The latest medical research on Thoracic Surgery

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about thoracic surgery gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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COVID-19 Vaccination Gap in Admitted Trauma Patients: A Critical Opportunity.

American College of Surgeons

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination is the core strategy for pandemic management. We hypothesized that a vaccination gap might exist between emergency department (ED) patients admitted for trauma and other ED patients.

This was an observational quality improvement study using electronic health record data at an academic level-1 trauma center. Participants were all patients presenting to the adult ED with a Tennessee home address between January 1 and June 1, 2021. We measured the proportional difference in vaccination between admitted trauma patients and other ED patients over time (by week) and association via Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Binary logistic regression facilitated covariate analysis to account for age, sex, race, home county, and ethnicity without and then with interaction between trauma admission and time. Geographic visual analysis compared county-level vaccination rates with odds of trauma admission by home county using a bivariate chloropleth map.

The proportional difference in vaccination between trauma-admitted and other ED patients increased over time (Spearman's = 0.699). Adjusting for age, sex, race, home county, and ethnicity, there was a statistically significant vaccination difference between trauma-admitted and other ED patients (odds ratio = 0.53, 95% CI 0.43-0.65, p < 0.0001). Geographic analysis revealed increased trauma admission odds and lower vaccination rates in surrounding counties compared with Davidson County.

We observed a widening COVID-19 vaccination gap between trauma-admitted and other ED patients. Vaccine outreach during trauma admission may provide a valuable point of contact for unvaccinated patients.

Emergency General Surgery Transfer and Effect on Inpatient Mortality and Post-Discharge Emergency Department Visits: A Propensity Score Matched Analysis.

American College of Surgeons

Patients undergoing emergency general surgery (EGS) and interhospital transfer (IHT) have increased mortality. Prior analyses of IHT have been limited by the inability to track post-discharge outcomes or have not included nonoperative EGS. We evaluated outcomes for IHT to our tertiary care facility compared with direct admission through the emergency department.

Patients admitted directly (2015 to 2017) with a common EGS diagnosis (appendicitis, cholecystitis, choledocholithiasis, small bowel obstruction, and diverticulitis) were propensity score matched to patients transferred from another acute care hospital. Propensity score matching (PSM) was performed using patient characteristics, EGS diagnosis, comorbidities, and surgical critical care consultation. The primary outcome was inpatient mortality, and secondary outcomes were length of stay (LOS) 30-day hospital readmission.

We identified 3,153 directly admitted patients and 1,272 IHT patients. IHT patients were older (mean 59.4 vs 51.5 years), had a higher Charlson comorbidity index (median 3 vs 1), White race (72% vs 49%), and BMI greater than 40 kg/m2 (11.6% vs 9.8%). After PSM, each group included 1,033 patients. IHT patients had a higher median LOS (5.5 days vs 3.8, p < 0.001), higher inpatient mortality (odds ratio [OR] 1.69, p = 0.03), and more complications (OR 1.57, p < 0.001). The rate of post-discharge 30-day hospital encounters was similar (OR 1.08, p = 0.460). However, IHT patients had more emergency department encounters (OR 1.35, p = 0.04) and fewer observation-status readmissions (OR 0.53, p = 0.01).

After PSM to reduce confounding variables, patients with common EGS diagnoses transferred to a tertiary care facility have increased inpatient morbidity and mortality. The increased morbidity and resource utilization for these patients extends beyond the index hospital stay.

Impact of Intraoperative Molecular Imaging after Fluorescent-Guided Pulmonary Metastasectomy for Sarcoma.

American College of Surgeons

Intraoperative molecular imaging (IMI) has been shown to improve lesion detection during pulmonary sarcomatous metastasectomy. Our goal in this study was to evaluate whether data garnered from IMI-guided resection of pulmonary sarcoma metastasis translate to improved patient outcomes.

