The latest medical research on Child And Adolescent Psychiatry

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about child and adolescent psychiatry gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Early life sleep disruption potentiates lasting sex-specific changes in behavior in genetically vulnerable Shank3 heterozygous autism model mice.

Molecular Autism

Patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience high rates of sleep disruption beginning early in life; however, the developmental consequences of this disruption are not understood. We examined sleep behavior and the consequences of sleep disruption in developing mice bearing C-terminal truncation mutation in the high-confidence ASD risk gene SHANK3 (Shank3ΔC). We hypothesized that sleep disruption may be an early sign of developmental divergence, and that clinically relevant Shank3WT/ΔC mice may be at increased risk of lasting deleterious outcomes following early life sleep disruption.

We recorded sleep behavior in developing Shank3ΔC/ΔC, Shank3WT/ΔC, and wild-type siblings of both sexes using a noninvasive home-cage monitoring system. Separately, litters of Shank3WT/ΔC and wild-type littermates were exposed to automated mechanical sleep disruption for 7 days prior to weaning (early life sleep disruption: ELSD) or post-adolescence (PASD) or undisturbed control (CON) conditions. All groups underwent standard behavioral testing as adults.

Male and female Shank3ΔC/ΔC mice slept significantly less than wild-type and Shank3WT/ΔC siblings shortly after weaning, with increasing sleep fragmentation in adolescence, indicating that sleep disruption has a developmental onset in this ASD model. ELSD treatment interacted with genetic vulnerability in Shank3WT/ΔC mice, resulting in lasting, sex-specific changes in behavior, whereas wild-type siblings were largely resilient to these effects. Male ELSD Shank3WT/ΔC subjects demonstrated significant changes in sociability, sensory processing, and locomotion, while female ELSD Shank3WT/ΔC subjects had a significant reduction in risk aversion. CON Shank3WT/ΔC mice, PASD mice, and all wild-type mice demonstrated typical behavioral responses in most tests.

Our study shows that sleep disruption during sensitive periods of early life interacts with underlying genetic vulnerability to drive lasting and sex-specific changes in behavior. As individuals progress through maturation, they gain resilience to the lasting effects of sleep disruption. This work highlights developmental sleep disruption as an important vulnerability in ASD susceptibility.

Preoperative and postoperative memory in epilepsy patients with 'gliosis only' versus hippocampal sclerosis: a matched case-control study.

Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

Gliosis only (GO) and hippocampal sclerosis (HS) are distinct histopathological entities in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. This study explores whether this distinction also exists on a functional level when evaluating pre- and postoperative memory.

Using a retrospective matched case-control study design, we analysed verbal and visual memory performance in 49 patients with GO and 49 patients with HS before and one year after elective surgery.

Clinical differences were evident with a later age at seizure onset (18±12 vs 12±9 years) and fewer postoperative seizure-free patients in the GO group (63% vs 82%). Preoperatively, group and individual-level data demonstrated that memory impairments were less frequent, less severe and relatively non-specific in patients with GO compared with HS. Postoperatively, verbal memory declined in both groups, particularly after left-sided resections, with more significant losses in patients with GO. Factoring in floor effects, GO was also associated with more significant visual memory loss, particularly after left resections.

Compared with HS, GO is characterised by (1) a later onset of epilepsy, (2) less pronounced and more non-specific memory impairments before surgery, (3) a less successful surgical outcome and (4) a more significant memory decline after surgery. Overall, our results regarding cognition provide further evidence that GO and HS are distinct clinical entities. Functional integrity of the hippocampus appears higher in GO, as indicated by a better preoperative memory performance and worse memory outcome after surgery. The different risk-benefit ratios should be considered during presurgical patient counselling.

Somatic symptom disorder in patients with post-COVID-19 neurological symptoms: a preliminary report from the somatic study (Somatic Symptom Disorder Triggered by COVID-19).

Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

To assess the diagnosis of somatic symptom disorder (SSD) in patients with unexplained neurological symptoms occurring after SARS-CoV-2 infection, also referred to as long COVID.

Patients were contacted for a standardised psychometric evaluation by phone, followed by a self-survey.

