The latest medical research on General Practice (Family Medicine)

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about general practice (family medicine) gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Psychological and Sociodemographic Predictors of Fertility Intention among Childbearing-Aged Women in Hamadan, West of Iran: An Application of the BASNEF Model.

Korean J Fam

Fertility and childbearing are the most important determinants of population variation around the world. This study was conducted with the aim of determining the psychological and sociodemographic factors predicting fertility intention among women referred to comprehensive health centers in Hamadan based on the beliefs, attitudes, subjective norms, and enabling factors (BASNEF) model.

This descriptive analytical study was performed in comprehensive health centers in Hamadan in 2016. Through a multi-stage sampling method, 484 women were enrolled in the study. The data collection tool was a selfreport questionnaire based on the constructs of the BASNEF model. Data were analyzed using linear regression, independent t-test, and a one-way analysis of variance using IBM SPSS software ver. 22.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA).

The mean±standard deviation of the women's age was 31.85±6.13 years. The variables of motivation to comply (β=0.228), enabling factors (β=0.162), subjective norms (β=0.134), and attitude (β=0.122) were the predictors of fertility intention in women. This model was able to explain 16.8% of variance in behavioral intention. Also, lower age, higher education, shorter duration of marriage, and having a daughter resulted in a greater fertility intention.

It seems that designing and implementing educational programs to improve attitudes, promoting positive subjective norms, and enhancing enabling factors can play a major role in increasing fertility intention in women.

The Relationship between Electronic Cigarette Use with or without Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Use among Adolescents: Finding from the 11th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey.

Korean J Fam

Electronic cigarette (EC) consumption ('vaping') is rapidly increasing, not only in adults but also in adolescents. Little is known about the association between vaping and problem behaviors such as drinking.

We used data from the 11th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, which was conducted in 2015 and included 68,043 participants who were Korean middle and high school students. The survey assessed EC, cigarette, and alcohol use. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine risk of current drinking and problem drinking across the following categories of users: never user (never used either product), former user (use of EC or cigarettes in the past, but not currently), vaping only, smoking only, and dual user (current use of both products).

EC only users were 1.2% in males, and 0.3% in females. Dual user of both conventional cigarettes and ECs were 5.1% in males, and 1.2% in females. Drinking frequency, drinking quantity per once, and problem drinking were higher among vapers than non-vapers and former-vapers, moreover, were higher among daily vapers than intermittent vapers. Compared to never users, EC only users were higher on risk of current drink and problem drink. The dual users were highest on risk of current drink.

Vaping is independently associated with alcohol use problems in Korean students, even those not currently smoking. Moreover, dual use of cigarettes and ECs is strongly associated with alcohol use problems. Therefore, vaping students should be concerned about their hidden alcohol use problems.

Home Blood Pressure Monitoring Has Similar Effects on Office Blood Pressure and Medication Compliance as Usual Care.

Korean J Fam

Home blood pressure monitoring is recommended to achieve controlled blood pressure. This study evaluated home blood pressure monitoring-improvement of office blood pressure control and treatment compliance among hypertensive patients.

A randomized controlled trial was conducted from December 2014 to April 2015. The home blood pressure monitoring group used an automatic blood pressure device along with standard hypertension outpatient care. Patients were seen at baseline and after 2 months. Medication adherence was measured using a novel validated Medication Adherence Scale (MAS) questionnaire. Office blood pressure and MAS were recorded at both visits. The primary outcomes included evaluation of mean office blood pressure and MAS within groups and between groups at baseline and after 2 months.

Mean changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and MAS differed significantly within groups. The home blood pressure monitoring group showed greater mean changes (SBP 17.6 mm Hg, DBP 9.5 mm Hg, MAS 1.5 vs. SBP 14.3 mm Hg, DBP 6.4 mm Hg, MAS 1.3), while between group comparisons showed no significant differences across all variables. The adjusted mean difference for mean SBP was 4.74 (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.65 to 10.13 mm Hg; P=0.084), mean DBP was 1.41 (95% CI, -2.01 to 4.82 mm Hg; P=0.415), and mean MAS was 0.05 (95% CI, -0.29 to 0.40 mm Hg; P=0.768).

Short-term home blood pressure monitoring significantly reduced office blood pressure and improved medication adherence, albeit similarly to standard care.

