The latest medical research on Physiotherapy

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Intra-articular Damage and Patient Outcome Comparison Between Athletes and Nonathletes After Hip Arthroscopy.

Am J Sports Med

The body of literature comparing hip arthroscopy between athletes and nonathletes is relatively scarce. Analyzing these groups can help to shed light on the severity of intra-articular damage and end-stage osteoarthritis that may result from participation in strenuous activities.

(1) To compare the intra-articular damage at the time of hip arthroscopy between athletes and nonathletes, and (2) to compare the pre- and postoperative outcomes between the groups.

Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Patients were considered eligible for analysis if they had received a primary hip arthroscopy between August 2008 and June 2018, were participating in competitive athletics, and had preoperative baseline scores and minimum 2-year follow-up for the following patient-reported outcomes: modified Harris Hip Score, Nonarthritic Hip Score (NAHS), Hip Outcome Score-Sports Specific Subscale, and visual analog scale. Propensity score matching was used to match eligible patients in a 1:1 ratio to patients who were not participating in any sports greater than a recreational level before surgery.

A total of 234 patients were included. There were no significant differences in the severity of labral tears, ligamentum teres tears, or cartilage damage (P > .05). The procedures performed between cohorts were similar (P > .05). The athlete population had higher preoperative means scores for the modified Harris Hip Score and NAHS (each P < .001). Likewise, the athlete population had higher postoperative means scores for the NAHS, Hip Outcome Score-Sports Specific Subscale, and visual analog scale (P = .031, P = .030, and P = .032, respectively). Additionally, the athlete cohort reported higher minimum 2-year outcomes than the nonathlete cohort for the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (mental component; P = .003) and Veterans RAND 12-Item Health Survey (mental component, P = .032; physical component, P = .005).

At the time of hip arthroscopy, athletes demonstrate similar intra-articular damage to their nonathlete counterparts. Given their higher preoperative scores, it is possible that athletes better tolerate the damage to the hip joint. Despite their strenuous activities and potentially higher tolerance to pain, athletes should not necessarily be expected to have greater severity of intra-articular pathology.

Comparison of Blood Pressure and Vascular Health in Physically Active Late Pre- and Early Postmenopausal Females.

Medicine and Science in Sports

The benefits of exercise on vascular health are inconsistent in postmenopausal females. We investigated if blood pressure and markers of vascular function differ between physically active early post- and late premenopausal females.

We performed a cross-sectional comparison of 24-h blood pressure, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, microvascular reactivity (reactive hyperemia), carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, and cardiac baroreflex sensitivity between physically active late premenopausal (n = 16, 48 ± 2 yr) and early postmenopausal (n = 14, 53 ± 2 yr) females.

Physical activity level was similar between premenopausal (490 ± 214 min·wk-1) and postmenopausal (550 ± 303 min·wk-1) females (P = 0.868). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (pre, 4.6 ± 3.9, vs post, 4.7% ± 2.2%; P = 0.724), 24-h systolic (+5 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -1 to +10, P = 0.972) and diastolic (+4 mm Hg, 95% CI = -1 to +9, P = 0.655) blood pressures, total reactive hyperemia (pre, 1.2 ± 0.5, vs post, 1.0 ± 0.5 mL·mm Hg-1; P = 0.479), carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (pre, 7.9 ± 1.7, vs post, 8.1 ± 1.8 m·s-1; P = 0.477), and cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (-8 ms·mm Hg-1, 95% CI = -20.55 to 4.62, P = 0.249) did not differ between groups. By contrast, peak reactive hyperemia (-0.36 mL·min-1⋅mm Hg-1, 95% CI = -0.87 to +0.15, P = 0.009) was lower in postmenopausal females.

These results suggest that blood pressure and markers of vascular function do not differ between physically active late pre- and early postmenopausal females.

Association of Physical Activity with Incidence of Dementia Is Attenuated by Air Pollution.

Medicine and Science in Sports

Physical activity (PA) is recognized as one of the key lifestyle behaviors that reduces risk of developing dementia late in life. However, PA also leads to increased respiration, and in areas with high levels of air pollution, PA may increase exposure to pollutants linked with higher risk of developing dementia. Here, we investigate whether air pollution attenuates the association between PA and dementia risk.

