The latest medical research on Gynecologic Oncology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about gynecologic oncology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

The selection below is filtered by medical specialty. Registered users get access to the Plexa Intelligent Filtering System that personalises your dashboard to display only content that is relevant to you.

Want more personalised results?

Request Access

Reduction in preterm birth rates during and after the COVID-19 lockdown in Queensland Australia.

Australian and New Zealand Journal

Preventative strategies for preterm birth are lacking. Recent evidence proposed COVID-19 lockdowns may have contributed to changes in preterm birth.

To determine the prevalence of preterm birth and birth outcomes during and after the COVID-19 lockdown at the Sunshine Coast University Hospital and the overall state of Queensland, Australia.

Retrospective cohort analysis of all births in Queensland including the Sunshine Coast University Hospital, during two epochs, April 1-May 31, 2020 (lockdown) and June 1-July 31, 2020 (post-lockdown), compared to antecedent calendar-matched periods in 2018-2019. Prevalence of preterm birth, stillbirth, and late terminations were examined.

There were 64 989 births in Queensland from April to July 2018-2020. At the Sunshine Coast University Hospital, there was a significantly higher chance of birth at term during both lockdown (odds ratio (OR) 1.81, 95% CI 1.17, 2.79; P = 0.007) and post-lockdown (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.27, 3.18; P = 0.003). At the same centre, prevalence of preterm birth was 5.5% (30/547) during lockdown, compared to 9.1% (100/1095) in previous years, a 40.0% relative reduction (P = 0.016). At this centre during lockdown, emergency caesareans concurrently decreased (P < 0.01) and instrumental vaginal births increased (P < 0.01). In Queensland overall, there was a nonsignificant decrease in the prevalence of preterm birth during lockdown.

There is a link between lockdown and a reduction in the prevalence of preterm birth on the Sunshine Coast. The cause is speculative at present, although increased influenza vaccination rates, decreased transmission of infections, and improved air quality may have been favourable in reducing preterm birth. Further research is needed to determine a causal link.

Birth outcomes by type of attendance at antenatal education: An observational study.

Australian and New Zealand Journal

Antenatal education aims to prepare expectant parents for pregnancy, birth, and parenthood. Studies have reported antenatal education teaching breathing and relaxation methods for pain relief, termed psychoprophylaxis, is associated with reduction in caesarean section rates compared with general birth and parenting classes. Given the rising rates of caesarean section, we aimed to determine whether there was a difference in mode of birth in women based on the type of antenatal education attended.

A cross-sectional antenatal survey of nulliparous women ≥28 weeks gestation with a singleton pregnancy was conducted in two maternity hospitals in Sydney, Australia in 2018. Women were asked what type of antenatal education they attended and sent a follow-up survey post-birth. Hospital birth data were also obtained. Education was classified into four groups: psychoprophylaxis, birth and parenting, other, or none.

Five hundred and five women with birth data were included. A higher proportion of women who attended psychoprophylaxis education had a vaginal birth (instrumental/spontaneous) (79%) compared with women who attended birth and parenting, other or no education (69%, 67%, 60%, respectively P = 0.045). After adjusting for maternal characteristics, birth and hospital factors, the association was attenuated (odds ratio 2.03; 95% CI 0.93-4.43).

Women who attended psychoprophylaxis couple-based education had a trend toward higher rates of vaginal birth. Randomised trials comparing different types of antenatal education are required to determine whether psychoprophylaxis education can reduce caesarean section rates and improve other birth outcomes.

The potential role of nicotine in breast cancer initiation, development, angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis, and resistance to therapy.

Breast Cancer

A large body of research studying the relationship between tobacco and cancer has led to the knowledge that smoking cigarettes adversely affects ca...

Phytochemical-conjugated bio-safe gold nanoparticles in breast cancer: a comprehensive update.

Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women and is rated among one of the three common malignancies worldwide in combination with colon an...

