The latest medical research on Osteopathy

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about osteopathy gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Osteopathic model of the development and prevention of occupational musculoskeletal disorders.

Am Osteopath Assoc

The direct and indirect costs of work-related musculoskeletal disorders are significant. Prevention is the most effective way to control these costs. To do that, we must understand how these disorders develop.

To use the five models of osteopathic care to illustrate how cellular processes and neural reflexes interact to create work-related musculoskeletal pathology and to provide evidence-informed musculoskeletal injury and disability prevention recommendations.

A literature review of electronic databases (Google Scholar, PubMed, OVID, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PEDro, and OSTMED.DR) from inception to October 16, 2019 and hand-search of publication references was performed for systematic reviews, cohort studies, case-control studies, and randomized controlled trials. The search terms reflected topics related to occupational injury and injury prevention, and included supplementary laboratory studies and narrative reviews related to the biological aspects of musculoskeletal injury. The eligible studies contained the following criteria: (1) the population of working age; (2) exposures to known risk factors, musculoskeletal disorders, and psychosocial factors; (3) written in English; (4) full text papers published in peer-reviewed journals; and (5) systematic review, cohort study, case-control study, and randomized controlled trial methodology. Studies were excluded if they included outcomes of productivity and costs only or outcomes that were assessed through qualitative methods only.

The literature search resulted in 1,074 citations; 26 clinical studies and 14 systematic reviews were used in this review. A comprehensive workplace musculoskeletal disorder prevention program should match demands to capacity, correct dysfunctional movement patterns, and limit tissue vulnerability (biomechanical-structural model); restore alpha-gamma balance, tonic-phasic synergistic function, and autonomic balance (neurological model); maximize physiologic reserve (metabolic-energy model) component of a prevention program; optimize respiration and circulation (respiratory-circulatory model); and address cognitive distortions (behavioral-biopsychosocial model).

The presented osteopathic model of the development and prevention of work-related musculoskeletal disorders suggests that a combination of preventive interventions will be more effective than any single preventive intervention.

The Philadelphia surgery conference: a value analysis of a hands-on surgical skill-building event.

Am Osteopath Assoc

Limited opportunities exist to practice technical skills and to be exposed to various surgical specialties during preclinical medical education.

To assess the value of workshop-based educational opportunities to medical students during preclinical training.

One hundred and 75 medical and physician assistant students from 10 medical schools attended the 2019 Philadelphia Surgery Conference. All students received STOP THE BLEED® bleeding control training and participated in four workshops, chosen from a list of 23, that demonstrated a variety of surgical skills. Data collection was accomplished using both a pre- and postconference survey to assess changes in confidence of personal capabilities, knowledge base, and opinions regarding preclinical medical training.

Preconference survey results indicated low baseline confidence in personal surgical skills (mean [SD], 1.9 [1.0], on a Likert scale of 1-5), and knowledge of various surgical specialties (2.7 [1.0]). Students highly valued skill-building experiences (mean [SD], 4.2 [1.1]) and face-to-face interactions with resident and attending physicians (4.4 [0.9]). Postconference survey analysis demonstrated increased confidence in surgical ability by 52.6% (mean [SD], 2.9 [1.0]; p<0.001) and knowledge base by 34.6% (3.5 [0.8]; p<0.001). Value scores increased for both preclinical surgical skill-building opportunities (mean [SD], 4.4 [0.9]; p=0.014) and interactions with resident and attending physicians (4.7 [0.6]; p=0.002).

The Philadelphia Surgery Conference provided a highly valuable experience to participating students, increasing confidence in personal knowledge base and surgical skills while facilitating a collaboration between students and resident and attending physicians from various surgical specialties.

Support for osteopathic manipulative treatment inclusion in chronic pain management guidelines: a narrative review.

Am Osteopath Assoc

Osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) is used to treat chronic pain conditions. However, few guidelines focusing on chronic pain management include recommendations for OMT.

To evaluate previous literature on the use of OMT for improving chronic pain.

A literature search was conducted on MEDLINE/PubMed and ScienceDirect on August 26-27, 2019, using the terms "osteopathic," "chronic," and "pain," yielding a total of 312 MEDLINE/PubMed articles and 515 ScienceDirect articles. Eligibility criteria required that studies investigate pain, functional status, or medication usage through an experimental design, focusing on human subjects with chronic pain who had various forms of OMT administered by osteopathically trained individuals in which the comparator group received no intervention, a sham or placebo, or conventional care. Three authors independently performed literature searches and methodically settled disagreements over article selection.