This prospective cohort study included 35,562 adults 60 yrs and older from the UK Biobank. Average acceleration magnitude (ACCave) from wrist-worn accelerometers was used to assess PA levels. Air pollution levels (NO, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, PM2.5-10, and PM2.5 absorbance) were estimated with land use regression methods. Incident all-cause dementia was derived from inpatient hospital records and death registry data.

In adjusted models, ACCave was associated with reduced risk of developing dementia (HR = 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.60-0.83), whereas air pollution variables were not associated with dementia risk. There were significant interactions between ACCave and PM2.5 (HRinteraction = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.13-1.57) and PM2.5 absorbance (HRinteraction = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.07-1.45) on incident dementia. At the lowest tertiles of pollution, ACCave was associated with reduced risk of incident dementia (HRPM 2.5 = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.49-0.91; HRPM 2.5 absorbance = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.44-0.81). At the highest tertiles of these pollutants, there was no significant association of ACCave with incident dementia (HRPM 2.5 = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.68-1.14; HRPM 2.5 absorbance = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.60-1.04).

PA is associated with reduced risk of developing all-cause dementia. However, exposure to even moderate levels of air pollution attenuates the benefits of PA on risk of dementia.

Racial, Ethnic, and Nativity Disparities in Physical Activity and Sedentary Time among Cancer Prevention Study-3 Participants.

Medicine and Science in Sports

Understanding racial/ethnic and nativity disparities in physical activity (PA) is important, as certain subgroups bear a disproportionate burden of physical inactivity-related diseases. This descriptive study compared mean leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (LTMVPA) by race/ethnicity and nativity.

The Cancer Prevention Study-3 (78.1% women; age, 47.9 ± 9.7 yr) includes 4722 (1.9%) Asian/Pacific Islander; 1232 (0.5%) Black/Indigenous (non-White) Latino; 16,041 (6.5%) White Latino; 9295 (3.8%) non-Latino Black; 2623 (1.1%) Indigenous American; and 210,504 (85.7%) non-Latino White participants across the United States and Puerto Rico. Participants completed validated LTMVPA and 24-h time use surveys at enrollment (2006-2013). Differences in LTMVPA across race/ethnicity and nativity were examined by ANCOVA with paired Tukey tests adjusting for age and sex. The proportion of time spent sitting, sleeping, and on PA by race/ethnicity was also compared.

There were significant differences in LTMVPA by race/ethnicity (race main effect, P < 0.001; nativity, P = 0.072; interaction, P < 0.001). Pairwise comparisons showed that White participants born abroad were the most active (23.8 MET-h·wk-1) and non-White Latino participants born abroad were the least active (17.9 MET-h·wk-1). Among Latinos, participants born in Puerto Rico were 6.6-7.3 MET-h·wk-1 less active than participants born in Mexico, the United States/Canada, or other countries. There were variations in time use by race/ethnicity, with the largest difference in time spent sitting while watching TV. Black participants spent 14.8% of the day (~3.5 h) sitting watching TV, which was 78 min longer than Asian/Pacific Islander participants.

This study suggests that there are differences in LTMVPA accumulation by race, ethnicity, and nativity. Results can be used to identify demographic groups that may benefit from culturally tailored PA interventions.

Factors Associated with Age-Related Declines in Cardiorespiratory Fitness from Early Adulthood Through Midlife: CARDIA.

Medicine and Science in Sports

This study aimed to describe maximal and submaximal cardiorespiratory fitness from early adulthood to midlife and examine differences in maximal fitness at age 20 yr and changes in fitness overtime by subcategories of sociodemographic, behavioral, and health-related factors.

Data include 5018 Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults participants (mean (SD) age, 24.8 (3.7) yr; 53.3% female; and 51.4% Black participants) who completed at least one maximal graded exercise test at baseline and/or the year 7 and 20 exams. Maximal and submaximal fitness were estimated by exercise duration and heart rate at the end of stage 2. Multivariable adjusted linear-mixed models were used to estimate fitness trajectories using age as the mechanism for time after adjustment for covariates. Fitness trajectories from ages 20 to 50 yr in 5-yr increments were estimated overall and by subgroups determined by each factor after adjustment for duration within the less favorable category.

