The latest medical research on Physiotherapy

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about physiotherapy gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Effect of Resistance Exercise Orders on Health Parameters in Trained Older Women: A Randomized Crossover Trial.

Medicine and Science in Sports

To compare the effects of four resistance exercise orders on muscular strength, body composition, functional fitness, cardiovascular risk factors, and mental health parameters in trained older women.

The intervention lasted 63 weeks. Sixty-one physically independent women (> 60 years) after completing a 12-week resistance training (RT) pre-conditioning phase were randomized into four different exercise orders groups to perform 12 weeks of RT: multi- to single-joint and upper- to lower-body (MJ-SJ-U), single- to multi-joint and upper- to lower-body (SJ-MJ-U), multi- to single-joint and lower- to upper-body (MJ-SJ-L), and single- to multi-joint and lower- to upper-body (SJ-MJ-L). This was followed by a 12-week detraining period and another 12-week RT in which exercise orders were crossed-over between MJ-SJ and SJ-MJ conditions. Body composition (DXA), muscular strength (1RM tests), functional fitness (gait speed, walking agility, 30-s chair stand, and 6-min walk tests), cardiovascular risk factors (glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-c, HDL-c, C-reactive protein, AOPP, TRAP, and NOx), depressive (GDS-scale), and anxiety symptoms (BAI), cognitive performance (MoCA, Trail Making, verbal fluency, and Stroop test) were analyzed.

Following the final training period, all groups presented significant improvements (P < 0.05) in almost all analyzed variables (muscular strength, body composition, functional tests, blood biomarkers, and mental health parameters), without significant difference among exercise orders.

Our results suggest that RT exercise orders in which MJ, SJ, upper, or lower-body exercises are performed first have similar effects on health parameters in trained older women.

Cardiovascular Adjustments Following Acute Heat Exposure.

Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews

In this review, we highlight recent studies from our group and others that have characterized the cardiovascular adjustments that occur following a...

Genetic Pathways Underlying Individual Differences in Regular Physical Activity.

Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews

Twin and family studies show a strong contribution of genetic factors to physical activity (PA) assessed either by self-report or accelerometers. P...

Primary surgery versus primary rehabilitation for treating anterior cruciate ligament injuries: a living systematic review and meta-analysis.

Brit J Sports Med

Compare the effectiveness of primarily surgical versus primarily rehabilitative management for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture.

Randomised controlled trials that compared primary reconstructive surgery and primary rehabilitative treatment with or without optional reconstructive surgery.

Of 9514 records, 9 reports of three studies (320 participants in total) were included. No clinically important differences were observed at any follow-up for self-reported knee function (low to very low certainty of evidence). For radiological knee osteoarthritis, we found no effect at very low certainty of evidence in the long term (OR (95% CrI): 1.45 (0.30 to 5.17), two studies). Meniscal damage showed no effect at low certainty of evidence (OR: 0.85 (95% CI 0.45 to 1.62); one study) in the long term. No differences were observed between treatments for any other secondary outcome. Three ongoing randomised controlled trials were identified.

There is low to very low certainty of evidence that primary rehabilitation with optional surgical reconstruction results in similar outcome measures as early surgical reconstruction for ACL rupture. The findings challenge a historical paradigm that anatomic instability should be addressed with primary surgical stabilisation to provide optimal outcomes.


Post-fracture rehabilitation pathways and association with mortality among adults with cerebral palsy.

Clinical Rehabilitation

Rehabilitation may mitigate the high mortality rates and health declines post-fracture for adults with cerebral palsy, but this is understudied. The objectives were to characterize the post-fracture rehabilitation pathways and identify their association with 1-year survival among adults with cerebral palsy.

A retrospective cohort study of adults with cerebral palsy with a fragility fracture with continuous health plan enrollment ≥1-year prior to and ≥1 day after their fracture date was performed using a random 20% Medicare fee-for-service dataset. Participants were categorized as a home discharge or inpatient rehabilitation admission post-fracture. For the home discharge cohort, weekly exposure to outpatient physical/occupational therapy (PT/OT) was examined up to 6-month post-fracture. Cox regression examined the association between time-varying PT/OTuse within 6-month post-fracture and mortality from 30 days to 1-year post-fracture before and after adjusting for confounders (e.g. medical complexity).

