The latest medical research on General Practice (Family Medicine)
The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about general practice (family medicine) gathered by our medical AI research bot.
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The Dean.Australian Journal of Primary Health
Certificates of Distinction at USA medical schools are given to students who have shown additional commitment and effort in areas such as global he...
Whānau Māori explain how the Harti Hauora Tool assists with better access to health services.Australian Journal of Primary Health
In this paper, whānau Māori highlight how a Kaupapa Māori-centred intervention (the Harti Hauora Tamariki tool, hereafter Harti tool) has improved ...
The Orange Declaration on rural and remote mental health.Aust J Rural
Rural mental health outcomes have been persistently poorer than those in larger cities suggesting that the prevailing investments to improve matter...
Change in Site of Children's Primary Care: A Longitudinal Population-Based Analysis.Annals of Family Medicine
Evidence that fewer children are being seen at family physician (FP) practices has not been confirmed using population-level data. This study examines the proportion of children seen at FP and pediatrician practices over time and the influence of patient demographics and rurality on this trend.
We conducted a retrospective longitudinal analysis of Vermont all-payer claims (2009-2016) for children aged 0 to 21 years. The sample included 184,794 children with 2 or more claims over 8 years. Generalized estimating equations modeled the outcome of child attribution to a FP practice annually, with covariates for calendar year, child age, sex, insurance, and child Rural Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) category.
Over time, controlling for other covariates, children were 5% less likely to be attributed to a FP practice (P <.001). Children had greater odds of attribution to a FP practice as they aged (odds ratio (OR) = 1.11, 95% CI, 1.10-1.11), if they were female (OR = 1.05, 95% CI, 1.03-1.07) or had Medicaid (OR = 1.09, 95% CI, 1.07-1.10). Compared with urban children, those from large rural cities (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.51-1.57), small rural towns (OR = 1.45, 95% CI, 1.42-1.48), or isolated/small rural towns (OR = 1.96, 95% CI, 1.93-2.00) had greater odds of FP attribution. When stratified by RUCA, however, children had 3% lower odds of attending a FP practice in urban areas and 8% lower odds in isolated/small rural towns.
The declining proportion of children attending FP practices, confirmed in this population-based analysis and more pronounced in rural areas, represents a continuing challenge.
Patient-Physician Agreement in Reporting and Prioritizing Existing Chronic Conditions.Annals of Family Medicine
In this study, we aimed to assess (1) the agreement between patient self-reports and general practitioner (GP) reports of the chronic conditions affecting the patients and (2) the agreement between patients and GPs on health priorities in a primary care setting.
Patients were recruited in the Parisian area of France by a convenience sample of GPs; eligibility criteria required that the GP was the patient's listed primary care provider for at least 12 months. Participants were asked to report all the patient's current chronic conditions by using a previously developed list of 124 chronic conditions and write a list of up to 3 priority conditions.
From April to May 2017, 233 patients were recruited from 16 GP practices. Agreement between the number of conditions reported by patients and by GPs was moderate (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.59, 95% CI, 0.50 to 0.69). Agreement between patient self-reports and GP reports of each chronic condition ranged from very good (eg, κ = 0.85 for hypothyroidism) to poor (eg, κ = 0.12 for chronic anxiety disorder). Among the 153 patient-GP pairs for which both the patient and GP wrote a priority list, 45 (29.4%) of patients' first priorities did not appear anywhere on the corresponding GPs' lists, and 19 (12.4%) pairs had no matching priority condition.
Agreement between patients and their GPs varied widely depending on the diseases reported. Low agreement on health priorities suggests a need for improvement to ensure better alignment between patient and physician perspectives.
Diagnostic Accuracy of a Smartphone-Operated, Single-Lead Electrocardiography Device for Detection of Rhythm and Conduction Abnormalities in Primary Care.Annals of Family Medicine
To validate a smartphone-operated, single-lead electrocardiography (1L-ECG) device (AliveCor KardiaMobile) with an integrated algorithm for atrial fibrillation (AF) against 12-lead ECG (12L-ECG) in a primary care population.