Fifty-two of 65 consecutive patients with a previous history of sarcomas found to have pulmonary nodules during screening were enrolled in a nonrandomized clinical trial. Patients underwent TumorGlow the day before surgery. Data on patient demographics, tumor biologic characteristics, preoperative assessment, and survival were included in the study analysis and compared with institutional historical data of patients who underwent metastasectomy without IMI. p values < 0.05 were considered significant.

IMI detected 42 additional lesions in 31 patients (59%) compared with the non-IMI cohort where 25% percent of patients had additional lesions detected using tactile and visual feedback only (p < 0.05). Median progression-free survival (PFS) for patients with IMI-guided pulmonary sarcoma metastasectomy was 36 months vs 28.6 months in the historical cohort (p < 0.05). IMI-guided pulmonary sarcoma metastasectomy had recurrence in the lung with a median time of 18 months compared with non-IMI group at 13 months (p < 0.05). Patients with synchronous lesions in the IMI group underwent systemic therapy at a statistically higher rate and tended to undergo routine screening at shorter interval.

IMI identifies a subset of sarcoma patients during pulmonary metastasectomy who have aggressive disease and informs the medical oncologist to pursue more aggressive systemic therapy. In this setting, IMI can serve both as a diagnostic and prognostic tool without conferring additional risk to the patient.

Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Surgical Outcomes after Postmastectomy Breast Reconstruction.

American College of Surgeons

Women of color with breast cancer are less likely to undergo post-mastectomy reconstruction compared with White women, but it is unclear whether their perioperative outcomes are worse. The goal of this study was to investigate differences in preoperative comorbidities and postoperative complications by race/ethnicity among women with breast cancer undergoing postmastectomy reconstruction.

Data were collected from the National Inpatient Sample database of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project from 2012 to 2016. Patient demographics, types of reconstruction, comorbid conditions, Charlson-Deyo Combined Comorbidity (CDCC) scores, length of stay (LOS), and perioperative complications were abstracted. Multivariate linear and logistic regression were performed to model LOS and likelihood of postoperative complications, respectively.

Compared with White women (n = 19,730), Black women (n = 3,201) underwent autologous reconstruction more frequently (40.7% vs 28.3%), had more perioperative comorbidities (eg diabetes: 12.9% vs 5.8%), higher CDCC scores (% CDCC ≥ 4: 5.5% vs 2.7%), and longer LOS (median 3 vs 2 days, all p < 0.001). Being Black (vs White: +0.13 adjusted days, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.19) was also associated with longer LOS and an increased likelihood of surgical complications (vs White: odds ratio 1.24, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.42, both p < 0.01), but this association did not persist when outcomes were limited to microsurgical complications.

Disparities in postmastectomy breast reconstruction between Black and White women extend beyond access to care and include perioperative factors and outcomes. These findings suggest an important opportunity to mitigate inequities in reconstruction through perioperative health optimization and improved access to and co-management with primary care.

Does Angiosarcoma of the Breast Need Nodal Staging?

American College of Surgeons

Breast angiosarcoma is a rare malignancy classically associated with hematogenous metastases. We sought to determine the prevalence of pathologic nodal involvement in patients with nonmetastatic, resected breast angiosarcoma and its association with overall survival.

The National Cancer Database was used to identify patients with nonmetastatic angiosarcoma of the breast who underwent surgical resection from 2004 to 2017. The prevalence of regional lymph node operation and nodal positivity was calculated. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to evaluate overall survival among node-positive and node-negative patients. Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to evaluate the adjusted association of nodal positivity with overall survival.

We included 991 patients with angiosarcoma. The median age was 69 years (interquartile range 57 to 78), and the cohort was 99% female. A total of 298 patients (30%) had pathologic regional nodal evaluation. Of those, 15 (5.0%) had positive regional lymph nodes. Node-positive patients had significantly worse survival than patients with negative regional lymph nodes. After adjusting for patient, tumor, and treatment factors, a positive regional lymph node was associated with worse overall survival compared with patients with no nodal evaluation (hazard ratio 3.20; 95% CI 1.75 to 5.86; p < 0.001).