Mean (95% confidence interval) maximal fitness at age 20 and 50 yr was 613 (607-616) and 357 (350-362) s; submaximal heart rate during this period also reflected age-related fitness declines (126 (125-127) and 138 (137-138) bpm). Compared with men, women had lower maximal fitness at age 20 yr (P < 0.001), which persisted over follow-up (P < 0.001); differences were also found by race within sex strata (all P < 0.001). Differences in maximal fitness at age 20 yr were noted by socioeconomic, behavioral, and health-related status in young adulthood (all P < 0.05), which persisted over follow-up (all P < 0.001) and were generally consistent in sex-stratified analyses.

Targeting individuals experiencing accelerated fitness declines with tailored intervention strategies may provide an opportunity to preserve fitness throughout midlife to reduce lifetime cardiovascular disease risk.

The Better By Moving study: A multifaceted intervention to improve physical activity in adults during hospital stay.

Clinical Rehabilitation

'Better By Moving' is a multifaceted intervention developed and implemented in collaboration with patients and healthcare professionals to improve physical activity in hospitalized adults. This study aimed to understand if, how and why 'Better By Moving' resulted in higher levels of physical activity by evaluating both outcomes and implementation process.

Physical activity was evaluated before and after implementation using the Physical Activity Monitor AM400 on one random day during hospital stay between 8 am and 8 pm. Furthermore, the time spent lying on bed, length of stay and discharge destination was investigated. The implementation process was evaluated using an audit trail, surveys and interviews.

There was no significant difference observed in physical activity (median [IQR] 23 [12-51] vs 27 [17-55] minutes, P = 0.107) and secondary outcomes before-after implementation. The intervention components' reach was moderate and adoption was low among patients and healthcare professionals. Patients indicated they perceived more encouragement from the environment and performed exercises more frequently, and healthcare professionals signalled increased awareness and confidence among colleagues. Support (priority, resources and involvement) was perceived a key contextual factor influencing the implementation and outcomes.

Although implementing 'Better By Moving' did not result in significant improvements in outcomes at our centre, the process evaluation yielded important insights that may improve the effectiveness of implementing multifaceted interventions aiming to improve physical activity during hospital stay.

Capacitive resistive monopolar radiofrequency at 448 kHz plus exercising versus exercising alone for subacromial pain: A sham-controlled randomized clinical trial.

Clinical Rehabilitation

To investigate the effectiveness of thermal and sub-thermal capacitive-resistive monopolar radiofrequency at 448 kHz plus exercising compared to sham radiofrequency plus exercising on pain, functionality, and quality of life in patients with subacromial pain.

Visual analogue scale and pressure pain threshold for pain, Shoulder Pain and Disability Index and Quick-Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand for functionality, and quality of life via the European Quality of Life-Five Dimensions were assessed at baseline, immediately posttreatment, and 1 month and 3 months post-intervention.

No between-group differences were found in the pain visual analogue scale (F = 1.0; P = 0.37), Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (F = 1.0; P = 0.36), European Quality of Life-Five Dimensions (F = 0.76; P = 0.47), and pressure pain (F = 0.14; P = 0.86) outcomes, with a statistical power < 0.30 for all comparisons. Between-group differences were found in the Quick-Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (F = 3.4; P < 0.038), with an improvement of -14.1 points (confidence interval at 95% (95% CI) -28.1 to -0.1) in the thermal versus the sham group at 1 month follow-up. The mobility dimension of European Quality of Life-Five Dimensions improved in a greater proportion of participants in the thermal group (22.2% thermal, 7.4% sub-thermal, and 0.0% sham; P = 0.02).

Adding thermal radiofrequency to exercising can further improve slightly functionality and mobility in people with subacromial pain in the short term, but not pain perception. Future studies with larger sample sizes are warranted to increase statistical power.

Measurement properties of performance-based measures to assess physical function in knee osteoarthritis: A systematic review.

Clinical Rehabilitation

To systematically review the measurement properties of performance-based measures to assess physical function in people with knee osteoarthritis.

This study was conducted in accordance with the guidelines recommended by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis. Clinical trials on the psychometric properties of performance-based tools for measuring physical function in people with knee osteoarthritis were included. Two reviewers independently rated measurement properties using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN). "Best evidence synthesis" was made using COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments outcomes and the quality of findings.

