The latest medical research on General Practice (Family Medicine)

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about general practice (family medicine) gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Deriving and validating a brief measure of treatment burden to assess person-centered healthcare quality in primary care: a multi-method study.

BMC Family Practice

In primary care there is a need for more quality measures of person-centered outcomes, especially ones applicable to patients with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs). The aim of this study was to derive and validate a short-form version of the Patient Experience with Treatment and Self-management (PETS), an established measure of treatment burden, to help fill the gap in quality measurement.

Patient interviews (30) and provider surveys (30) were used to winnow items from the PETS (60 items) to a subset targeting person-centered care quality. Results were reviewed by a panel of healthcare providers and health-services researchers who finalized a pilot version. The Brief PETS was tested in surveys of 200 clinic and 200 community-dwelling MCC patients. Surveys containing the Brief PETS and additional measures (e.g., health status, medication adherence, quality of care, demographics) were administered at baseline and follow-up. Correlations and t-tests were used to assess validity, including responsiveness to change of the Brief PETS. Effect sizes (ES) were calculated on mean differences.

Winnowing and panel review resulted in a 34-item Brief PETS pilot measure that was tested in the combined sample of 400 (mean age = 57.9 years, 50% female, 48% white, median number of conditions = 5). Reliability of most scales was acceptable (alpha > 0.70). Brief PETS scores were associated with age, income, health status, and quality of chronic illness care at baseline (P < .05; rho magnitude range: 0.16-0.66). Furthermore, Brief PETS scores differentiated groups based on marital and education status, presence/absence of a self-management routine, and optimal/suboptimal medication adherence (P < .05; ES range: 0.25-1.00). Declines in patient-reported physical or mental health status over time were associated with worsening PETS burden scores, while improvements were associated with improving PETS burden scores (P < .05; ES range: 0.04-0.44). Among clinic patients, 91% were willing to complete the Brief PETS as part of their clinic visits.

The Brief PETS (final version: 32 items) is a reliable and valid tool for assessing person-centered care quality related to treatment burden. It holds promise as a means of giving voice to patient concerns about the complexity of disease management.

The relationship between having a regular general practitioner (GP) and the experience of healthcare barriers: a cross-sectional study among young people in NSW, Australia, with oversampling from marginalised groups.

BMC Family Practice

Young people (12-24 years) visit general practice but may not have a 'regular' general practitioner (GP). Whether continuity of GP care influences experiences with, and barriers to, health care among young people is unknown. This paper explores the association between having a regular GP and experience of healthcare barriers and attitudes to health system navigation among young people in New South Wales (NSW), Australia.

This study was a cross-sectional survey administered either online or face-to-face in community settings. Young people living in NSW were recruited, with oversampling of those from five socio-culturally marginalised groups (those who were Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander, homeless, of refugee background, in rural or remote locations, sexuality and/or gender diverse). In this analysis of a larger dataset, we examined associations between having a regular GP, demographic and health status variables, barriers to health care and attitudes to health system navigation, using chi-square tests and odds ratios. Content and thematic analyses were applied to free-text responses to explore young people's views about having a regular GP.

One thousand four hundred and sixteen young people completed the survey between 2016 and 2017. Of these, 81.1% had seen a GP in the previous 6 months and 57.8% had a regular GP. Cost was the most frequently cited barrier (45.8%) to accessing health care generally. Those with a regular GP were less likely to cite cost and other structural barriers, feeling judged, and not knowing which service to go to. Having a regular GP was associated with having more positive attitudes to health system navigation. Free-text responses provided qualitative insights, including the importance of building a relationship with one GP.

General practice is the appropriate setting for preventive health care and care coordination. Having a regular GP is associated with fewer barriers and more positive attitudes to health system navigation and may provide better engagement with and coordination of care. Strategies are needed to increase the proportion of young people who have a regular GP.

GP- and practice-related variation in ambulatory sensitive hospitalisations of older primary care patients.

BMC Family Practice

Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register ACTRN12609000648224 .