Associations of adiposity and weight change with recurrence and survival in breast cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Breast Cancer

Adiposity and weight change among patients with breast cancer are associated with mortality, but there is limited evidence on the associations with distant recurrence or other causes of death or on central adiposity. Moreover, the relationship with breast cancer subtypes and by menopause status is unclear.

We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies of breast cancer patients investigating the associations of general and central adiposity (body mass index [BMI] and waist circumference [WC], respectively), before and after diagnosis, and weight change, with all-cause mortality, breast cancer-specific mortality (BCSM), and recurrence.

173 studies (519,544 patients, 60,249 deaths overall, and 25,751 breast cancer deaths) were included. For BMI  < 1 year post diagnosis, compared with normal weight women, the summary relative risk (RR) for obese women was 1.21 (1.15-1.27) for all-cause mortality, 1.22 (1.13-1.32) for BCSM, 1.12 (1.06-1.18) for recurrence, and 1.19 (1.11-1.28) for distant recurrence. Obesity was associated with all-cause mortality and BCSM in patients with ER+ or HER2+ tumors, whereas no clear association was observed in patients with triple-negative tumors. Similar associations were observed by menopausal status. Stronger associations were observed in East Asians than Europeans. Central adiposity was associated with all-cause mortality, while large weight gain was associated with all-cause mortality, BCSM, and recurrence.

Higher adiposity is associated with all-cause mortality, BCSM, recurrence, and distant recurrence in breast cancer patients, with similar associations by menopausal status and some evidence of heterogeneity by subtypes. Weight gain is also associated with recurrence and survival among breast cancer patients.

Overexpression of MCAM induced by SMYD2-H3K36me2 in breast cancer stem cell properties.

Breast Cancer

Melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM) is highly expressed in various malignancies. However, studies on the effects of MCAM on stemness of cancer stem cells are limited. Here, we aimed to explore the relationship between MCAM and stem cell phenotype in breast cancer (BC).

We analyzed the genes differentially expressed in BC from the oncomine database, followed by TCGA-BRCA database validation. We then used gene set enrichment analysis to analyze the signaling pathways enriched to the relevant genes, followed by loss-of-function experiments to analyze the role of MCAM in the growth of BC cells and the maintenance of stem cell properties. We analyzed the cause for the MCAM overexpression using ChIP-seq and clarified the upstream mechanism by constructing SE-Deleted cells. Finally, the role of SMYD2 in the growth of BC cells and the maintenance of stem cell properties were verified by rescue experiments.

MCAM was significantly overexpressed in BC, which predicted somber prognosis in patients. Knockdown of MCAM drastically hindered the growth and metastasis of BC cells in vitro and in vivo. Subsequently, the MCAM promoter was observed to have significant H3K36me2 modification and that SMYD2 could significantly promote the expression of MCAM. In addition, further overexpression of SMYD2 in cells with MCAM knockdown increased MCAM expression and promoted the growth as well as stemness of BC cells.

SMYD2 can elevate the expression of MCAM by promoting its H3K36me2 modification, which in turn expedites the growth and stem cell properties of BC cells.

Association of lymphatic flow velocity with surgical outcomes in patients undergoing lymphovenous anastomosis for breast cancer-related lymphedema.

Breast Cancer

Lymphovenous anastomosis (LVA) is primarily used for treating early-stage lymphedema. Here, we aimed to investigate the relationship between lymphatic flow velocity and the efficacy of LVA in breast cancer-related lymphedema patients. To this end, we assessed the transit velocity of lymphatic fluid using indocyanine green (ICG) lymphography and radioisotope lymphoscintigraphy.

We retrospectively examined patients diagnosed with breast cancer-related lymphedema who underwent LVA from January to December 2020. Patient data, including demographics, clinical stage, and postoperative surgical outcomes, were collected from electronic medical records. ICG lymphography results and dynamic lymphoscintigrams were analyzed to measure the lymphatic flow velocity and to determine the grade of the limb lymphedemas.