In the 22 articles included in our study that examined OMT use in chronic pain conditions, we evaluated primary outcomes of pain (22; 100%) and functional status (20; 90.9%), and the secondary outcome of medication usage (3; 13.6%). The majority of articles showed that OMT resulted in a significant decrease in pain levels as compared to baseline pain levels or the control group (20; 90.9%) and that OMT resulted in an improvement in functional status (17; 77.3%). In articles that did not find a significant difference in pain (2; 9.1%) or functional status (3; 13.6%), there were overall outcomes improvements noted. All articles that investigated medication usage (3; 13.6%) showed that OMT was effective in decreasing patients' medication usage. Our study was limited by its small sample size and multimodal comparator group exclusion.

OMT provides an evidence-based management option to reduce pain levels, improve functional status, and decrease medication usage in chronic pain conditions, especially low back pain (LBP). Pain management guidelines should include OMT as a resource to alleviate chronic pain.

The use of 3D printing for osteopathic medical education of rib disorders.

Am Osteopath Assoc

With the advent of increasingly accessible three-dimensional (3D) printing, the possibility to efficiently design and generate prototype innovations is also increasing. This type of manufacturing can potentially enhance medical education by allowing design of models specific to osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM).

To determine the viability of a 3D-printed mechanically moveable rib cage in enhancing the teaching of rib osteopathic principles.

A single-blind, qualitative study was conducted to evaluate the use of educating students with this novel 3D-printed, movable rib model vs. a traditional static rib model. A total of 237 first-year medical students participated in the study and received the same standardized lecture on the rib dysfunction. Students were also assigned at random to either a comparison group, which would utilize the 3D printed rib model, or the control group, which would utilize the traditional static model. Students would also complete an entrance and exit surveys assessing subjective scores of overall student satisfaction and objective scores for knowledge of OMM rib dysfunction and treatment. An independent samples t-test was applied to assess potential differences between select student evaluation scores (those with continuous variables) of the rib model in the comparison and experiment groups. Chi-square goodness of fit test was conducted to determine if there were any significant differences in entry and exit survey responses between the two groups. Descriptive statistics of the mean and standard deviation were also reported.

For both comparison and control groups, the mean score on an 11-point scale for the evaluation question, "Please rank on a scale of 0-10 how helpful you thought the rib models were to your education," was 9.08 (SD, 1.397). Independent t-test results showed that the comparison group had higher scores than the control group when queried about whether they felt the model accurately depicted the material presented (comparison group mean, 9.55 [SD, 978] vs. control group mean, 9.06 [SD, 1.33; t(235) = 3.253; p=0.01). Chi-square test of goodness-of-fit showed that the differences between the number of correct answers chosen by participants for Item 3 (a case-based question asking students which rib they would treat for a patient presenting to an OMT clinic) was statistically significantly higher for the comparison group (51.9% correct in comparison group vs. 48.1% in control group), even though both groups scored similarly on this item during the entry survey.

The results of this study suggest that utilizing 3D printing to demonstrate somatic dysfunctions of the rib cage may improve understanding and student satisfaction for diagnosis and treatment.

Teaching and use of cervical high-velocity, low-amplitude manipulation at colleges of osteopathic medicine.

Am Osteopath Assoc

Despite the documented effectiveness of high-velocity, low-amplitude (HVLA) treatment of the cervical spine, concerns about patient safety potentially limit didactic instruction and use in clinical practice. Understanding how cervical HVLA is taught and employed is of interest to osteopathic educators and clinicians.

To characterize the perspectives of osteopathic manipulative medicine/osteopathic principles and practices (OMM/OPP) departments within colleges of osteopathic medicine (COMs) in the US regarding patterns of teaching and practice of HVLA treatment of the cervical spine.