We identified ASHs from the national dataset of hospital events for 3755 community-dwelling participants aged 75+ enrolled in a cluster randomised controlled trial involving 60 randomly selected general practices in three regions in New Zealand. Poisson mixed models of 36-month ASH rates were fitted for the entire sample, for complex participants, and non-complex participants. We examined variation in ASH rates according to GP- and practice-level characteristics after adjusting for patient-level predictors of ASH.

Lower rates of ASHs were observed in female GPs (IRR 0.83, CI 0.71 to 0.98). In non-complex participants, but not complex participants, practices in more deprived areas had lower ASH rates (4% lower per deprivation decile higher, IRR 0.96, CI 0.92 to 1.00), whereas main urban centre practices had higher rates (IRR 1.84, CI 1.15 to 2.96). Variance explained by these significant factors was small (0.4% of total variance for GP sex, 0.2% for deprivation, and 0.5% for area type). None of the modifiable practice-level characteristics such as home visiting and systematically contacting patients were significantly associated with ASH rates.

Only a few GP and non-modifiable practice characteristics were associated with variation in ASH rates in 60 New Zealand practices interested in a trial about care of older people. Where there were significant associations, the contribution to overall variance was minimal. It also remains unclear whether lower ASH rates in older people represents underservicing or less overuse of hospital services, particularly for the relatively well patient attending practices in less central, more disadvantaged communities. Thus, reducing ASHs through primary care redesign for older people should be approached carefully.

Effect of family doctor contract services on patient perceived quality of primary care in southern China.

BMC Family Practice

Family doctor contract service is an important service item in China's primary care reform. This research was designed to evaluate the impact of the provision of family doctor contract services on the patient-perceived quality of primary care, and therefore give evidence-based policy suggestions.

This cross-sectional study of family doctor contract service policy was conducted in three pilot cities in the Pearl River Delta, South China, using a multistage stratified sampling method. The validated Primary Care Assessment Tool-Adult Edition (PCAT-AS) was used to measure the quality of primary care services. PCAT-AS assesses each of the unique characteristics of primary care including first contact, continuity, comprehensiveness, coordination, family-centeredness, community orientation, culture orientation. Data was collected through face-to-face interviews held from July to November, 2015. Covariate analysis and multivariate Linear Regression were adopted to explore the effect of contract on the quality of primary care by controlling for the socio-demographic status and health care service utilization factors.

A total of 828 valid questionnaires were collected. Among the interviewees, 453 patients signed the contract (54.7%) and 375 did not (45.3%). Multivariate linear regression showed that contracted patients reported higher scores in dimensions of PCAT total score (β = - 8.98, P < 0.000), first contact-utilization(β = - 0.71,P < 0.001), first contact-accessibility(β = - 1.49, P < 0.001), continuity (β = 1.27, P < 0.001), coordination (referral) (β = - 1.42, P < 0.001), comprehensiveness (utilization) (β = - 1.70, P < 0.001), comprehensiveness (provision) (β = - 0.99, P < 0.001),family-centeredness(β = - 0.52, P < 0.01), community orientation(β = - 1.78, P < 0.001), than un- contracted after controlling socio-demographic and service utilization factors. There were no statistically significant differences in the dimensions of coordination (information system) (β = - 0.25, P = 0.137) and culture orientation (β = - 0.264, P = 0.056) between the two both groups.

This study demonstrates that the pilot implementation of family doctor contract services has significantly improved patients' perceived primary care quality in the pilot cities, and could help solve the quality problem of primary care. It needs further promotion across the province.

Job satisfaction among primary care physicians in western China.

BMC Family Practice

There has been great shortage of primary care physicians (PCPs) in China, especially in western areas. Job satisfaction plays a great role in retaining people. The aim of this study is to investigate the job satisfaction of PCPs and associated factors in 11 provinces of western China, thus providing necessary reference values for stabilizing the primary care workforce and improving the quality of primary care services.