Of 3598 adults with cerebral palsy with an incident fragility fracture, 74% were discharged home without inpatient rehabilitation; they were younger, but more medically complex compared to the 26% admitted to inpatient rehabilitation. Among the home discharge cohort (n = 2662), 43.1% initiated PT/OTwithin 6-month post-fracture, and cumulative PT/OTexposure post-fracture was associated with improved survival; for example, per 3 weeks of PT/OTexposure, the adjusted mortality rate was 40% lower (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.41-0.89).

Most adults with cerebral palsy with a fragility fracture were discharged home rather than to inpatient rehabilitation, and only 43.1% of that group initiated outpatient PT/OTwithin 6 months post-fracture. Receiving outpatient PT/OTwas associated with improved 1-year survival.

Patient Acceptable Symptom State, Minimal Clinically Important Difference, and Substantial Clinical Benefit After Arthroscopic Superior Capsular Reconstruction.

Am J Sports Med

Patient Acceptable Symptom State (PASS), minimal clinically important difference (MCID), and substantial clinical benefit (SCB) have rarely been assessed after arthroscopic superior capsular reconstruction (ASCR) with fascia lata autograft.

(1) To investigate PASS, MCID, and SCB values for pain visual analog scale (pVAS), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, Constant score, and Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE) after ASCR with fascia lata autograft, (2) to investigate factors for achieving PASS, MCID, and SCB.

Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2.

We retrospectively collected data from patients who underwent ASCR between June 2013 and October 2020. A total of 88 patients were included, and anchor questions for deriving PASS, MCID, and SCB values were applied at a minimum 1-year follow-up postoperatively. PASS, MCID, and SCB were derived using sensitivity- and specificity-based approaches. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine factors for achieving PASS, MCID, and SCB.

Based on receiver operating characteristic curves, all 4 scores had acceptable area under the curve values (>0.7) for PASS, MCID, and SCB values. The PASS, MCID, and SCB values were 1.5, 2.5, and 4.5 for pVAS; 81.0, 19.0, and 27.5 for the ASES score; 60.5, -0.5, and 5.5 for the Constant score; and 75.0, 27.5, and 32.5 for SANE, respectively. Poor preoperative scores were related to significantly higher odds ratios (ORs) for achieving MCID and SCB. Wide acromiohumeral distance and dominant side were related to higher ORs for achieving PASS for the ASES score, and subscapularis tear was related to lower ORs for achieving PASS for pVAS and SCB for the Constant score.

Reliable PASS, MCID, and SCB values were achieved for at least 1 year after ASCR surgery. Poor preoperative score, wide acromiohumeral distance, and dominant side all demonstrated higher ORs for at least one value, but a subscapularis tear demonstrated lower ORs for achieving PASS for pVAS and SCB for the Constant score.

Effects of Different Montages of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Haemodynamic Responses and Motor Performance In Acute Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has shown positive results in neurorehabilitation. However, there is limited evidence on its use in acute stroke, and unclear evidence regarding the best tDCS montage (anodal-, cathodal-, or dualtDCS) for stroke recovery. This study investigated the effects of these montages combined with physical therapy on haemodynamic response and motor performance.

Eighty-two eligible acute stroke participants were allocated randomly into anodal, cathodal, dual, and sham groups. They received 5 consecutive sessions of tDCS combined with physical therapy for 5 days. Cerebral mean blood flow velocity (MFV) and motor outcomes were assessed pre- and post-intervention and at a 1-month follow-up.

None of the groups showed significant changes in the MFV in the lesioned or non-lesioned hemispheres immediately post- intervention or at a 1-month follow-up. For motor performance, all outcomes improved over time for all groups; between-group comparisons showed that the dual-tDCS group had significantly greater improvement than the other groups for most of the lower-limb performance measures. All 5-day tDCS montages were safe.