Although the patients did not meet the DSM-5 criteria for a functional neurological symptom disorder specifically, SSD diagnosis based on DSM-5 criteria was positive in 32 (64%) patients. In the remaining 18 patients, SSD was considered possible given the high score on diagnostic scales. Physical examination were normal for all. Brain MRI showed unspecific minor white matter hyperintensities in 8/46 patients. Neuropsychological assessment showed exclusively mild impairment of attention in 14 out of 15 tested patients, in discrepancy with their major subjective complaint. Forty-five (90%) patients met criteria for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Seventeen (32%) patients were screened positive for mood-anxiety disorders, 19 (38%) had a history of prior SSD and 27 (54%) reported past trauma. Additional self-survey highlighted post-traumatic stress disorder in 12/43 (28%), high levels of alexithymia traits and perfectionism. Long-lasting symptoms had a major impact with a high rate of insomnia (29/43, 67%), psychiatric follow-up (28/50, 56%) and work or pay loss (25/50, 50%).

A majority of patients with unexplained long-lasting neurological symptoms after mild COVID met diagnostic criteria for SSD and may require specific management.

NCT04889313.

Exploring the phenotype of Italian patients with ALS with intermediate ATXN2 polyQ repeats.

Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

To detect the clinical characteristics of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) carrying an intermediate ATXN2 polyQ number of repeats in a large population-based series of Italian patients with ALS.

The study population includes 1330 patients with ALS identified through the Piemonte and Valle d'Aosta Register for ALS, diagnosed between 2007 and 2019 and not carrying C9orf72, SOD1, TARDBP and FUS mutations. Controls were 1274 age, sex and geographically matched Italian subjects, identified through patients' general practitioners.

We found 42 cases and 4 controls with≥31 polyQ repeats, corresponding to an estimated OR of 10.4 (95% CI 3.3 to 29.0). Patients with≥31 polyQ repeats (ATXN2+) compared with those without repeat expansion (ATXN2-) had more frequently a spinal onset (p=0.05), a shorter diagnostic delay (p=0.004), a faster rate of ALSFRS-R progression (p=0.004) and King's progression (p=0.004), and comorbid frontotemporal dementia (7 (28.0%) vs 121 (13.4%), p=0.037). ATXN2+ patients had a 1-year shorter survival (ATXN2+ patients 1.82 years, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.51; ATXN2- 2.84 years, 95% CI 1.67 to 5.58, p=0.0001). ATXN2 polyQ intermediate repeats was independently related to a worse outcome in Cox multivariable analysis (p=0.006).

In our population-based cohort, ATXN2+ patients with ALS have a distinctive phenotype, characterised by a more rapid disease course and a shorter survival. In addition, ATXN2+ patients have a more severe impairment of cognitive functions. These findings have relevant implications on clinical practice, including the possibility of refining the individual prognostic prediction and improving the design of ALS clinical trials, in particular as regards as those targeted explicitly to ATXN2.

Risk of stroke in multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optic spectrum disorder: a Nationwide cohort study in South Korea.

Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

People with multiple sclerosis (MS) are more likely to develop stroke than those without. However, little is known about the association between neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and the risk of stroke. We aimed to estimate the risk of stroke in patients with MS and NMOSD in South Korea.

Data from the Korean National Health Insurance between January 2010 and December 2017 were analysed. A total of 1541/1687 adult patients with MS/NMOSD, who were free of stroke were included. Matched controls were selected based on age, sex and the presence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia.

The risk of developing stroke was 2.78 times higher (adjusted HR (aHR), 95% CI 1.91 to 4.05) in patients with MS compared with controls matched by age, sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia. The risk of stroke in NMOSD was also higher than that in matched controls (aHR=1.69, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.61) and not statistically different from that of MS (p=0.216). The patients with MS had a higher risk for either of ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke (HR=2.63 and 2.93, respectively), whereas those with NMOSD had a higher risk for ischaemic stroke (HR=1.60) with marginal statistical significance.

The risk of stroke is increased in patients with MS and NMOSD and seemed comparable between the two conditions. This is the first study that estimates the risk of stroke in patients with MS and NMOSD within the same population.

How Flexible are Treatments for Youth Internalizing Disorders? Examining Modification Guidelines Included across Supported Treatments.

Journal of Clinical Oncology

Treatment protocols for youth-internalizing disorders have been developed, however these protocols have yielded mixed findings in routine care settings. Despite increased recognition of the importance of flexibility when delivering evidence-based treatments (EBTs), little is known about the extent to which protocols offer guidance to providers in flexible EBT implementation. The current study examined the extent to which supported EBTs for youth internalizing disorders explicitly incorporate guidance for treatment modification.