A sample of 2103 PCPs working in western China were surveyed using a stratified, multistage and random sampling method in 2011. The characteristics of participants were recorded by a structured questionnaire. A multilevel model (MLM) and quantile regression (QR) were applied to assess the association between job satisfaction and possible risk factors.

Of the 2103 doctors surveyed, the overall satisfaction score was 3.26 ± 0.68 (from 1 to 5). MLM indicated that age group, income satisfaction, unit policy approval, personal planning, career attitude, work value and patient recognition were positively correlated with job satisfaction, while turnover intention was negatively correlated with job satisfaction. QR were not completely consistent with MLM and further explored the differences in different job satisfaction score percentiles on each domains.

This study showed that the job satisfaction of PCPs in western China was not high. The MLM and QR discussed were not entirely consistent, the latter one provided more information and robust results. Measures should be taken in streamlining administration and institute decentralization, creating more opportunities for additional training, raising PCPs' income, improving the social status of doctors and improving the relationship between doctors and patients.

Determining factors in the retention of physicians in rural and underdeveloped areas: a systematic review.

BMC Family Practice

Imbalance in distribution of Health Care Workers (HCWs) in a country is a global challenge. Almost all of the rural and underdeveloped areas are struggling with the shortage of HCWs, especially physicians. Therefore, this study aimed to identify factors governing the retention of physicians in rural and underdeveloped areas.

International databases including Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, Proquest, and Embase were searched using Mesh terms in order to find peer-reviewed journal articles addressing physicians' retention factors in rural and underdeveloped areas. The records were screened, and any duplicate results were removed. The quality of the studies was assessed according to the Critical Appraisal Skills Program developed for different types of studies. Then, through content analysis, the related factors were identified from finally selected papers, coded, and categorized.

The initial search resulted in 2312 relevant articles. On the basis of specific selection criteria, 35 full-text articles were finally reviewed.. The major affecting factors in physicians' retention in rural and underdeveloped regions were classified into the following six categories: 1) financial; 2) career and professional; 3) working conditions; 4) personal; 5) cultural; and 6) living conditions factors.

There is a complex interplay of factors governing physicians' retention in rural and underdeveloped areas. If health organizations are concerned with physicians' retention in deprived areas, they should take into account these main factors. Moreover, they should develop policies and strategies to attract and retain physicians in rural and underdeveloped areas.

Family medicine residency training in Ghana after 20 years: resident attitudes about their education.

Family Medicine and Primary Care

In addition to assessing educational needs of family medicine trainees in Ghana, we sought to assess whether those entering the training programme aimed to pursue an academic career.

Second and third year family medicine residents, fellows (known as senior residents in Ghana) and recent graduates were invited to participate in this study. Thirty-five of 77 eligible subjects provided responses (46% response rate), but five records were eliminated due to incomplete data to yield a survey completion rate of 39% (30/77).

Participants were mostly men (n=19), and the average age of respondents was 37 years old. The participants indicated the residency programmes needed more faculty 97% (n=29), supervision during outpatient care 87% (n=26) and lectures 83% (n=25). The main reason provided by respondents for entering residency programme in family medicine, which is currently not required for practising primary care in Ghana, was to obtain more education 93% (n=28). Participants who had completed the residency programme were much more likely to be interested in becoming faculty compared with those still in residency (p <0.001).

The research confirms the need for more faculty and the importance of investing in faculty development resources for ensuring a robust programme. These findings provide constructive feedback that could improve residency curricula of the local and regional family medicine training programmes and supports investing in trainees and new graduates as future faculty candidates.

Obtaining nasal and rectal swabs from general practice patients to assess carriage of antibiotic resistant microorganisms: a feasibility study.

Family Practice

The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of obtaining nasal and rectal swabs from general practice patients for measuring carriage of antibiotic resistant microorganisms in an area in Rotterdam (the Netherlands) with low socioeconomic status and a large immigrant population.

Data collection was from May to December 2017, in one general practice in Rotterdam. We asked adults (≥18 years) visiting the general practitioner (GP) with complaints not related to infections for one nasal and two rectal swabs and tested these for highly resistant microorganisms (HRMOs). Indicators for feasibility were recruitment rate, implementation and acceptation of data collection procedures by the participants.