A questionnaire was distributed on April 11, 2019 in paper format to OMM/OPP department chairs or designated faculty member attendees at the Educational Council on Osteopathic Principles biannual meeting. If the department chair was not available, the survey was provided to the faculty member designated to represent the Chair of the institution at ECOP. All respondents in this category returned the survey in paper before they left the meeting. The OMM/OPP department chairs who did not attend or send representatives to the ECOP meeting were sent the survey by email on April 11, 2019 and given three opportunities over 6 weeks at 2-week intervals to reply to this voluntary online survey. The survey was given or sent to a total of 51 OMM/OPP department chairs or representatives. Six questions elicited demographic information pertaining to status, age, gender, ethnicity, board-certified specialty, and COM affiliation. Nine questions examined perspectives related to the instruction of cervical HVLA manipulation and treatment.

Of the 51 OMM/OPP department chairs surveyed, 38 (74.5%) responded, 32 to the paper survey at the ECOP meeting and six to the digital survey. Respondents were primarily dual Board-certified in Family Medicine and Neuromuscular Medicine (55.3%). At over 90% (35) of the COMs for which department chairs responded to the survey, cervical HVLA instruction occurs in the curriculum primarily during program years 1 and 2. Instruction in cervical HVLA to the 2nd through 7th cervical vertebral levels occurred in 97% (37), while 11% (4) of the COMs excluded the occipital-atlanto (OA) and atlanto-axial (AA) joints. A high percentage (81.6%; 31) of the OMM/OPP department chairs or representatives reported employing cervical HVLA techniques within their practice. Among the respondents, 40.5% (15) reported that 0-25% of their school's medical school class could perform cervical HVLA competently upon graduation, whereas 27% (10) said that 51-75% of their class could perform cervical HVLA.

A majority of COMs provide education in their curricula related to cervical HVLA primarily in the first 2 years of medical education. However, instruction often excludes cervical HVLA to the upper regions of the cervical spine. At COMs where HVLA to the cervical spine is not taught, that decision is because the techniques are thought to be too difficult and the attendant medicolegal risk perceived to be too high. OMM/OPP department chairs expressed confidence in only a small proportion of their graduates having the ability to competently apply HVLA to the cervical spine immediately after completing their predoctoral medical training.

Poor match rates of osteopathic applicants into ACGME dermatology and other competitive specialties.

Am Osteopath Assoc

There has been a steady increase in the number of osteopathic (DO) medical students in the United States without a corresponding increase in DO representation in competitive specialties.

To investigate the trends and impact of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) single accreditation system on DO match rates into dermatology and other competitive specialty programs.

Information was collected through public databases (Electronic Residency Application Service [ERAS]; National Resident Matching Program [NRMP]; Association of American Medical Colleges [AAMC]; National Match Service, Inc. [NMS]; and the ACGME) to evaluate the match statistics of competitive specialties, including dermatology, otolaryngology, orthopedic surgery, neurosurgery, and plastic surgery. Residency program and medical school websites and residency communications were used to confirm whether the match placements were to programs that had traditionally been ACGME-accredited or former American Osteopathic Association (AOA) programs.

From 2012 to 2016 (pre-unification), osteopathic graduates comprised only 0.5% of the matches the specific specialties studied here and only 0.9% of ACGME dermatology positions. Post-unification (2017-2019), DOs comprised 2.0% of the matches into these specialties and 4.4% of the total ACGME dermatology positions. This apparent increase is misleading, as it is solely due to the transition of formerly AOA programs to ACGME status. The true post-unification DO match rate to traditionally ACGME programs is actually 0.6% for all competitive specialties and 0.4% for dermatology. Post-unification, 27.6% of formerly AOA positions in these competitive specialties were filled by allopathic (MD) applicants.

DO match rates into dermatology and other competitive specialties were poor prior to GME unification and continue to remain low. This situation, when coupled with the closing of many AOA programs and MDs matching into former AOA positions, threatens the future of osteopathic physicians in competitive specialties. Osteopathic recognition is one way to potentially help preserve osteopathic representation and philosophy in the single accreditation system era. Programs should not be hesitant to consider osteopathic applicants for competitive specialties.

A survey on health professionals' understanding of federal protections regarding service dogs in clinical settings.

Am Osteopath Assoc

Research has been scarce on health professionals' knowledge about guidelines regulating service dogs in a clinical setting. Gaining insight into health professionals' understanding of Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) regulations concerning service dogs is critical for navigating compliance and reducing risk. Misinformation about service dogs could influence decisions affecting policy and care, leading to poor treatment and suboptimal health outcomes for patients with service animals.