MFV was not modulated following active or sham groups. However, dual-tDCS was more efficient in improving motor performance than other groups, especially for lower-limb performance, with after-effects lasting at least 1 month.

The Fibromyalgia Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation in Physical Therapy Study (FM-TIPS) Protocol: A Multisite Embedded Pragmatic Trial.

Physical Therapy

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a nonpharmacological intervention that provides an electrical current through the skin to produce analgesia. The primary purpose of this study is to examine if the addition of TENS to routine physical therapy improves movement-evoked pain in individuals with fibromyalgia in a physical therapy clinical setting.

FM-TIPS is a phase III embedded pragmatic clinical trial funded through the National Institutes of Health Helping to End Addiction Long-Term (HEAL) Initiative. This trial will utilize a randomized cluster design that includes more than 110 physical therapists in 24 to 30 physical therapy clinics within 6 health care systems and 7 states. Clinics will be randomized to TENS or No-TENS, stratified by health care system and clinic size. The plan is to enroll 600 participants, with all participants completing physical therapy as prescribed by their physical therapist. Participants at TENS clinics will utilize TENS for a minimum of 2-hour per day while at the physical therapy clinic and at home when active. The primary outcome is reduction in movement-evoked pain from baseline to Day 60 on an 11-point numeric rating scale when participants sit and stand five times (Sit and Stand Test) Secondary outcomes include resting pain and fatigue, pain interference, fibromyalgia disease activity, movement-evoked fatigue, multidimensional assessment of fatigue, rapid assessment of physical activity, patient global impression of change, and common data elements shared across studies supported through the HEAL Initiative.

Hip Impingement Location in Maximal Hip Flexion in Patients With Femoroacetabular Impingement With and Without Femoral Retroversion.

Am J Sports Med

Symptomatic patients with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) have limitations in daily activities and sports and report the exacerbation of hip pain in deep flexion. Yet, the exact impingement location in deep flexion and the effect of femoral version (FV) are unclear.

To investigate the acetabular and femoral locations of intra- or extra-articular hip impingement in flexion in patients with FAI with and without femoral retroversion.

Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3.

An institutional review board-approved retrospective study involving 84 hips (68 participants) was performed. Of these, symptomatic patients (37 hips) with anterior FAI and femoral retroversion (FV <5°) were compared with symptomatic patients (21 hips) with anterior FAI (normal FV) and with a control group (26 asymptomatic hips without FAI and normal FV). All patients were symptomatic, had anterior hip pain, and had positive anterior impingement test findings. Most of the patients had hip/groin pain in maximal flexion or deep flexion or during sports. All 84 hips underwent pelvic computed tomography (CT) to measure FV as well as validated dynamic impingement simulation with patient-specific CT-based 3-dimensional models using the equidistant method.

In maximal hip flexion, femoral impingement was located anterior-inferior at 4 o'clock (57%) and 5 o'clock (32%) in patients with femoral retroversion and mostly at 5 o'clock in patients without femoral retroversion (69%) and in asymptomatic controls (76%). Acetabular intra-articular impingement was located anterior-superior (2 o'clock) in all 3 groups. In 125° of flexion, patients with femoral retroversion had a significantly (P < .001) higher prevalence of anterior extra-articular subspine impingement (54%) and anterior intra-articular impingement (89%) compared with the control group (29% and 62%, respectively).

Knowing the exact location of hip impingement in deep flexion has implications for surgical treatment, sports, and physical therapy and confirms previous recommendations: Deep flexion (eg, during squats/lunges) should be avoided in patients with FAI and even more in patients with femoral retroversion. Patients with femoral retroversion may benefit and have less pain when avoiding deep flexion. For these patients, the femoral location of the impingement conflict in flexion was different (anterior-inferior) and distal to the cam deformity compared with the location during the anterior impingement test (anterior-superior). This could be important for preoperative planning and bone resection (cam resection or acetabular rim trimming) during hip arthroscopy or open hip preservation surgery to ensure that the region of impingement is appropriately identified before treatment.

Home-based is as effective as centre-based rehabilitation for improving upper limb motor recovery and activity limitations after stroke: A systematic review with meta-analysis.