Eighty patients (all female, mean age of 53.6 years) were included. The lymphatic flow velocity ranged between 0.58 and 21.5 cm/min (average, 7.61 cm/min); 37 (46.3%), 18 (22.5%), 15 (18.8%), and 10 (12.5%) arm lymphedemas were classified as lymphoscintigraphy grade 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively. A significant association was observed between lymphatic flow velocity and lymphedema grade determined using lymphoscintigraphy and between the amount of volume reduction after LVA and preoperative lymphatic flow velocity (P < 0.05).

Our findings suggest that lymphatic flow velocity is positively correlated with surgical outcomes in patients undergoing LVA. Therefore, surgical treatment plans for lymphedema should not be based only on the International Society of Lymphedema stage, because advanced-stage lymphedema patients with high ICG velocities can benefit from LVA alone.

Relevance of the MHC region for breast cancer susceptibility in Asians.

Breast Cancer

Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes play critical roles in immune surveillance, an important defence against tumors. Imputing HLA genotypes from existing single-nucleotide polymorphism datasets is low-cost and efficient. We investigate the relevance of the major histocompatibility complex region in breast cancer susceptibility, using imputed class I and II HLA alleles, in 25,484 women of Asian ancestry.

A total of 12,901 breast cancer cases and 12,583 controls from 12 case-control studies were included in our pooled analysis. HLA imputation was performed using SNP2HLA on 10,886 quality-controlled variants within the 15-55 Mb region on chromosome 6. HLA alleles (n = 175) with info scores greater than 0.8 and frequencies greater than 0.01 were included (resolution at two-digit level: 71; four-digit level: 104). We studied the associations between HLA alleles and breast cancer risk using logistic regression, adjusting for population structure and age. Associations between HLA alleles and the risk of subtypes of breast cancer (ER-positive, ER-negative, HER2-positive, HER2-negative, early-stage, and late-stage) were examined.

We did not observe associations between any HLA allele and breast cancer risk at P < 5e-8; the smallest p value was observed for HLA-C*12:03 (OR = 1.29, P = 1.08e-3). Ninety-five percent of the effect sizes (OR) observed were between 0.90 and 1.23. Similar results were observed when different subtypes of breast cancer were studied (95% of ORs were between 0.85 and 1.18).

No imputed HLA allele was associated with breast cancer risk in our large Asian study. Direct measurement of HLA gene expressions may be required to further explore the associations between HLA genes and breast cancer risk.

Clinician views and experiences of non-invasive prenatal genetic screening tests in Australia.

Australian and New Zealand Journal

Non-invasive prenatal screening (NIPS) is being increasingly used by expectant parents. Much provision of this test in Australia is occurring in clinical settings where specialised genetic counselling is unavailable, such as general practice. Potential psychosocial consequences from this kind of prenatal genetic screening remain largely unexplored.

To explore clinicians' experiences with NIPS for aneuploidy, their perspectives of the benefits and harms of NIPS, clinicians' information needs, and their perceptions of the needs of expectant parents.

Qualitative, semi-structured interviews with 17 health professionals (clinical geneticists, obstetricians, genetic counsellors and general practitioners) who request and counsel for NIPS in Australian hospital and private practice settings, conducted between June 2019 and February 2020.

Five themes were identified relating to clinicians' perceptions and experiences of NIPS in their practice: perceived benefits of NIPS, perceived harms of NIPS (with two subthemes: clinical harms and psychosocial harms), financial and equity-related concerns, counselling as a protective buffer against perceived harms, and clinicians' unmet education needs. While clinicians view NIPS as a useful and high-quality screening test, especially for detection of common trisomies, many participants had concerns about how NIPS has been implemented in practice, particularly the quality (and often absence) of pre-/post-test counselling and the routinisation of testing for sex chromosome aneuploidies, microdeletion and microduplication syndromes.

These findings support the need for targeted clinician training around NIPS, and for a shared decision-making approach to support expectant parents' autonomous decisions about NIPS.

The role of Australian clinical quality registries in pregnancy care: A scoping review.

