The latest medical research on Dentistry

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about dentistry gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Accuracy of electronic apex locators using heat-treated Ni-Ti file.

Australian Endodontic Journal

This study investigated the accuracy of two electronic apex locators (DentaPort and Bingo) using heat-treated nickel-titanium files. The true root ...

Effectiveness of vital pulp treatment in managing non-traumatic pulpitis associated with no or nonspontaneous pain: A systematic review.

Endodontic Research

The exposed pulp has been the topic of numerous studies, but well-designed and well-executed comparative trials on the outcome and treatment of these teeth have been limited.

This study was conducted to answer the following questions: in patients with non-traumatic pulpitis associated with no or non-spontaneous pain in permanent teeth, (i) is direct pulp capping or pulpotomy (partial/full) as effective as selective or stepwise caries removal [Population/participants, Intervention(s), Comparator(s)/control, Outcome(s) (PICO) 1], (ii) is pulpotomy (partial/full) as effective as direct pulp capping (PICO 2), and (iii) is pulpotomy (partial/full) as effective as a pulpectomy (PICO 3), in terms of a combination of patient and clinical reported outcomes, with "tooth survival" as the most critical outcome?

A literature search was conducted using Clarivate Analytics' Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from inception to November 3rd 2021. Grey literature and contents of the major subject journals were examined. Eligibility criteria followed the PICO questions. Two independent reviewers performed study selection, data extraction, and appraisal; disagreements were resolved by a third reviewer. The risk of bias was assessed by the revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials.

Three randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were included in the review. No study fulfilled the criteria to answer PICO 1. There were no significant differences in the reported outcomes between investigated treatments in all included RCTs. None of the included studies reported the most critical outcome "tooth survival". A high loss of patients during the follow-up period was observed.

Based on limited evidence, this systematic review discovered no significant differences in effectiveness between compared vital pulp treatments in managing non-traumatic pulpitis associated with no or nonspontaneous pain. Further high-quality RCTs are necessary to investigate the effectiveness of direct pulp capping or pulpotomy (partial/full) compared to selective or stepwise caries removal.

Effectiveness of root canal irrigation and dressing for the treatment of apical periodontitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials.

Endodontic Research

Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and/or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2 ) are commonly used during root canal treatment. Evaluation of their effectiveness regarding clinical and patient-related outcomes requires further understanding.

To assess the effectiveness of root canal irrigation and dressing for the treatment of teeth with apical periodontitis (AP).

A search was conducted in the PubMed-MEDLINE, Scopus, EMBASE, Google scholar databases and available repositories, followed by hand searches, until July 2021. Eligibility criteria followed the a priori formulated Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcomes, Timing, and Study design (PICOTS) framework. Clinical studies restricted to English language were included. The revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomised trials (RoB 2) was used to assess the quality of included studies. Meta-analyses were performed using the fixed-effect model to obtain Risk Ratio (RR) and 95% Confidence Interval (CI), with sensitivity analysis. Overall quality of evidence of meta-analyses was assessed through the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) tool.

The search identified 1357 records of which six fulfilled the inclusion criteria, providing data for 'irrigation' from 212 teeth and for 'dressings' from 438 teeth. Two studies reported no significant difference regarding the outcome 'pain at 7 days' using 2% chlorhexidine vs. 5.25% NaOCl and EDTA or after using different concentrations of NaOCl (1% vs. 5%). No significant difference was detected between different NaOCl concentrations regarding the reduction of AP. A meta-analysis was possible for the comparison of single-visit (SV) vs. multiple-visits including the use of Ca(OH)2 demonstrating a significant effect in favour of SV (RR:1.10; 95%CI:1.03-1.19; p=0.007; I2 =0). RoB of included studies was moderate to low.

There is moderate certainty that SV treatment is associated with better radiographic evidence of normal periodontal ligament space (strict criteria) compared with the use of Ca(OH)2. Reduction of AP is comparable after irrigation with 1% and 5% NaOCl, whereas postoperative pain at 7 days for the irrigants assessed is similar.

Effectiveness of revitalization in treating apical periodontitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Endodontic Research

Revitalization procedures primarily aim to eliminate clinical symptoms and heal periapical lesions.