Factors Associated with Compliance with the Recommended Frequency of Postnatal Care Services in Four Rural Districts of Tigray Region, North Ethiopia.

Korean J Fam

The postpartum period has been advocated as a way to improve the survival of mothers and newborns. However, the status of the recommended number of postnatal care (PNC) services has not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of full PNC visits and factors associated with it among mothers.

A community-based cross-sectional study was performed among 1,109 women from March to April 29, 2017. Data were collected via face-to-face interviews, recorded using EPI INFO ver. 7.0 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA) and analyzed by STATA ver. 12.0 (Stata Corp., College Station, TX, USA). Multivariate logistic regression was applied to assess the predictors of the recommended frequency of PNC services. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) at 95% confidence interval (CIs) were performed. P-values <0.05 were declared statistically significant.

Status of compliance with the use of full PNC services was found to be 16.1%. Women who had antenatal care follow-up (aOR, 5.60; 95% CI, 2.50 to 12.55) and women who delivered at health institutions (aOR, 3.66; 95% CI, 1.74 to 7.70) were more likely to have full PNC visits. Proximity of women to health facilities was found to lower the odds of complete PNC visits (aOR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.56). Moreover, district of residence remains a predictor of service use.

The percentage of women with full PNC visits was found to be low. Therefore, to achieve the recommended frequency of PNC in the study area, the results of this study suggest a need to strengthen the uptake of ANC and institutional delivery services.

Mild Anemia and Risk for All-Cause, Cardiovascular and Cancer Deaths in Apparently Healthy Elderly Koreans.

Korean J Fam

Being common, mild anemia is sometimes considered a mere consequence of aging; however, aging alone is unlikely to lead to anemia. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association between mild anemia and total mortality and cause-specific mortality in apparently healthy elderly subjects.

A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 10,114 apparently healthy elderly individuals who underwent cancer screening and routine medical check-ups at one Health Promotion Center between May 1995 and December 2007. We defined mild anemia as a hemoglobin concentration between 10.0 g/dL and 11.9 g/dL in women and between 10.0 g/dL and 12.9 g/dL in men. We assessed the relationship between the overall, cardiovascular (CV), and cancer mortality and mild anemia using Cox proportional hazard models.

Mild anemia was present in 143 men (3.1%) and 246 women (6.1%). During an average follow-up of 7.6 years, 495 deaths occurred, including 121 CV and 225 cancer deaths. After adjustments, mild anemia was associated with a 128% increase in the risk of all-cause mortality hazard ratio (HR, 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.54- 3.37) in men and cancer-related mortality (HR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.22-4.13), particularly lung cancer (HR, 2.70; 95% CI, 1.03-7.08) in men, but not in women. In the subgroup analyses based on smoking status, obesity, and age, the associations were more prominent in never or former smoker groups and the older group.

The present study shows that overall and cancer-related mortality was associated with mild anemia in elderly men. Future prospective studies are needed to consolidate our findings.

General practice in UK newspapers: an empirical analysis of over 400 articles.

Br J Gen

In the context of the biggest GP workforce crisis since the NHS began, the alleged negative portrayal of UK general practice in the media is often cited as a reason for falling recruitment.

To explore how general practice and GPs are depicted in UK national newspapers.

Articles were identified through the LexisNexis® Academic UK search engine; relevant titles were tabulated and data extracted. A preliminary coding scheme was developed through discussion and used to categorise data; additional codes and categories were added iteratively as the analysis progressed.

In total, 403 articles on general practice or GPs were identified, and 100 on hospital specialists or specialties were sampled. Articles depicted UK general practice as a service in crisis, with low morale and high burnout, and leaving gaps in patient care. The traditional family doctor service was depicted as rapidly eroding through privatisation and fragmentation, with GPs portrayed as responsible for the crisis and the resulting negative impact on quality of care. Hospital specialties were also illustrated as under pressure, but this crisis was depicted as being the fault of the government. GP leaders interviewed in the press were usually defending their specialty; hospital doctors were usually sharing their expertise.

Newspaper portrayals of general practice are currently very negative. Efforts to influence the media to provide a more balanced perspective of general practice should continue.

Association between GPs' suspicion of cancer and patients' usual consultation pattern in primary care: a cross-sectional study.

Br J Gen

Patients who rarely consult a GP in the 19-36 months before a cancer diagnosis have more advanced cancer at diagnosis and a worse prognosis. To ensure more timely diagnosis of cancer, the GP should suspect cancer as early as possible.