To assess health professionals' knowledge about ADA regulations and beliefs about workplace protocols and training related to service dogs.

The study used snowball sampling to distribute surveys to health professionals from around the United States. Initial outreach occurred using mailing lists, investigators' personal networks, and social media. The survey contained 24 items. True and false questions were used to test ADA knowledge and then coded as correct or incorrect. Most closed-end questions were measured on a 5-point Likert scale using frequencies and descriptive statistics. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to test whether variables, such as encounters to service dogs, affected knowledge of ADA requirements.

The survey was completed by 441 health professionals from around the country. Most (234; 53.1%) worked in a hospital and came from a range of professional backgrounds (nurses, 155 [35.2%]; physicians, 71 [16.1%]). While nearly three-quarters (318 [73.1%]) of participants said their workplace had a policy on service animals, 113 (34.9%) of those said they were unfamiliar with the policy and 236 (54.5%) said they had not received adequate training on the topic. Most participants did not know basic ADA policy requirements related to service dogs. Only those who were extremely familiar with policy (F=4.613; p=0.001) and those who strongly agreed that they knew the differences between service dogs and other classes of animals (F=5.906; p=0.000) scored higher on the knowledge test than those who disagreed.

Our results suggest that increased familiarity and training leads to higher knowledge about service dogs and ADA policy. Health professionals need additional education on ADA service dog regulations and hospital policy in order to minimize risk and ensure patients with service dogs receive optimal care.

Toward Resilience: Medical Students' Perception of Social Support.

Am Osteopath Assoc

There is strong evidence that social support-particularly perceived social support-functions as a protective factor for health. Few studies have investigated how medical students perceive the types of social support they experience.

To determine how osteopathic medical students perceive social support, understand the factors that influence their perceptions, and explore how group participation in a cocurricular, academic program could affect student perceptions.

In this cross-sectional study of 983 medical students at a multicampus osteopathic medical school in the Midwest, potential respondents were invited by email in March 2018 to participate in a self-reported evaluation of their perceived social support using a 40-question Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL). The demographic variables included gender, race, age, current phase in medical school, Hispanic heritage, campus assignment, and hometown population type. A total score for each type of social support and a summative score for overall perceived social support were calculated. Descriptive statistics were applied to provide a summary of the distribution of study variables. Bivariate analyses were conducted using student t test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistic to determine distribution of 4 social support constructs and overall social support by all the study variables; α < .05 was considered statistically significant. Linear regression analysis was performed to determine the association between all study variables and 4 social support constructs. Pairwise interactions were calculated to determine whether the association differed by any of the study variables.

Self-esteem support was the lowest type of perceived social support overall in the total sample (mean [SD], 23.5[2.0]). Hispanic students reported lower overall mean perceived social support than those who did not identify as Hispanic (100 vs 104; P=.04). Older study participants had higher mean tangible support compared with their younger counterparts (26.25 vs. 25.60, P=.018; t [264]=1.18). Older study participants also had higher mean appraisal support compared with their younger counterparts (26.57 vs. 25.92, P=.06; t [266]=1.27). Female medical students reported lower levels of belonging support overall (mean [SD] 26.79, [2.10]). Students from rural hometowns reported a higher sense of belonging support than any other group. Female students from suburban and urban hometowns reported lower levels of belonging support compared with women from rural hometowns (Adj. β=-0.96, P=.01). Students who participated in the rural and urban underserved program had higher self esteem support compared with those who did not participate in the rural and urban underserved program (Adj. β=-1.30, P=.05). Students in the clinical phase of medical education reported lower levels of belonging support than students in the preclinical phase (26.14 vs. 26.69, P=.05; t[256]=1.07).

It is critical to understand the ways medical students experience social support and the factors that contribute to it. Longitudinal studies following medical students over time would contribute to a more complete understanding of social support in medical students as they move from preclinical to the clinical phases of medical school.

Undergraduate Knowledge of Osteopathic Medicine: What Premedical Students Know About Osteopathic Medicine and Its Effect on Burnout.

Am Osteopath Assoc

Undergraduate student interest in becoming a physician continues to rise, but so too does the difficulty of earning acceptance to medical school. In this competitive environment, little is known about premedical students' knowledge of their medical school options. Moreover, as undergraduate students' emotional health continues to decline, little is known about whether premedical students experience or are at increased risk for the burnout symptoms reported by medical students and other physicians in training.