To elucidate the effectiveness of revitalization in treating apical periodontitis in necrotic mature and immature permanent teeth based on the following PICO question: In patients with permanent immature or mature teeth and pulp necrosis with or without signs of apical periodontitis (P) what is the effectiveness of revitalization (I) in comparison with calcium hydroxide apexification, apical plug and root canal treatment (C) in terms of tooth survival, pain, tenderness, swelling, need for medication (analgesics, antibiotics), radiographic evidence of reduction of apical lesion size, radiographic evidence of normal periodontal ligament space, radiographic evidence of increased root thickness and length (not for mature teeth), tooth function (fracture, restoration longevity), need for further intervention, adverse effects (including exacerbation, restoration integrity, allergy, discolouration), oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), presence of sinus tract and response to sensibility testing (O). (T) = Defined as a minimum of 1 year and maximum of as long as possible for all outcome measures, except 'pain, tenderness, swelling, need for medication (analgesics)', which is a minimum of 7 days and maximum of 3 months and OHRQoL which is minimum of 6 months and a maximum of as long as possible.

Three databases (PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library) were searched for human, experimental and observational studies in English, complemented with hand search, until 31/10/2021. Studies recruiting teeth with pulp necrosis (with/without apical periodontitis), with minimum 10 teeth/arm at the end of the study and with a follow-up of at least 1 year, were included. Records without an abstract and a full text were excluded. The qualitative analysis of the included (non-) randomised controlled clinical trials was performed with the Revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tools (RoB 2 and ROBINS-I). Meta-analysis for survival and success (including a subgroup analysis for mature/immature permanent teeth) was performed using the Mantel-Haenszel method. The certainty of evidence was assessed using GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation).

From the 365 identified records, five met the inclusion criteria. The 12 months survival rate was 100% for all (im)mature permanent teeth in all groups (3 studies). The success rate at 12 months was 100% for immature permanent teeth for I and C (1 study), however reduced to 92% and 80% for mature teeth in I and C respectively (1 study, p>0.05). The risk of bias for the most critical outcome (survival) was high for two studies and low for one. For the critical outcome success, all assessed studies were highly biased. Meta-analyses provided pooled relative risk with no statistically significant difference between I and C for both survival (RR=1.00, 95%CI=0.96-1.04, P=1.00) and success (RR=1.06; 95%CI=0.83-1.35, P=0.66). The evidence level for survival was kept "low" and for success was downgraded to "very low" due to inconsistency and imprecision.

No robust evidence was discovered to support that revitalization is effective to treat apical periodontitis in (im)mature permanent teeth. The success and survival rates of revitalized and fully pulpectomized (im)mature permanent teeth did not differ significantly.

Perceptions of NZ orthodontists and periodontists on the management of gingival recession in orthodontic patients.

Australian Dental Journal

This study aimed to investigate the perceptions and opinions of orthodontists and periodontists on the management of gingival recession in orthodontic patients.

An online survey was sent to 29 periodontists and 80 orthodontists registered and currently practising in New Zealand. All participants answered questions about the timing and clinical indications of mucogingival surgeries in orthodontic patients diagnosed with mucogingival deformities.

Most periodontists and orthodontists believed that gingival grafts should ideally be performed after orthodontic treatment. In clinical practice, 40% of periodontists indicated that they would receive referrals after completion of orthodontic treatment. However, 29.6% of orthodontists indicated that they would refer to a periodontist before orthodontic treatment in clinical practice. The most crucial factor that affected periodontists' decision making was 'evidence-based guidelines' (35.0%), followed by 'clinical experience' (30.0%) and 'patient concerns' (15.0%). All four factors of 'gingival phenotype', 'presence of gingival recession', 'amount of keratinised tissue' and 'planning specific tooth movements' were equally considered by orthodontists regarding their decision-making.

The majority of the surveyed New Zealand periodontists and orthodontists expressed a belief that the ideal timing for the management of gingival recessions would be after the completion of orthodontic treatment. © 2022 Australian Dental Association.

Influence of dental education on adoption and integration of technological aids in the delivery of endodontic care by dental practitioners: a survey.

Acta Odontol Scanda

To investigate adoption and integration of technological aids during endodontic treatment and where dental practitioners (DPs) learnt to use this technology.