Thirty-six out of 3425 publications were eligible for inclusion. Thirty-two performance-based measures were evaluated including 26 single-activity measures and 6 multi-activity measures. Measurement properties evaluated included internal consistency (2 measures), reliability (23 measures), measurement error (20 measures), hypotheses testing for construct validity (22 measures), and responsiveness (23 measures). On balance of the limited evidence, the walk 40 m fast-paced test and 6-minute walking test were the best rated walking tests. The 30-second chair stand test and timed up and go test were the best rated sit-to-stand tests. The Performance Tests Measures and Physical Activity Restrictions may be the suitable multi-activity measures for knee osteoarthritis.

Further good quality research investigating the measurement properties, and in particular, the measurement error of performance-based measures in patients with knee osteoarthritis is needed.

Hip Contact Force Magnitude and Regional Loading Patterns are Altered in those with Femoroacetabular Impingement Syndrome.

Medicine and Science in Sports

The magnitude and location of hip contact force influences the local mechanical environment of the articular tissue, driving remodelling. We used a neuromusculoskeletal model to investigate hip contact force magnitudes and their regional loading patterns on the articular surfaces in those with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) syndrome and controls during walking.

An EMG-assisted neuromusculoskeletal model was used to estimate hip contact forces in eligible participants with FAI syndrome (n = 41) and controls (n = 24), walking at self-selected speed. Hip contact forces were used to determine the average and spread of regional loading for femoral and acetabular articular surfaces. Hip contact force magnitude and region of loading were compared between groups using statistical parametric mapping and independent t-tests, respectively (p < 0.05).

All the following report comparisons with controls. Those with FAI syndrome walked with lower magnitude hip contact forces (mean difference -0.7 N·BW-1, p < 0.001) during first and second halves of stance, and with lower anteroposterior, vertical and mediolateral contact force vector components. Participants with FAI syndrome also had less between-participant variation in average regional loading which was located more anteriorly (3.8°, p = 0.035) and laterally (2.2°, p = 0.01) on the acetabulum but more posteriorly (-4.8°, p = 0.01) on the femoral head. Participants with FAI syndrome had a smaller spread of regional loading across both the acetabulum (-1.9 mm, p = 0.049) and femoral head (1 mm, p < 0.001) during stance.

Compared with controls, participants with FAI syndrome walked with lower magnitude hip contact forces that were constrained to smaller regions on the acetabulum and femoral head. Differences in regional loading patterns might contribute to the mechanobiological processes driving cartilage maladaptation in those with FAI syndrome.

Worse Tibiofemoral Cartilage Composition is Associated with Insufficient Gait Kinetics Following ACL Reconstruction.

Medicine and Science in Sports

Greater articular cartilage T1ρ magnetic resonance imaging relaxation times indicate less proteoglycan density and are linked to posttraumatic osteoarthritis development following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). While changes in T1ρ relaxation times are associated with gait biomechanics, it is unclear if excessive or insufficient knee joint loading is linked to greater T1ρ relaxation times 12 months post-ACLR. The purpose of this study was to compare external knee adduction (KAM) and flexion (KFM) moments in individuals after ACLR with high vs. low tibiofemoral T1ρ relaxation profiles and uninjured controls.

Gait biomechanics were collected in 26 uninjured controls (50% females, age 22 ± 4 yrs., BMI 23.9 ± 2.8 kg/m2) and 26 individuals after ACLR (50% females, age 22 ± 4 yrs., BMI 24.2 ± 3.5 kg/m2) at 6 and 12 months post-ACLR. ACLR-T1ρHigh (n = 9) and ACLR-T1ρLow (n = 17) groups were created based on 12-month post-ACLR T1ρ relaxation times using a k-means cluster analysis. Functional analyses of variance were used to compare KAM and KFM.

ACLR-T1ρHigh exhibited lesser KAM than ACLR-T1ρLow and Uninjured Controls 6 months post-ACLR. ACLR-T1ρLow exhibited greater KAM than Uninjured Controls 6 and 12 months post-ACLR. KAM increased in ACLR-T1ρHigh and decreased in ACLR-T1ρLow between 6-12 months, both groups becoming more similar to Uninjured Controls. There were scant differences in KFM between ACLR-T1ρHigh and ACLR-T1ρLow 6 or 12 months post-ACLR, but both groups demonstrated lesser KFM compared to Uninjured Controls.