Patients with nonmetastatic angiosarcoma of the breast have a 5% regional lymph node positivity rate, which is at a common threshold to consider evaluation, and identifies patients with poor survival. A prospective study to determine performance characteristics of sentinel lymph node biopsy is warranted.

Association between Patient and Hospital Characteristics and Adherence to a Surgical Site Infection Reduction Bundle in a Statewide Surgical Quality Improvement Collaborative.

American College of Surgeons

Adherence to bundled interventions can reduce surgical site infection (SSI) rates; however, predictors of successful implementation are poorly characterized. We studied the association of patient and hospital characteristics with adherence to a colorectal SSI reduction bundle across a statewide surgical collaborative.

A 16-component colorectal SSI reduction bundle was introduced in 2016 across a statewide quality improvement collaborative. Bundle adherence was measured for patients who underwent colorectal operations at participating institutions. Multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression models were constructed to estimate associations of patient and hospital factors with bundle adherence and quantify sources of variation.

Among 2,403 patients at 35 hospitals, a median of 11 of 16 (68.8%, interquartile range 8 to 13) bundle elements were completed. The likelihood of completing 11 or more elements was increased for obese patients (56.8% vs 51.5%, odds ratio [OR] 1.39, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.86, p = 0.022) but reduced for underweight patients (31.0% vs 51.5%, OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.26 to 1.00, p = 0.048) compared with patients with a normal BMI. Lower adherence was noted for patients treated at safety net hospitals (n = 9 hospitals, 24.4% vs 54.4%, OR 0.08, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.44, p = 0.004). The largest proportion of adherence variation was attributable to hospital factors for six bundle elements, surgeon factors for no elements, and patient factors for nine elements.

Adherence to an SSI reduction bundle is associated with patient BMI and hospital safety net status. Quality improvement groups should consider institutional traits for optimal implementation of SSI bundles. Safety net hospitals may require additional focus to overcome unique implementation barriers.

Rectal Cancer in Patients with Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer Compared with Sporadic Cases: Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation and Local Recurrence.

American College of Surgeons

This study aimed to assess the effect of neoadjuvant chemoradiation (nCXRT) on tumor regression and oncologic outcome of middle and low rectal cancer in patients of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) compared to sporadic cases.

This was a retrospective cohort study that compared the outcomes of patients with HNPCC presenting with middle or low rectal cancer indicated for nCXRT vs patients with sporadic rectal cancer. All patients received long-course nCXRT followed by total mesorectal excision. Primary outcome was pathologic tumor regression grade (TRG) assessed after resection. Secondary outcomes included disease-free survival and overall survival.

Fifty-eight patients with HNPCC (24 female) were included in the study matched with 58 patients with sporadic rectal cancer (out of 166 using propensity score matching). Patients with HNPCC and sporadic rectal cancer were matched regarding tumor pathology TNM stage and lymphovascular invasion. In the HNPCC group, 36 patients (62%) had tumor regression (TRG3 = 6 (10.3%); TRG2 = 12 (20.6%); TRG1 = 18 (31%)) compared to 52 patients (92%) who had tumor regression in the control group (TRG4 = 9; TRG3 = 15; TRG2 = 18; TRG1 = 10) (p < 0.0007). After a median follow-up of 48 months, survival analysis revealed higher local recurrence and lower overall survival in patients with HNPCC compared to patients with sporadic rectal cancer.

Rectal cancer in patients with HNPCC showed poorer response to nCXRT and was followed by higher local recurrence and lower overall survival than patients with sporadic rectal cancer. Tumor regression was detected in <65% of patients with HNPCC compared to >90% of patients with sporadic rectal cancer, and none of patients with HNPCC had a complete response.

Gene Expression Profiling: Identification of Novel Pathways and Potential Biomarkers in Severe Acute Pancreatitis.

American College of Surgeons

Determining the risk of developing severe acute pancreatitis (AP) on presentation to hospital is difficult but vital to enable early management decisions that reduce morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to determine global gene expression profiles of patients with different acute pancreatitis severity to identify genes and molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of severe AP.