Australian and New Zealand Journal

Pregnancy represents a time of increased morbidity and mortality for women and their infants. Clinical quality registries (CQRs) collect, analyse and report key healthcare quality indicators for patient cohorts to improve patient care. There are limited data regarding existing CQRs in pregnancy. This scoping review aimed to: (1) identify Australian CQRs specific to pregnancy care and describe their general characteristics; and (2) outline their aims and measured outcomes METHODS: The scoping review was undertaken according to Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines. CQRs were identified using a systematic approach from publications (Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar), peer consultation, the Australian register of clinical registries and web searches. Details surrounding general characteristics, aims and outcomes were collated.

We identified two primary sources of information about pregnancy care. (1) Six CQRs are specific to pregnancy (Australia and New Zealand twin-twin transfusion syndrome registry, Australian Pregnancy Register for women with epilepsy and those taking anti-epileptic drugs, National Register of Antipsychotic Medication in Pregnancy, Australasian Maternity Outcomes Surveillance System, Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopaenia Registry and the Diabetes in Pregnancy clinical register). (2) Fourteen observational cohort studies were facilitated by non-pregnancy-specific CQRs where a subsection of patients underwent pregnancy.

Australian CQRs currently report varied information regarding some selected conditions during pregnancy and offer therapeutic and epidemiological insight into their care. Further research into their effectiveness is warranted. We note the lack of a CQR spanning the common problems of pregnancy in general, where significant health, service and economic gains are possible.

Effectiveness of alternative prenatal genetic counselling methods in a cohort of pregnant women from a low socio-economic population.

Australian and New Zealand Journal

There are concerns about the capacity of healthcare providers to adequately counsel women on the implications of noninvasive prenatal screening (NIPS). Studies suggest that more resource-efficient counselling methods are needed for broad adoption.

We prospectively examined the effectiveness of alternative methods of prenatal counselling on a patient's knowledge and understanding of prenatal testing choices, with a focus on NIPS. We also evaluated prenatal test choice and emotional well-being after making this decision.

Women from a low socio-economic population were offered NIPS at no additional cost along with typical prenatal screening and diagnosis. Study participants underwent prenatal counselling via a web-based video consultation or a telephone consultation with a genetic counsellor. Participants were asked to complete pre-counselling and post-counselling questionnaires.

Of 1000 women enrolled, 600 completed both surveys in full and were included in the analysis. Of these, 354 (59%) underwent counselling via a telephone consultation and 246 (41%) via the web-based video consultation. Both counselling methods led to a significant increase in patient knowledge (P < 0.01). NIPS uptake was equivalent between groups. Patients expressed a high level (90%) of satisfaction with their prenatal screen choice, with no significant difference (P > 0.10) between telephone and web participants.

Alternative methods of counselling such as a web-based education portal can be highly effective and should be considered to enable informed decision-making prior to undergoing prenatal screening such as NIPS. Further, web-based education tools could be beneficial for those in rural areas with limited access to healthcare providers and non-native speakers.

Sensitivity and specificity of screening mammography without clinical breast examination among Japanese women aged 40-49 years: analysis of data from the J-START results.

Breast Cancer

Current breast cancer screening programs worldwide offer only mammography for asymptomatic women, without clinical breast examination (CBE). The sensitivity and specificity of true asymptomatic screening mammography are important, especially in Japan.

This study used data from the Japan Strategic Anti-cancer Randomized Trial (J-START) results, and then calculated the sensitivity and specificity of screening mammography without CBE among Japanese women aged 40-49 years.

The sensitivity and specificity of modern film mammography, performed biennially, among Japanese women aged 40-49 years were 71.7% and 92.6%, respectively. The sensitivity of mammography alone was 47.4%. From the secondary analysis, the sensitivity of mammography alone was 44.1% for women with dense breasts and 34.8% for women with non-dense breasts.

The sensitivity of mammography alone of 47.4% is too low. The low sensitivity of screening mammography for true asymptomatic Japanese women aged 40-49 years places this population at an elevated risk, which can justify performing adjunctive ultrasonography.