We recruited consecutive patients who underwent 12L-ECG for any nonacute indication. Patients held a smartphone with connected 1L-ECG while local personnel simultaneously performed 12L-ECG. All 1L-ECG recordings were assessed by blinded cardiologists as well as by the smartphone-integrated algorithm. The study cardiologists also assessed all 12L-recordings in random order as the reference standard. We determined the diagnostic accuracy of the 1L-ECG in detecting AF or atrial flutter (AFL) as well as any rhythm abnormality and any conduction abnormality with the simultaneously performed 12L-ECG as the reference standard.
We included 214 patients from 10 Dutch general practices. Mean ± SD age was 64.1 ± 14.7 years, and 53.7% of the patients were male. The 12L-ECG diagnosed AF/AFL, any rhythm abnormality, and any conduction abnormality in 23, 44, and 28 patients, respectively. The 1L-ECG as assessed by cardiologists had a sensitivity and specificity for AF/AFL of 100% (95% CI, 85.2%-100%) and 100% (95% CI, 98.1%-100%). The AF detection algorithm had a sensitivity and specificity of 87.0% (95% CI, 66.4%-97.2%) and 97.9% (95% CI, 94.7%-99.4%). The 1L-ECG as assessed by cardiologists had a sensitivity and specificity for any rhythm abnormality of 90.9% (95% CI, 78.3%-97.5%) and 93.5% (95% CI, 88.7%-96.7%) and for any conduction abnormality of 46.4% (95% CI, 27.5%-66.1%) and 100% (95% CI, 98.0%-100%).
In a primary care population, a smartphone-operated, 1L-ECG device showed excellent diagnostic accuracy for AF/AFL and good diagnostic accuracy for other rhythm abnormalities. The 1L-ECG device was less sensitive for conduction abnormalities.
Associations of Subjective Memory Complaints and Simple Memory Task Scores With Future Dementia in the Primary Care Setting.Annals of Family Medicine
Family physicians need simple yet comprehensive algorithms to discriminate between community-dwelling older persons who are at increased risk of dementia and those who are not. We aimed to investigate associations between incident dementia and responses to a single question regarding subjective memory complaints (SMC) combined with scores on 2 simple memory tests that are easy to use in the primary care setting.
Analyses were based on data from 3,454 community-dwelling older persons who participated in the 6- to 8-year Prevention of Dementia by Intensive Vascular Care (preDIVA) trial, yielding 21,341 person-years of observation. Participants were considered a single cohort. We used Cox models to assess separate and combined associations of SMC, an imperfect score on the Mini-Mental State Examination delayed recall item (MMSE-5), and an imperfect score on the Visual Association Test (VAT) with future dementia.
Subjective memory complaints alone were associated with future dementia (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.01; 95% CI, 2.31-3.94; P <.001), as were the MMSE-5 (HR = 2.14; 95% CI, 1.59-2.87; P <.001) and VAT (HR = 3.19; 95% CI, 2.46-4.13; P <.001) scores. After a median follow-up of 6.7 years, the occurrence of dementia ranged from 4% to 30% among persons with SMC, depending on the MMSE-5 and VAT scores. These test scores did not substantially alter the association with future dementia for persons without SMC.
In persons with SMC, the strength of the association between future dementia and an imperfect MMSE-5 score depends substantially on the VAT score.
Potential for Reducing Time to Referral for Colorectal Cancer Patients in Primary Care.Annals of Family Medicine
An optimal diagnostic process in primary care is pivotal for reducing cancer-related disease burden. This study aims to explore reasons for long times to referral for Dutch colorectal cancer (CRC) patients in primary care.
A retrospective cohort study of anonymized free-text primary care records from the Julius General Practitioners' Network database, linked to the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Patients with a confirmed CRC diagnosis from 2007 through 2011 that symptomatically presented in primary care were included. Median time and interquartile ranges from presentation in primary care to referral were calculated for multiple patient and presentation characteristics. Associations of these characteristics with long time to referral (75th percentile was ≥59 days) were examined with log-binomial regression analyses. Routes to referral of patients with the longest times to referral were explored using thematic free-text analyses (90th percentile at ≥219 days).