An electronic questionnaire was distributed to all 459 dentists who graduated from University of Bergen between 2008 and 2018. The respondents were divided into two cohorts, older graduates (2008-2013) and newer graduates(2014-2018).

A total of 314(68.4%) DPs answered the questionnaire. Magnification in the form of dental operating microscopes (DOM) and dental loupes was used by 180 (59.6%), electronic apex locators (EAL) by 271(89.7%) and motor-driven files by 281 (93.4%) DPs. The most frequent response, as to where they learnt to use them was: during undergraduate dental (UG) education. Significantly more newer graduates (90.7%) performed instrumentation based on what they learnt during UG education (p < .001). Older graduates based their instrumentation method equally on what they learnt during UG education (51.9%) and continuing dental education(42.6%). Rubber dam was used during all treatment procedures by 93% of the DPs.

UG education is a communication channel with long-lasting importance for adoption and integration of technology by DPs. Exposure to innovations (awareness) during UG education is adequate for integration of technology. Continuing dental education is as valuable as UG education for adoption of technology for older graduates.

Endodontic Knowledge, Attitudes, and Referral Patterns in Australian General Dentists.

Australian Dental Journal

General dental practitioners often perceive root canal treatments as complex, and specialist referrals are commonplace in general dental practice. Therefore, the aim of this study was to better understand the knowledge of Australian general dentists and their attitudes regarding endodontics in general, and specifically (RCT), to highlight barriers and facilitating factors in the provision of endodontic care.

A combined paper-based and online survey was sent to general dental practitioners. The questionnaire consisted of 27 items, presented as checkboxes and in Likert scale format. Responses were tabled and statistically contrasted using Chi-square tests and linear regression analysis.

A significant proportion of surveyed dentists were not confident in their ability to provide endodontic care, specifically root canal treatments (RCT). Confidence depended on factors, such as time in practice, participation in CPD as well as fear of litigation and type of treatment. Other factors such as the availability of appropriate instruments and referral options, had comparatively little impact on practitioner confidence.

While almost all GDPs surveyed in this study believe RCT important to improving the long-term retention of a tooth, just over half of GDPs say they feel confident in their knowledge and provision of root canal treatment procedures. © 2022 Australian Dental Association.

Parental and training coaches' knowledge and attitude towards dental trauma management of children.

Australian Dental Journal

The aim of this study was to evaluate parental and training coaches' knowledge and attitude towards Traumatic Dental Injuries (TDIs) among children.

A 31-item questionnaire was distributed to the parents and training coaches attending local sporting clubs in Brisbane region, Australia. The questionnaire consisted of five parts (1) demographic and professional information; (2) TDIs in the primary dentition; (3) fractures and subluxation of permanent teeth (4) avulsion of permanent teeth, and (5) information and knowledge related to the management of traumatised teeth. The jamovi (Version 1.6.3) and GraphPad Prism were used for data analysis.

A total of 233 participants were surveyed, 211 parents and 22 coaches. Of all types of injuries, parental knowledge of managing avulsion to permanent teeth was poorest (9.5%), followed by management of injuries of primary teeth (17.5%) and management of fractures or subluxation of permanent teeth (29.4%). Parents in healthcare occupations had higher satisfaction on self-knowledge in managing TDIs however there was no significant difference in knowledge levels between healthcare personnel and other professions (p=0.128). There was a discrepancy between the lack of knowledge and willingness to further self-educate with online platforms being the preferred medium.

The study showed a gap in parents' and training coaches' knowledge regarding the management of TDIs among children. © 2022 Australian Dental Association.

Influence of different agitation techniques on bacterial reduction in curved root canals.

Australian Endodontic Journal

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of agitation techniques on bacterial reduction in curved root canals. Eighty human mandibular m...

Single nucleotide polymorphisms as a predisposing factor for the development of apical periodontitis - an umbrella review.


The interaction between heredity and different environmental factors in the modification of apical periodontitis (AP) susceptibility and prediction of its progression remain poorly elucidated.

This umbrella review aimed to (i) analyse the available relevant systematic reviews in an attempt to determine the association between genotype and allelic distribution of different single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the development of AP, (ii) report deficiencies and gaps in knowledge in this area, and (iii) present recommendations to conduct future clinical studies and systematic reviews.

