one therapeutic consequence. In 81.6% (n = 62/76), the CT findings resulted in one consequence, in 14.5% (n = 11/76) in two consequences, and in 3.9% (n = 3/76) in three consequences. There was no significant association between focus-positive CT scans and mortality (p = 0.81).

In this population of septic patients in medical intensive care, microbiological analysis complemented CT findings. Both clinical and laboratory parameters were not predictive of CT findings. While therapeutic consequences of CT findings in this study population underline the role of CT for decision making in septic patients, CT findings do not predict patient outcomes in this retrospective analysis.

Multicenter survey clarifying phrases in emergency radiology reports.

Emergency Radiology

Interactions between radiologists and emergency physicians are often diminished as imaging volume increases and more radiologists read off site. We explore how several commonly used phrasings are perceived by radiologists and emergency physicians to decrease ambiguity in reporting.

An anonymous survey was distributed to attendings and residents at seven academic radiology and emergency departments across the USA via a digital platform as well as to an email group consisting of radiologists across the country with an interest in quality assurance. Physicians were asked to assign a percent score to probabilistic phrases such as, "suspicious of," or "concerned for." Additional questions including, "how often the report findings are reviewed," "what makes a good radiology report," and "when is it useful to use the phrase 'clinical correlation are recommended.'" Median scores and confidence intervals were compared using an independent Student's T-test.

Generally, there was agreement between radiologists and emergency room physicians in how they interpret probabilistic phrases except for the phrases, "compatible with," and "subcentimeter liver lesions too small to characterize." Radiologists consider a useful report to answer the clinical question, be concise, and well organized. Emergency physicians consider a useful report to be concise, definitive or include a differential diagnosis, answer the clinical question, and recommend a next step. Radiologists and emergency physicians did not agree on the usefulness of the phrase, "clinical correlation recommended," in which radiologists found the phrase more helpful under particular circumstances.

The survey demonstrated a wide range of answers for probabilistic phrases for both radiologists and emergency physicians. While the medians and means of the two groups were often different by statistical significance, the actual percent difference was minor. These wide range of answers suggest that use of probabilistic phrases may sometimes lead to misinterpretation between radiologist and emergency room physician and should be avoided or defined if possible.

Pediatric trauma and the role of the interventional radiologist.

Emergency Radiology

While interventional radiologists occupy a critical role in adult trauma management, the role of interventionalist in pediatric trauma continues to evolve. The indications for transarterial embolization (TAE) are significantly different in pediatric patients in whom non-operative management (NOM) has a much more prominent role than in adults. Contrast extravasation on imaging may not require acute surgical or interventional management as it would in an adult. There are also areas in which pediatric interventional radiology is increasingly useful such as pelvic TAE in failed management, or splenic embolization to treat bleeding without the loss of splenic function inherent to surgical splenectomy. The rapid evolution of techniques and devices in pediatric patients is also changing what interventions are possible in pediatric trauma management which necessitates frequent reassessment of the guidelines and interventional radiology's role in caring for these patients.

This review seeks to consolidate the recent literature to describe the evolving role of the interventional radiologist in pediatric trauma management.

Costal cartilage fractures in blunt polytrauma patients - a prospective clinical and radiological follow-up study.

Emergency Radiology

To assess the healing of costal cartilage fractures (CCFX) in patients with blunt polytrauma with follow-up imaging and clinical examination. Effect on physical performance and quality of life (QoL) was also evaluated.

The study group comprised twenty-one patients with diagnosed CCFX in trauma CT. All the patients underwent MRI, ultrasound, ultra-low-dose CT examinations, and clinical status control. The patients completed QoL questionnaires. Two radiologists evaluated the images regarding fracture union, dislocation, calcifications, and persistent edema at fracture site. An attending trauma surgeon clinically examined the patients, with emphasis on focal tenderness and ribcage mobility. Trauma registry data were accessed to evaluate injury severity and outcome.

The patients were imaged at an average of 34.1 months (median 36, range 15.8-57.7) after the initial trauma. In 15 patients (71.4%), CCFX were considered stable on imaging. Cartilage calcifications were seen on healed fracture sites in all the patients. The fracture dislocation had increased in 5 patients (23.8%), and 1 patient (4.8%) showed signs of a non-stable union. Four patients (19.0%) reported persistent symptoms from CCFX.

Non-union in CCFX is uncommon but may lead to decreased stability and discomfort. Both clinical and radiological examinations play an important part in the post-traumatic evaluation of CCFX. CT and MRI visualize the healing process, while dynamic ultrasound may reveal instability. No significant difference in QoL was detected between patients with radiologically healed and non-healed CCFX. Post-traumatic disability was mostly due to other non-thoracic injuries.