AP patients (n = 87) were recruited within 24 hours of admission to the Emergency Department and were confirmed to exhibit at least 2 of the following features: (1) abdominal pain characteristic of AP, (2) serum amylase and/or lipase more than 3-fold the upper laboratory limit considered normal, and/or (3) radiographically demonstrated AP on CT scan. Severity was defined according to the Revised Atlanta classification. Thirty-two healthy volunteers were also recruited and peripheral venous blood was collected for performing RNA-Seq.

In severe AP, 422 genes (185 upregulated, 237 downregulated) were significantly differentially expressed when compared with moderately severe and mild cases. Pathway analysis revealed changes in specific innate and adaptive immune, sepsis-related, and surface modification pathways in severe AP. Data-driven approaches revealed distinct gene expression groups (endotypes), which were not entirely overlapping with the clinical Atlanta classification. Importantly, severe and moderately severe AP patients clustered away from healthy controls, whereas mild AP patients did not exhibit any clear separation, suggesting distinct underlying mechanisms that may influence severity of AP.

There were significant differences in gene expression affecting the severity of AP, revealing a central role of specific immunological pathways. Despite the existence of patient endotypes, a 4-gene transcriptomic signature (S100A8, S100A9, MMP25, and MT-ND4L) was determined that can predict severe AP with an accuracy of 64%.

Area Deprivation Index and Rurality in Relation to Financial Toxicity among Breast Cancer Surgical Patients: Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study of Geospatial Differences in Risk Profiles.

American College of Surgeons

Financial toxicity (FT) depicts the burden of cancer treatment costs and is associated with lower quality of life and survival in breast cancer patients. We examined the relationship between geospatial location, represented by rurality and Area Deprivation Index (ADI), and risk of FT.

A single-institution, cross-sectional study was performed on adult female surgical breast cancer patients using survey data retrospectively collected between January 2018 and June 2019. Chart reviews were used to obtain patient information, and FT was identified using the COmprehensive Score for Financial Toxicity questionnaire, which is a validated instrument. Patients' home addresses were used to determine rurality using the Rural Urban Continuum Codes and linked to national ADI score. ADI was analyzed in tertiles for univariate statistical analyses, and as a continuous variable to develop multivariable logistic regression models to evaluate the independent associations of geospatial location with FT.

A total of 568 surgical breast cancer patients were included. Univariate analyses found significant differences across ADI tertiles with respect to race/ethnicity, marital status, insurance type, education, and rurality. In multivariable analysis, advanced cancer stage (odds ratio [OR] 2.26, 95% CI 1.15 to 4.44) and higher ADI (OR 1.012, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.02) were associated with worsening odds of FT. Increasing age (continuous) (OR 0.976, 95% CI 0.96 to 0.99), married status (vs unmarried) (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.70), and receipt of bilateral mastectomy (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.96) were protective of FT.

FT was significantly associated with areas of greater socioeconomic deprivation as measured by the ADI. However, in adjusted analyses, rurality was not significantly associated with FT. ADI can be useful for preoperative screening of at-risk populations and the targeted deployment of community-based interventions to alleviate FT.

Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes Classification of Chronic Kidney Disease and Short-Term Outcomes of Patients Undergoing Liver Resection.

American College of Surgeons

The impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on surgery is still not well defined. We sought to characterize the association of preoperative CKD with 30-day mortality after hepatic resection.

Patients included in the American College of Surgeons (ACS) NSQIP who underwent hepatectomy between 2014 and 2018 were identified. Kidney function was stratified according to the "Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes" (KDIGO) Classification: G1, normal/high function (estimated glomerular-filtration-rate ≥ 90 ml/min/1.73m2); G2-3, mild/moderate CKD (89-30 ml/min/1.73m2); G4-5, severe CKD (≤ 29 ml/min/1.73m2).