A literature search was conducted using Clarivate Analytics' Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, from inception to October 2021, with no language restrictions, including a grey literature search. Systematic reviews with/without meta-analysis evaluating genotype and allelic distribution of different SNPs between adult patients with/ without AP were included. All other type of studies were excluded. The methodological quality was assessed using the A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) - 2 tool. Two independent reviewers were involved in study selection, data extraction, and appraising the included reviews; disagreements were resolved by a third reviewer.

The current study includes five systematic reviews. Three reviews performed meta-analysis. Three reviews were graded by AMSTAR 2 as 'critically low' quality, whereas other two were graded as 'low' and 'moderate' quality. Two reviews indicated that carriers of specific genotypes and alleles of tumour necrosis factor - alpha (TNF-α) -308 G>A and interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β) +3954 C/T gene polymorphisms are more susceptible to an acute and persistent form of AP. However, high heterogeneity was observed.

No candidate genes could be identified as a definitive genetic risk or protective factor for the development and progression of AP, and further high-quality genome-wide association studies are warranted.

The response of dual-species bacterial biofilm to 2% and 5% NaOCl mixed with etidronic acid: a laboratory real-time evaluation using optical coherence tomography.


The addition of etidronic acid (HEDP) to sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) could increase the antibiofilm potency of the irrigant, while maintaining the benefits of continuous chelation. Studies conducted so far have shown that mixing HEDP with NaOCl solutions of relatively low concentration does not compromise the antibiofilm efficacy of the irrigant. However, the working lifespan of NaOCl may decrease resulting in a reduction of its antibiofilm efficacy over time (efficiency). In this regard, continuous irrigant replenishment needs to be examined. This study investigated the response of a dual-species biofilm when challenged with 2% and 5% NaOCl mixed with HEDP for a prolonged timespan and under steady laminar flow.

Dual-species biofilms comprised of Streptococcus oralis J22 and Actinomyces naeslundii T14V-J1 were grown on human dentine discs in a constant depth film fermenter (CDFF) for 96 h. Biofilms were treated with 2% and 5% NaOCl, alone or mixed with HEDP. Irrigants were applied under steady laminar flow for 8 min. Biofilm response was evaluated by means of optical coherence tomography (OCT). Biofilm removal, biofilm disruption, rate of biofilm loss and disruption as well as bubble formation were assessed. One-way ANOVA, Wilcoxon's signed-rank test and Kruskal-Wallis H test were performed for statistical analysis of the data. The level of significance was set at a ≤ 0.05.

Increasing NaOCl concentration resulted in increased biofilm removal and disruption, higher rate of biofilm loss and disruption and increased bubble formation. Mixing HEDP with NaOCl caused a delay in the antibiofilm action of the latter, without compromising its antibiofilm efficacy.

NaOCl concentration dictates the biofilm response irrespective of the presence of HEDP. The addition of HEDP resulted in a delay in the antibiofilm action of NaOCl. This delay affects the efficiency, but not the efficacy of the irrigant over time.

Efficacy of sonic and ultrasonic activation during endodontic treatment: a Meta-analysis of in vitro studies.

Acta Odontol Scanda

To ensure a successful endodontic treatment, it is important to have a proper disinfection of the root canal. The current study compares the root canal cleanliness and smear layer score between sonic and ultrasonic activation.

Systematic literature review was implemented, using 12 databases. All in vitro studies comparing the efficacy of sonic and ultrasonic activation and reporting at least one outcome of interest were included.

At the apical level, pooling the data in the random-effects model (I2=64%, p = .1) revealed a statistically significant lower smear layer score within the sonic activation group (MD-0.48; 95% CI-0.92, -0.04; p = .03). Furthermore, there was a statistically significant lower push-out bond strength value among the sonic group, in contrast to the ultrasonic group at the middle (MD-0.69; 95% CI-1.13, -0.25; p = .002) and at the apical levels (MD-0.78; 95% CI-1.09, -0.46; p < .0001) of the root canal.

Sonic activation accomplished advancement relative to ultrasonic agitation in removing the smear layer, while ultrasonic activation resulted in significant cohesion between the sealers and the dentine tubules, decreasing the vulnerability of apical leakage and tooth fracture.