To examine premedical undergraduate students' knowledge of osteopathic medicine, assess how they learned of osteopathic medicine, and collect information about any reported feelings of burnout.

In this institutional review board-approved study, we electronically distributed an anonymous survey to 342 premedical undergraduate students at a midsize, public research undergraduate institution. The survey included 56 questions. Students were surveyed on their preference of medical schools, knowledge of osteopathic medicine, and experience with burnout via the Maslach Burnout Inventory which measures exhaustion, cynicism, and professional efficacy. Of those who completed the survey, only those who confirmed that they currently considered themselves to be premedical students were included in our analysis. A 2×2 factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was applied to assess main and interaction effects amongst respondents who preferred osteopathic or allopathic programs, whether they learned of osteopathic medicine programs by their own research, and their scores on the 3 measures of the Maslach Burnout Inventory: exhaustion, cynicism, and professional efficacy. Bivariate and factorial analyses were completed using SPSS v26 software (IBM). All tests were 2-tailed and used a .05 standard P value.

Of 342 students to whom the survey was sent, 160 (46.8%) responded, and only 92 (26.9%) considered themselves premedical students. Of the 160 students analyzed in our study, 80 (50%) reported first learning of osteopathic medicine through their own research. A 2×2 factorial ANOVA revealed a significant interaction effect for cynicism in respondents who reported learning of osteopathic medicine programs on their own. Conversely, when respondents reported learning of osteopathic medicine programs from another source, they also reported significantly lower cynicism (F[1,1]5.23, P=.03) and exhaustion (F[1,13] 5.79, P=.02) scores. Of the 92 respondents, only 2 students (2.2%) answered all questions regarding general osteopathic medical knowledge correctly.

The results of this study suggest that among premedical students, knowledge of osteopathic medicine may be incomplete and may be impeding medical school applications. Furthermore, respondents who reported interest in osteopathic medical schools and learned of this option through their own research seemed to experience greater burnout. Based on these findings, increased outreach and education have the potential to not only better inform students of the osteopathic profession, but also to reduce burnout.

Characteristics and Management of Pregnant Patients From a Neuromusculoskeletal Medicine/Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine Clinic.

Am Osteopath Assoc

Osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM) is considered beneficial in the treatment of pregnant women, but few studies have outlined the presenting complaints and diagnoses that warrant consideration and utilization of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) in this population.

To describe the characteristics of pregnant patients receiving OMM at a neuromusculoskeletal medicine (NMM)/OMM specialty outpatient clinic, for the purpose of identifying patients who would benefit from referral to NMM specialty clinics or to be considered for treatment by DOs in non-NMM specialty clinics.

Electronic health records were reviewed from a single clinic for a 3-year period from October 2015 through September 2018 for patient encounters involving patients with an International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision code for pregnancy. Data regarding patient demographics, payment methods, presenting complaints, treatment modalities, regions treated, and assessment diagnoses were collected and analyzed.

Records showed 465 clinical encounters with 194 pregnant patients (mean [SD] number of encounters per patient, 2.4 [2.0]). The most common presenting complaints involved the back (371; 55.4%), hip and pelvis (99; 14.8%), neck (62; 9.3%), and head (54; 8.1%). The most common clinical assessments were lumbar and thoracic spine neuromusculoskeletal diagnoses (420; 53.0%). There were 2604 somatic dysfunction assessments documented; lumbar (409; 15.7%) and sacral (396; 15.2%) somatic dysfunction were most commonly assessed. There were 2518 OMT techniques documented, and muscle energy was most frequently used (406; 16.1%).

This data, which documents the most frequent presenting complaints of pregnant patients in an NMM/OMM clinic, may be used by clinicians to better understand the role of OMM as an obstetric adjunctive treatment approach and to identify conditions to investigate in future outcome studies.

Remdesivir for the Treatment of Severe COVID-19: A Community Hospital's Experience.

Am Osteopath Assoc

Following the emergence of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 COVID-19, researchers sought safe and effective treatment modalities. Remdesivir is currently being evaluated for clinical efficacy and safety in patients with COVID-19.

To describe the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients following treatment with remdesivir at a community hospital.