Supported treatment protocols for youth internalizing disorders were identified (N = 44), from which 4,021 modification guidelines were extracted and coded using a structured coding system to classify modification strategies (i.e., the forms that recommended modifications take), and associated tailoring factors (i.e., the rationale for which modifications are recommended).

Across all EBTs, modification guidelines were quite common, with the average protocol including almost 91 text passages providing guidance for modification. The majority of modification guidelines functionally increase session or treatment length by recommending the addition or repetition of material, whereas less than 5% of modification guidelines provided strategies for condensing or streamlining care. Strikingly, less than 2% of modification guidelines in EBT protocols address patient cultural factors, and rarely address provider or setting issues that can challenge standard implementation.

Findings highlight critical gaps in the available guidance to modify EBTs for youth internalizing disorders, and suggest EBT protocols may not be optimally poised to flexibly address the broad diversity of children and adolescents across varied settings in need of mental health care.

Future Directions in Mental Health Treatment with Stigmatized Youth.

Journal of Clinical Oncology

Stigma refers to societally-deemed inferiority associated with a circumstance, behavior, status, or identity. It manifests internally, interpersona...

Evaluating the feasibility and potential efficacy of a brief eTherapy for binge-eating disorder: A pilot study.

Int J Eat

For those with binge-eating disorder (BED), access to evidence-based, face-to-face treatment is often constrained by clinician availability and high treatment costs. Emerging evidence suggests online therapy (eTherapy) may navigate these barriers and reduce binge-eating symptomatology; however, less evaluation has been done in those with BED, particularly with briefer programs targeting early change. This study investigated the feasibility and potential efficacy of a brief, supported eTherapy in those with BED or subthreshold BED.

Participants were 19 women with BED who completed a four-session eTherapy. This was a single-arm, pre-post intervention study, with participants completing weekly content and attending telehealth sessions. Key outcomes were assessed by the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire-Short (EDE-QS): objective binge episode days, loss of control over eating days, and eating disorder (ED) psychopathology via a total EDE-QS score.

Generalized and linear mixed models showed significantly reduced loss of control over eating days and ED psychopathology. Program feasibility was high, with strong program adherence and a below average attrition rate.

Pilot results support the feasibility and potential efficacy of a brief, behavioral-focused eTherapy program in reducing ED pathology in those with BED. Future research should further investigate findings in an adequately powered randomized controlled trial.

This study suggests that a brief, behavioral-focused online therapy, guided by non-expert clinicians, can be successfully administered to those with binge-eating disorder (BED) and may be efficacious at reducing eating disorder and other related symptomatology. Brief eTherapies that are effective, accessible, and rapidly available may facilitate earlier intervention in illness and improve treatment outcomes for individuals who experience this common and distressing disorder.

Prevalence of young-onset dementia: nationwide analysis of routinely collected data.

Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

Young-onset dementia prevalence is understudied internationally. Previous studies have been limited by low case numbers, reliance on single sources of routinely collected health data for case identification and inclusion of a limited age range. Our objective was to determine the 1-year period prevalence of diagnosed dementia in people aged 0-64 in the entire New Zealand population using routinely collected health data.

A population-based descriptive study was carried out in New Zealand (population 4.8 million) using routinely collected deidentified health data from 2016 to 2020. Dementia cases in seven linked health datasets in the New Zealand Integrated Data Infrastructure were identified using diagnostic codes and/or use of antidementia medication. Prevalence for each of the four study years was calculated by age, sex and ethnicity.

From a total population of 4 027 332-4 169 754 individuals aged 0-64, we identified 3396-3474 cases of 'all-cause' dementia in each of the study years (prevalence crude range: 83-84/100 000 people aged 0-64; 139-141/100 000 people aged 30-64 years; 204-207/100 000 people aged 45-64 years). Age-standardised prevalence was higher in males than females. Age-standardised and sex-standardised prevalence was higher in Māori and Pacific People than European and Asian.

By using a large study population and multiple national health datasets, we have minimised selection bias and estimated the national prevalence of diagnosed young-onset dementia with precision. Young-onset dementia prevalence for the total New Zealand population was similar to reported global prevalence, validating previous estimates. Prevalence differed by ethnicity, which has important implications for service planning.

Ipsilateral and axial tremor response to focused ultrasound thalamotomy for essential tremor: clinical outcomes and probabilistic mapping.

Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

NCT01932463, NCT01827904, and NCT02252380.