Diagnostic yield of CT angiography performed for suspected cervical artery dissection in the emergency department.

Emergency Radiology

Computed tomography angiographies are frequently performed in the emergency department (ED) for the assessment of cervical artery dissection (CeAD) due to the high risk of associated morbidity, but their diagnostic utility is not fully evaluated. We assessed the radiological outcomes and clinical correlates of CTAs performed for suspected CeAD.

CTAs for all indications (IndicationALL) over a 10-year period were evaluated to identify those with CeAD. A subgroup of CTAs performed for suspected CeAD (IndicationDISSECTION) was identified and further assessed for clinical findings predictive of CeAD. Magnetic resonance angiography/fat-saturated images (MRA/FSI) performed after CTA were also assessed.

Nine-thousand-two-hundred-four CTAs were performed by our ED for IndicationALL of which 850 (9.2%) were for IndicationDISSECTION. CeAD was noted in 1.5% (142/9204) among IndicationALL and in 6.1% (53/850) of IndicationDISSECTION CTAs. The most common radiological findings were mural thrombus and eccentric lumen. In the IndicationDISSECTION group, new headache (OR: 2.5, 95%CI: 1.2-5.7) and partial Horner syndrome (OR: 14.4, 95%CI: 4.2-49.9) predicted carotid dissection and cervical fracture (OR: 5.5, 95%CI: 2.1-14.6) predicted vertebral artery dissections. MRA/FSI confirmed CeAD in all positive cases, but in 2 CTAs read as negative, MRA/FSI was positive for vertebral artery dissection.

Although the yield of CTAs for clinically suspected CeAD is low, the paucity of reliable clinical predictors, high risk of morbidity, availability in ED, and comparable performance to MRA/FSI justifies its widespread utilization for initial diagnosis of CeAD.

Association of CT findings in patients with hemoperitoneum due to ruptured ovarian cysts with subsequent intervention.

Emergency Radiology

Hemoperitoneum caused by ovarian cyst rupture may necessitate intervention. The literature is lacking in descriptions of CT findings that help guide patient management. The purpose of this study is to consider CT findings associated with a need for intervention (surgical or interventional radiology management) versus conservative treatment (observation, pain management, and blood transfusions).

Two radiologists retrospectively and independently reviewed 103 CTs of pre-menopausal women who presented with acute hemoperitoneum related to ruptured ovarian cysts between January 2010 and January 2019. The following imaging features were assessed: ovarian cyst characteristics, sentinel clot, contrast extravasation, and hemoperitoneum size. Findings were correlated with patient demographics, clinical parameters, and management with surgery/interventional radiology procedure (intervention group) versus conservative management (conservative group).

Of the 103 patients with hemoperitoneum from cyst rupture, 16% (n = 16) required intervention, and 84% underwent conservative treatment (n = 87). Length of stay (p = .008) was higher in the intervention group. Statistically significant CT findings in the intervention versus conservative group included (p-value reader 1/p-value reader 2) greatest AP dimension of hemoperitoneum (p = .001/p = 0.02), posterior cul-de-sac AP dimension (p = 0.03/p = .006), total cul-de-sac AP dimension (p = .002/p = .007), and number of spaces with hemoperitoneum (p = .01/p = .02). There was good to excellent inter-reader agreement for these findings (ICC 0.68-0.91). Active contrast extravasation was significant for one reader (p = .02) with poor inter-reader agreement (ICC 0.36). In utilizing ROC curves, thresholds of 107 mm (greatest axial AP dimension of hemoperitoneum) yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 0.81 and 0.62 for reader 1 and 0.69 and 0.55 for reader 2; 45 mm (posterior cul-de-sac AP dimension) yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 0.75 and 0.63 for reader 1 and 0.94 and 0.49 for reader 2; 70 mm (total cul-de-sac AP dimension) yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 0.75 and 0.64 for reader 1 and 0.75 and 0.50 for reader 2; and greater than 5 spaces yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 0.75 and 0.58 for reader 1 and 0.69 and 0.70 for reader 2.

CT findings associated with intervention in hemoperitoneum due to ovarian cyst rupture include size of hemoperitoneum, number of abdominopelvic spaces with hemoperitoneum, and contrast extravasation.

Diagnostic dilemma in an infant with stridor: ultrasound to the rescue!

Emergency Radiology

Stridor is one of the most important signs of partial or complete upper airway obstruction. Subglottic hemangioma (SGH) is a well-recognized howeve...