A retrospective review of medical records was conducted in August 2020 for all patients given remdesivir while hospitalized for severe COVID-19 between May 1 and August 19, 2020. A convenience sample of consecutive patients with treatment including remdesivir, antibiotics, convalescent plasma, dexamethasone, or a combination of multiple drugs was included in the analysis. Patients receiving remdesivir were administered a 5-day treatment course. Patients with a glomerular filtration rate of less than 30 mL/min, those with liver function tests 5 times the normal reference range, and those who were pregnant were excluded from treatment with remdesivir. Differences in between men and women were detected with χ2 and independent samples t tests. The degree to which presenting symptoms influenced patient outcomes was analyzed with a stepwise logistic regression.

Among the 76 patients who received remdesivir, the mean (95% confidence interval, CI) age was 63 years (59.8-66.2). Thirty-six (47.4%) were men and 40 (52.6%) were women. Forty-nine (64.5%) were white and 27 (35.5%) were nonwhite. The majority of patients (54; 71.1%) had at least 1 comorbid condition, with hypertension being the most common (43; 56.6%). The mean (95% CI) length of stay for patients who received remdesivir was 10.09 days (8.6-11.6) and the mean (95% CI) duration of oxygen therapy was 9.42 days (8.0-10.8). A total of 14 (18.4%) patients given remdesivir were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with an mean (95% CI) length of stay of 9.29 days (5.6-13.0). Women administered remdesivir were more likely to be admitted to the ICU (11 [27.5%] vs 3 [8.3%]; P=.031). The mortality rate was 14 patients (18.4%), with no statistically significant difference observed between men (5; 13.9%) and women (9; 22.5%; P=.33). No significant difference was seen amongst sexes for duration of oxygen therapy (men, 8.0 days [6.2-9.8] vs women, 10.76 days [8.8-12.8]; P=.051) or length of stay (men, 8.61 days [6.7-10.5] vs women, 11.43 days [9.3-13.5]; P=.058). There was no statistically significant difference in pooled racial groups (white vs nonwhite) for in-hospital mortality, number admitted to the ICU, days spent in the ICU, duration of oxygen use, or length of stay.

Remdesivir may show clinical efficacy for the treatment of severe COVID-19 in a community setting. Although this was a small-scale study with limited patients, it represents a point of reference for the use of remdesivir at other community hospitals.

Comparison of State Medical Licensing Board Disclosures Regarding Resident Performance for United States Allopathic, Osteopathic, and Foreign Medical Graduates.

Am Osteopath Assoc

While recent streamlining of the graduate medical education process signals an important change from the traditional dichotomy between doctors of osteopathic medicine (DOs) and US-trained doctors of medicine (USMDs), this new uniformity does not continue into the process for licensure, including state medical licensing verification of training (VOT) forms for DOs, MDs, and foreign medical graduates (FMGs). Wide variability remains.

To document the differences in the performance metrics program that directors are required to disclose to state medical licensing boards for DOs and FMGs compared with USMDs.

VOT forms were collected from all osteopathic and allopathic licensing boards for all US states, Washington DC, and US territories. The authors then reviewed VOT forms for questions pertaining to trainee performance only in states where VOT forms differed for DOs, USMDs, and FMGs. Licensing board questions were categorized as relating to disciplinary action, documents placed on file, resident actions, and nondisciplinary actions by the program.

Fifty-six states and territories were included in the study (50 US states; Washington, DC; and 5 US territories). Most states and territories (46; 82.1%) used the same VOT form for DOs and USMDs. All states and territories except New York used the same form for FMGs and USMDs (55; 98.2%). Of the 14 states with an osteopathic board, Nevada used Federation Credentials Verification Service (FCVS) for DOs only, and 8 states used a unique osteopathic VOT form. Of these 8 osteopathic boards, 3 VOT forms did not ask any questions regarding resident performance during training. Of the remaining 5 forms, all asked about disciplinary actions. Ten states and 1 territory (US Virgin Islands) required the FCVS for both USMDs and FMGs, but not for DOs, while New York required FCVS only for FMGs. Nevada required FCVS only for DOs.

Although VOT requirements for FMGs and USMDs were mostly the same within states, performance metric question sets varied greatly from state to state and within states for osteopathic vs allopathic licensing boards. Implementation of a standardized VOT form for all applicants that includes academic performance metrics may help ensure that medical licensure is granted to all physicians who demonstrate academic competency during training, regardless of their degree.