To investigate the GP's suspicion of cancer according to the patient with cancer's usual consultation pattern in general practice.

Using logistic regression analysis with restricted cubic splines, the odds ratio (OR) of the GP to suspect cancer as a function of the patient's number of face-to-face consultations with the GP in the 19-36 months before a cancer diagnosis was estimated.

GPs' cancer suspicion decreased with higher usual consultation frequency in general practice. A significant decreasing trend in ORs for cancer suspicion was seen across usual consultation categories overall (P<0.001) and for each sex (males: P<0.05; females: P<0.05). GPs' cancer suspicion was lower in patients aged <55 years in both rare and frequent attenders compared with average attenders.

GPs suspect cancer more often in rare attenders ≥55 years. GPs' cancer suspicion was lower in younger patients (<55 years), in both rare and frequent attenders. GPs should be aware of possible missed opportunities for cancer diagnosis in young attenders and use safety netting to reduce the risk of missing a cancer diagnosis.

Patient and primary care delays in the diagnostic pathway of gynaecological cancers: a systematic review of influencing factors.

Br J Gen

Gynaecological cancers are the second most common female cancer type, with survival rates in the UK lower than in many comparable countries. A potentially important factor in the UK's poorer cancer outcomes is diagnostic delay; gynaecological cancers are the cancer type most likely to be affected by less timely diagnosis.

To examine current evidence for factors that contribute to patient and primary care delays in the diagnostic pathway of gynaecological cancer.

PRISMA guidelines were followed. MEDLINE and Embase databases and the Cochrane Library were searched using three terms: primary care; gynaecological cancer; and delay. Citation lists of all identified articles were searched. Two authors independently screened the titles, abstracts, and full texts of publications. Data extraction was performed by one author and quality assured by a second reviewer in a 20% sample of selected articles. Synthesis was narrative.

A total of 1253 references was identified, of which 37 met the inclusion criteria. Factors associated with delayed diagnosis were categorised as either patient factors (patient demographics, symptoms or knowledge, and presentation to the GP) or primary care factors (doctor factors: patient demographics, symptoms or knowledge, and referral process); and system factors (such as limited access to investigations).

Delayed diagnosis in the patient and primary care intervals of the diagnostic journey of gynaecological cancer is complex and multifactorial. This review identifies areas of future research that could lead to interventions to enable prompter diagnosis of gynaecological cancers.

Continuity of care in general practice at cancer diagnosis (COOC-GP study): a national cohort study of 2853 patients.

Br J Gen

At cancer diagnosis, it is unclear whether continuity of care (COC) between the patient and GP is safeguarded.

To identify patient-GP loss of COC around the time of, and in the year after, a cancer diagnosis, together with its determinants.

A prospective GP cohort (n = 96) filed data on patients who were diagnosed with incident cancer between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2010. COC was assessed by ascertaining the frequency of consultations and the maximal interval between them. (In France, patients see their referring/named GP in most cases.) A loss of COC was measured during the trimester before and the year after the cancer diagnosis, and the results compared with those from a 1-year baseline period before cancer had been diagnosed. A loss of COC was defined as a longer interval (that is, the maximum number of days) between consultations in the measurement periods than at baseline. Determinants of the loss in COC were assessed with univariate and multivariate logistic regression models.

In total, 2853 patients were included; the mean age was 66.1 years. Of these, 1440 (50.5%) were women, 389 (13.6%) had metastatic cancer, and 769 (27.0%) had a comorbidity. The mean number of consultations increased up to, and including, the first trimester after diagnosis. Overall, 26.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 25.3 to 28.6) of patients had a loss of COC in the trimester before the diagnosis, and 22.3% (95% CI = 20.7 to 23.9) in the year after. Increasing comorbidity score was independently associated with a reduction in the loss of COC during the year after diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio [OR] comorbidity versus no comorbidity 0.61, 95% CI = 0.48 to 0.79); the same was true for metastatic status (adjusted OR metastasis versus no metastasis 0.49, 95% CI = 0.35 to 0.70).

As COC is a core value for GPs and for most patients, special care should be taken to prevent a loss of COC around the time of a cancer diagnosis, and in the year after.

The needs of informal caregivers and barriers of primary care workers toward dementia management in primary care: a qualitative study in Beijing.