Clinical Rehabilitation

This systematic review aimed to examine the effects of home-based exercises in comparison with centre-based exercises for improving the paretic upper limb after stroke.

Only randomized clinical trials were included. Participants in the reviewed studies were adults at any time after stroke. The experimental intervention was home-based exercises compared with centre-based exercises. Outcome data related to strength, motor recovery, dexterity, activity, and participation were extracted from the eligible trials and combined in meta-analyses. The quality of included trials was assessed by the PEDro scores. The quality of evidence was determined according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system.

Eight trials, involving 488 participants, were included. Most trials (63%) delivered semi-supervised interventions (amount of supervision 3-43%), and three trials provided full supervision. Random-effects meta-analyses provided moderate- to high-quality evidence that home- and centre-based exercises provide similar effects on motor recovery (MD 1.4 points; 95% CI -0.9 to 3.8), dexterity (MD -0.01 pegs/s; 95% CI -0.04 to 0.05), upper limb activity performance (SMD -0.04; 95% CI -0.25 to 0.18), and quality of movement (0.1 points; 95% CI -0.2 to 0.4). Effects on strength were also similar but the quality of the evidence was rated as low. No trials examined effects on participation.

Effects of home-based prescribed exercises on upper limb motor recovery, dexterity, and activity are likely to be similar to improvements obtained by centre-based exercises after stroke.

Facilitators and barriers to patient-centred goal-setting in rehabilitation: A scoping review.

Clinical Rehabilitation

Identify, map, and synthesize existing reviews, to extract and analyse the most prominent barriers and facilitators to applying patient-centred goal-setting practice in rehabilitation using the Capability, Opportunity Motivation Behaviour (COM-B) model.

All types of review (systematic, scoping, and narrative) studies published up to June 14, 2022 that included physical and neurological rehabilitation, patient-centeredness, and goal-setting were reviewed. Studies were scrutinized for relevance, quality was not assessed. The most prominent barriers and facilitators were synthesized using thematic content analysis and mapped onto the COM-B model.

Twenty-six review studies covering a range of conditions and settings, acute to community were included. Barrier and facilitators were identified at patient, provider, and organizational level. Barrier themes include provider's existing beliefs about goal-setting, lack of skills, and integration into clinical routines. Patient barriers related to capacity and opportunity to participate. Organizational barriers include lack of clinical guidelines, patient preparation, insufficient provider time, and high productivity expectations. Facilitators included goal-setting guidelines, training and education of providers and patients, revised clinical routines, performance monitoring, adequate time, and resources.

Healthcare providers should be the primary target of intervention. A provider's motivation to change current practice is the most prominent barrier, followed closely by capacity and opportunity. Patients require information, training, and structured engagement opportunities. Organizations play a key role in creating the optimal environmental conditions to enable patient-centred goal-setting.

Feasibility and Safety of Active Physiotherapy in the Intensive Care Unit for Intubated Patients with Malignancy.

Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine

Physiotherapy leads to improvements in critically ill patients who receive mechanical ventilation. However, cancer patients have not been included in previous studies on this subject. This study explored the feasibility and safety of physiotherapy in the intensive care unit for patients with malignancy.

The main outcome was the proportion of physiotherapy sessions at the prescribed level in each group.

A total of 60 patients were included within 1 year. A total of 576 days were screened for physiotherapy sessions and 367 physiotherapy-days were analysed (137 days for control patients and 230 days for cancer patients). The ratio of physiotherapy sessions performed/prescribed did not differ between groups: 0.78 (0.47-1) in the control group vs 0.69 (0.6-1) in the cancer group (odds ratio 1.18 (IC95% 0.74-1.89); p = 0.23). A sensitivity analysis including patient effect as random variable confirmed those results (odds ratio 1.16 (0.56-2.38), p = 0.69). Adverse events occurred with the same frequency in cancer patients and non-cancer patients.

Physiotherapy in cancer patients who require intubation is feasible and safe. However, only two-thirds of prescribed physiotherapy sessions were performed. Studies are warranted to explore the barriers to physiotherapy in the intensive care unit setting.