We obtained a nasal swab from all included 234 patients and 164 (70%) also gave rectal swabs. On average, 3 out of 30 invited patients (10%) were recruited per day. The GPs considered the workload high to inform and refer to eligible patients for the study and did this inconsistently. Most participants experienced the rectal swab procedure as burdensome and preferred assistance of a medical assistant above self-swabbing. A monetary incentive increased the willingness to provide rectal swabs.

Obtaining (nasal and) rectal swabs from general practice patients for study purposes proved difficult. Lessons learnt from this feasibility study will help increase participation in HRMO prevalence studies among asymptomatic general practice patients.

Improving knowledge, self-efficacy and collective efficacy regarding the Brazilian dietary guidelines in primary health care professionals: a community controlled trial.

BMC Family Practice

Capacity-building of health professionals regarding to nutrition is a strategy for qualifying public health work to promote healthy diets in primary health care (PHC) services.

To evaluate the effect of an intervention based on Brazilian Dietary Guidelines (BDG) on the knowledge, self-efficacy (SE) and collective efficacy (CE) of interprofessional teams working in PHC.

It refers to a pre-post intervention study involving 24 health professionals divided into a control group (CG) and intervention (IG). The IG received a 16-h educational workshop on the BDG, guided by a validated protocol. Knowledge, SE and CE for using the BDG were assessed via a self-administered scale, ranging from 0 to 16 and 0 to 36 points, respectively; the scale was previously validated, completed before and after 2 months of the intervention. The effects of the intervention were estimated by paired t-test for intragroup comparisons over time.

The mean difference in the knowledge and SE scores of the IG pre- and post-intervention was 2.0 (CI 0.49-3.51) and 6.75 (CI 4.05-9.45) points, respectively. These results means the IG participants obtained 59 and 52.8% more points in knowledge and in SE in relation to CG, with significative difference (p = 0.007 and p <  0.00, respectively). There was no significant variation in the CE scores in both groups.

Considering the results presented and due to the originality of the study in question, the educational workshop was effective in increasing the knowledge and SE of professionals working in PHC in using the Dietary Guidelines in their work routines. These findings can assist other research in developing nutrition interventions with interprofessional teams.

Development of a clinical diagnostic tool to differentiate multiple myeloma from bone metastasis in patients with destructive bone lesions (MM-BM DDx).

BMC Family Practice

Most patients with destructive bone lesions undergo a comprehensive diagnostic procedure to ensure that proper treatment decisions are pursued. For patients with multiple myeloma, this can lead to delays in diagnosis and treatment initiation. This study was conducted to develop a diagnostic rule that could serve as a tool for early identification of multiple myeloma and promote timely referral of patients to haematologists.

The clinical prediction rule was developed using a retrospective case-series of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and those with bone metastasis (BM) at Chiang Mai University Hospital from 2012 to 2015. Multivariable fractional polynomial logistic regression was used to derive a diagnostic model to differentiate between MM and BM patients (MM-BM DDx).

A total of 586 patients (136 MM patients and 450 BM patients) were included. Serum creatinine, serum globulin, and serum alkaline phosphatase were identified as significant indicators for the differentiation of MM and BM patients. The MM-BM DDx model showed excellent discriminative ability [AuROC of 0.90 (95%CI 0.86 to 0.93)] and good calibration.

This MM-BM DDx model could potentially allow for early myeloma diagnosis and improvement of overall prognosis. A prospective validation study is needed to confirm the accuracy of the MM-BM DDx model prior to its application in clinical practice.

Completing asthma action plans by screen-sharing in video-consultations: practical insights from a feasibility assessment.

npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine

Supported self-management is a vital component of routine asthma care. Completion of an agreed personalised asthma action plan is integral to imple...

Inhaled corticosteroids and the risk of type 2 diabetes among Swedish COPD patients.

npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine

This study reports the association of ICS use and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Swedish patients with COPD using data from real-wo...