BMC family practice

Informal caregivers of people with dementia in Beijing are increasingly called upon to provide home-based care for their patients due to the increasing number of dementia patients and the shortage of standardized institutional solutions of care for patients in China. This study aimed to clarify the needs of informal caregivers and barriers of primary care workers toward dementia management in primary care in Beijing to provide references that may help to improve the care and services provided to individuals with dementia and their family caregivers residing in urban China.

A mixed-methods approach was used in this study. We performed individual in-depth interviews with 10 informal caregivers. Moreover, we carried out focus group interviews with 29 primary care workers. Content analysis was used to separately identify themes and codes. Discrepancies were discussed until final agreement was achieved.

Three themes representing the core attitudes of informal caregivers and primary care workers were identified: care knowledge and skills, psychological counseling, and collaborative management. Most primary care workers believed that the management of dementia patients in primary care was necessary. However, due to the heavy work load and different medical specialties involved, these workers were unable to manage it.

Professional training focused on dementia for primary care workers should be strengthened. At the same time, the establishment of a community-based dementia team management model that includes specialists, community health service centers (CHSCs), and community committees should be explored.

Patients' and practice nurses' perceptions of depression in patients with type 2 diabetes and/or coronary heart disease screened for subthreshold depression.

BMC family practice

Comorbid depression is common in patients with type 2 diabetes (DM2) and/or coronary heart disease (CHD) and is associated with poor quality of life and adverse health outcomes. However, little is known about patients' and practice nurses' (PNs) perceptions of depression. Tailoring care to these perceptions may affect depression detection and patient engagement with treatment and prevention programs. This study aimed to explore patients' and PNs' perceptions of depression in patients with DM2/CHD screened for subthreshold depression.

A qualitative study was conducted as part of a Dutch stepped-care prevention project. Using a purposive sampling strategy, data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 15 patients and 9 PNs. After consent, all interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed independently by two researchers with Atlas.ti.5.7.1 software. The patient and PN datasets were inspected for commonalities using a constant comparative method, from which a final thematic framework was generated.

Main themes were: illness perception, need for care and causes of depression. Patients generally considered themselves at least mildly depressed, but perceived severity levels were not always congruent with Patient Health Questionnaire 9 scores at inclusion. Initially recognizing or naming their mental state as a (subthreshold) depression was difficult for some. Having trouble sleeping was frequently experienced as the most burdensome symptom. Most experienced a need for care; psycho-educational advice and talking therapy were preferred. Perceived symptom severity corresponded with perceived need for care, but did not necessarily match help-seeking behaviour. Main named barriers to help-seeking were experienced stigma and lack of awareness of depression and mental health care possibilities. PNs frequently perceived patients as not depressed and with minimal need for specific care except for attention. Participants pointed to a mix of causes of depression, most related to negative life events and circumstances and perceived indirect links with DM2/CHD.

Data of the interviewed patients and PNs suggest that they have different perceptions about (subthreshold) depressive illness and the need for care, although views on its causes seem to overlap more.

An evaluation of a multifaceted, local Quality Improvement Framework for long-term conditions in UK primary care.

Family practice

The evidence that large pay-for-performance schemes improve the health of populations is mixed-evidence regarding locally implemented schemes is limited.

This study evaluates the effects in Stoke-on-Trent of a local, multifaceted Quality Improvement Framework including pay for performance in general practice introduced in 2009 in the context of the national Quality and Outcomes Framework that operated from 2004.

We compared age-standardized mortality data from all 326 local authorities in England with the rates in Stoke-on-Trent using Difference-in-Differences, estimating a fixed-effects linear regression model with an interaction effect.

In addition to the existing downward trend in cardiovascular deaths, we find an additional annual reduction of 36 deaths compared with the national mean for coronary heart disease and 13 deaths per 100000 from stroke in Stoke-on-Trent. Compared with the national mean, there was an additional reduction of 9 deaths per 100000 people per annum for coronary heart disease and 14 deaths per 100000 people per annum for stroke following the introduction of the 2009 Stoke-on-Trent Quality Improvement Framework.

There are concerns about the unintended consequences of large pay-for-performance schemes in health care, but in a population with a high prevalence of disease, they may at least initially be beneficial. This study also provides evidence that a local, additional scheme may further improve the health of populations. Such schemes, whether national or local, require periodic review to evaluate the balance of their benefits and risks.