Associations between worse T1ρ profiles and increases in KAM may be driven by the normalization of KAM in individuals who initially exhibit insufficient KAM 6-months post-ACLR.

Epigenome-wide Association Study Identified VTI1A DNA Methylation Associated with Accelerometer-assessed Physical Activity.

Medicine and Science in Sports

Health benefits of physical activity (PA) may be mediated by DNA methylation alterations. The purpose of the current study was to comprehensively identify CpG sites whose methylation levels were associated with accelerometer-assessed total PA in a general Japanese population.

The study participants were from the baseline survey of Saga Japan Multi-institutional Collaborative Cohort. PA was objectively measured by a single-axis accelerometer for seven days. We employed a two-stage strategy. In the discovery stage, we performed a meta-analysis of two epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) of total PA in 898 individuals (a combination of random sample [n = 507] and case-control study sample [n = 391]. Peripheral blood DNA methylation levels were measured using Infinium EPIC or HM450 arrays. In the replication stage, we subsequently examined whether CpG sites significantly associated (P < 1 × 10-5) with total PA were replicated in another sample (n = 1711), in which methylation levels were measured by pyrosequencing. A multiple linear regression was performed to determine the cross-sectional association between total PA and methylation levels with adjustment for potential confounders, including BMI. A fixed-effects model was used in the meta-analysis. Correlations between total PA-associated DNA methylation and several inflammatory markers, such as hs-CRP, were also conducted.

In the meta-analysis, nine CpG sites were significantly associated with total PA (P < 1 × 10-5). Among the nine sites, one site cg07030336 (annotated to VTI1A/ZDHHC6 gene) was successfully replicated (P = 0.009).

The current study showed that greater accelerometer-assessed total PA was associated with higher DNA methylation levels at cg07030336 (VTI1A/ZDHHC6) in the general population. Additionally, we found a divergent relationship between the methylation levels at cg07030336 and several inflammatory biomarkers.

Does motor control training improve pain and function in adults with symptomatic lumbar disc herniation? A systematic review and meta-analysis of 861 subjects in 16 trials.

Brit J Sports Med

To evaluate the effectiveness of motor control training (MCT) compared with other physical therapist-led interventions, minimal/no intervention or surgery in patients with symptomatic lumbar disc herniation (LDH).

We included clinical trial studies with concurrent comparison groups which examined the effectiveness of MCT in patients with symptomatic LDH. Primary outcomes were pain intensity and functional status which were expressed as mean difference (MD) and standardised mean difference (SMD), respectively.

We screened 6695 articles, of which 16 clinical trials (861 participants) were eligible. Fourteen studies were judged to have high risk of bias and two studies had some risk of bias. In patients who did not undergo surgery, MCT resulted in clinically meaningful pain reduction compared with other physical therapist-led interventions (ie, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)) at short-term (MD -28.85, -40.04 to -17.66, n=69, studies=2). However, the robustness of the finding was poor. For functional status, a large and statistically significant treatment effect was found in favour of MCT compared with traditional/classic general exercises at long-term (SMD -0.83 to -1.35 to -0.31, n=63, studies=1) and other physical therapist-led interventions (ie, TENS) at short-term (SMD -1.43 to -2.41 to -0.46, n=69, studies=2). No studies compared MCT with surgery. In patients who had undergone surgery, large SMDs were seen. In favour of MCT compared with traditional/classic general exercises (SMD -0.95 to -1.32 to -0.58, n=124, studies=3), other physical therapist-led interventions (ie, conventional treatments; SMD -2.30 to -2.96 to -1.64, n=60, studies=1), and minimal intervention (SMD -1.34 to -1.87 to -0.81, n=68, studies=2) for functional improvement at short-term. The overall certainty of evidence was very low to low.

At short-term, MCT improved pain and function compared with TENS in patients with symptomatic LDH who did not have surgery. MCT improved function compared with traditional/classic general exercises at long-term in patients who had undergone surgery. However, the results should be interpreted with caution because of the high risk of bias in the majority of studies.