To investigate the effects of MRgFUS in patients with ET with an emphasis on ipsilateral-hand and axial tremor subscores.

Tremor scores and adverse effects of 100 patients treated between 2012 and 2018 were assessed at 1 week, 3, 12, and 24 months. A subgroup analysis of ipsilateral-hand tremor responders (defined as patients with ≥30% improvement at any time point) and non-responders was performed. Correlations and predictive factors for improvement were analysed. Weighted probabilistic maps of improvement were generated.

Significant improvement in axial, contralateral-hand and total tremor scores was observed at all study visits from baseline (p<0.0001). There was no significant improvement in ipsilateral subscores. A subset of patients (n=20) exhibited group-level ipsilateral-hand improvement that remained significant through all follow-ups (p<0.001). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that higher baseline scores predict better improvement in ipsilateral-hand and axial tremor. Probabilistic maps demonstrated that the lesion hotspot for axial improvement was situated more medially than that for contralateral improvement.

MRgFUS significantly improved axial, contralateral-hand and total tremor scores. In a subset of patients, a consistent group-level treatment effect was observed for ipsilateral-hand tremor. While ipsilateral improvement seemed to be less directly related to lesion location, a spatial relationship between lesion location and axial and contralateral improvement was observed that proved consistent with the somatotopic organisation of the ventral intermediate nucleus.

Relationship between motor cortical and peripheral axonal hyperexcitability in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

Previous studies have shown that patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have hyperexcitability in both the motor cortex and peripheral motor axons, but the relationship between central and peripheral excitability has not been fully disclosed.

Threshold tracking transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and motor nerve excitability testing were prospectively performed in 53 patients with ALS and 50 healthy subjects, and their relations to compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitude and revised ALS Functional Rating Scale were cross-sectionally analysed.

Compared with controls, patients with ALS showed both cortical and peripheral hyperexcitability; TMS showed reduced short-interval intracortical inhibition (interstimulus interval 1-7 ms) (p<0.001) and shortened silent period (p<0.05), and median nerve excitability testing revealed greater changes in depolarising threshold electrotonus (TEd) and greater superexcitability (p<0.0001, both), suggesting reduced axonal potassium currents. Significant correlations between cortical and peripheral excitability indices were not found. Greater changes in TEd (90-100 ms) (R=-0.33, p=0.03) and superexcitability (R=0.36, p=0.01) were associated with smaller amplitude of CMAP, whereas cortical excitability indices had no correlation with CMAP amplitude. More rapid motor functional decline was associated with only greater TEd (90-100 ms) (β=0.46, p=0.001).

Our results suggest that in ALS, cortical excitability is continuously high regardless of the extent of the peripheral burden, but peripheral hyperexcitability is associated with the extent of the peripheral burden and disease evolution speed. Alterations of ion channel function may play an important role in ALS pathophysiology.

CSF levels of SNAP-25 are increased early in Creutzfeldt-Jakob and Alzheimer's disease.

Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

Synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is an emerging synaptic biomarker for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, comprehensive studies investigating the marker in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and in the differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases are still lacking.

We developed a novel, sensitive ELISA for the measurement of SNAP-25 in CSF. In total, we analysed 316 patients from 6 diagnostic groups comprising patients with AD (n=96), CJD (n=55), Parkinson's disease spectrum (n=41), frontotemporal lobar degeneration (n=25) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (n=24) and non-neurodegenerative control patients (n=75). Using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, we analysed the differential diagnostic potential and compared the results with core AD biomarkers.

SNAP-25 CSF concentrations were elevated in AD and CJD (p<0.0001) but not in the other neurodegenerative diseases. Increased levels were observed already at early AD and CJD stages (p<0.0001). In CJD, SNAP-25 levels correlated negatively with survival time (r=-0.33 (95% CI -0.57 to -0.04, p=0.02). For the discrimination of AD from all other diseases except CJD, we observed a good diagnostic performance for CSF SNAP-25 (area under the curve (AUC) 0.85) which was further improved by applying the ratio with CSF amyloid-β 1-42 (AUC 0.95). For CJD, we could demonstrate a strong differential diagnostic potential against all other groups including AD (AUC 0.97).

Using the novel established CSF SNAP-25 ELISA, we here demonstrate the applicability of SNAP-25 as an early synaptic biomarker for both AD and CJD with a possible prognostic value in patients with CJD.