Overall, 18,321 patients were included. Older patients (ie more than 70 years old) and those with serious medical comorbidities (ie American Society of Anesthesiologists [ASA] class 3) had an increased incidence of severe CKD (both p < 0.001). Patients with G2-3 and G4-5 CKD were more likely to have a prolonged length of stay and to experience postoperative complications (both p < 0.001). Adjusted odds of 30-day mortality increased with the worsening CKD (p = 0.03). The degree of CKD was able to stratify patients within the NSQIP risk calculator. Among patients who underwent major hepatectomy for primary cancer, the rate of 30-day mortality was 2-fold higher with G2-3 and G4-5 CKD vs normal kidney function (p = 0.03).

The degree of CKD was related to the risk of complications and 30-day mortality after hepatectomy. CKD classification should be strongly considered in the preoperative risk estimation of these patients.

Feasibility and Effectiveness of an Enhanced Recovery Program after Early Cholecystectomy for Acute Calculous Cholecystitis: A 2-Step Study.

American College of Surgeons

Enhanced recovery programs (ERPs) are associated with a lower morbidity rate and a shorter length of stay. The present study's objective was to determine whether an ERP is feasible and effective for patients undergoing early cholecystectomy for grade I or II acute calculous cholecystitis.

A 2-step multicenter study was performed. In the first step (the feasibility study), patients were consecutively included in a dedicated, prospective database from March 2019 until January 2020. The primary endpoint was the ERP's feasibility, evaluated in terms of the number and nature of the ERP components applied. During the second step, the ERP's effectiveness in acute calculous cholecystitis was evaluated in a case-control study. The ERP+ group comprised consecutive patients who were prospectively included from March 2019 to November 2020 and compared with a control (ERP-) group of patients extracted from the ABCAL randomized controlled trial treated between May 2010 and August 2012 and who had not participated in a dedicated ERP.

During the feasibility study, 101 consecutive patients entered the ERP with 17 of the 20 ERP components applied. During the effectiveness study, 209 patients (ERP+ group) were compared with 414 patients (ERP- group). The median length of stay was significantly shorter in the ERP+ group (3.1 vs 5 days; p < 0.001). There were no intergroup differences in the severe morbidity rate, mortality rate, readmission rate, and reoperation rate.

Implementation of an ERP after early cholecystectomy for acute calculous cholecystitis appeared to be feasible, effective, and safe for patients. The ERP significantly decreased the length of stay and did not increase the morbidity rate.

Laparoscopic Ultrasound for Bile Duct Imaging during Cholecystectomy: Clinical Impact in 785 Consecutive Cases.

American College of Surgeons

The influence of laparoscopic ultrasonography (LUS) on the operative management of patients during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has not been examined in a large unselected series.

Seven hundred eight-five consecutive LC operations were reviewed to determine whether the findings of LUS for bile duct imaging altered operative management. Patients were analyzed according to the primary indication for imaging: anatomic identification (group I), possible common bile duct stones (group II), and routine use absent other indications (group III).

LUS demonstrated the cystic duct-common bile duct junction, the common hepatic duct, the common bile duct to the ampulla, and the right hepatic artery in 95.8% of cases. Among 56 of 111 (50%) patients in group I for whom initial dissection failed to result in adequate anatomic identification, subsequent LUS provided sufficient anatomic identification to allow completion of a laparoscopic operation in 87.5%. Group I patients were more likely to have acute cholecystitis (p < 0.0001) and Tokyo Guidelines 2018 grade II or III acute cholecystitis (p < 0.001). LUS changed operative management for 19 of 256 (7.5%) group II patients and 10 of 361 (2.8%) group III patients by demonstrating common bile duct stones that resulted in common bile duct exploration with stone clearance. Five patients had common bile duct stones that were not detected by LUS. There were no major bile duct or vascular injuries.

The primary value of LUS during LC is for anatomic identification when there are severe local inflammatory conditions. In this setting, LUS imaging can facilitate safe completion of LC or an early decision for an alternate operative strategy. When performed primarily for common bile duct stones or as routine practice, LUS results in CBDE for a limited proportion of patients.