Among the 309 people with CRC, patients who were female, did not have a registered family history, had a history of malignancy, lacked alarm symptoms at presentation, or had hemorrhoids at physical examination were at risk for longer time to referral in univariable analyses (longer median durations and/or univariable association with the 75th percentile). Only presentation without alarm symptoms showed a statistically significant association with long duration (75th percentile) in multivariable analysis (relative risk = 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.6). Thematic exploration of the diagnostic routes to referral of patients with the longest durations (90th percentile) showed 2 dominating themes: "alternative working diagnosis" and "suboptimal diagnostic strategies," and included the sub-themes "omitting to reconsider an initial diagnosis" and "lacking follow-up."
Long time to referral for CRC in primary care is mainly related to low cancer suspicion. There is potential for reducing the longest times to referral for patients with CRC in primary care, with earlier reconsideration of the initial hypothesis and implementation of strict follow-up consultations.
Professional Communication Networks and Job Satisfaction in Primary Care Clinics.Annals of Family Medicine
Whereas communication among health care professionals plays an important role in providing the best quality of care for primary care patients, little evidence exists regarding how professional communication contributes to job satisfaction among health care providers, including physicians and clinical staff, in primary care clinics. This study evaluates the extent to which professional communication networks contribute to job satisfaction among health care professionals in primary care clinics.
A total of 143 health care professionals, including physicians and clinical staff, at 5 US primary care clinics participated in a cross-sectional survey on their communication connections regarding patient care with other care team members and their job satisfaction. Social network analysis calculated core-periphery measures to identify individuals located in a dense cohesive core and in a sparse, loosely connected periphery in the communication network. Generalized linear mixed modeling related core-periphery position of clinic employees in the communication network to job satisfaction, after adjusting for job title, sex, number of years working at the clinic, and percent full-time employment.
Average job satisfaction was 5.8 on a scale of 1 to 7. Generalized linear mixed modeling showed that individuals who were in the core of the communication network had significantly greater job satisfaction than those who were on the periphery. Female physicians had lesser overall job satisfaction than other clinic employees.
Interventions targeting professional communication networks might improve health care employee job satisfaction at primary care clinics.
Interventions Addressing Food Insecurity in Health Care Settings: A Systematic Review.Annals of Family Medicine
Based on the recognition that food insecurity (FI) is associated with poor health across the life course, many US health systems are actively exploring ways to help patients access food resources. This review synthesizes findings from studies examining the effects of health care-based interventions designed to reduce FI.
We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature published from January 2000 through September 2018 that described health care- based FI interventions. Standardized mean differences (SMD) were calculated and pooled when appropriate. Study quality was rated using Grading Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation criteria.
Twenty-three studies met the inclusion criteria and examined a range of FI interventions and outcomes. Based on study design and sample size, 74% were rated low or very low quality. Studies of referral-based interventions reported moderate increases in patient food program referrals (SMD = 0.67, 95% CI, 0.36-0.98; SMD = 1.42, 95% CI, 0.76-2.08) and resource use (pooled SMD = 0.54, 95% CI, 0.31-0.78). Studies describing interventions providing food or vouchers reported mixed results for the actual change in fruit/vegetable intake, averaging to no impact when pooled (-0.03, 95% CI, -0.66 to 0.61). Few studies evaluated health or utilization outcomes; these generally reported small but positive effects.
Although a growing base of literature explores health care-based FI interventions, the low number and low quality of studies limit inferences about their effectiveness. More rigorous evaluation of FI interventions that includes health and utilization outcomes is needed to better understand roles for the health care sector in addressing FI.
Characteristics of Case Management in Primary Care Associated With Positive Outcomes for Frequent Users of Health Care: A Systematic Review.Annals of Family Medicine
Case management (CM) interventions are effective for frequent users of health care services, but little is known about which intervention characteristics lead to positive outcomes. We sought to identify characteristics of CM that yield positive outcomes among frequent users with chronic disease in primary care.
For this systematic review of both quantitative and qualitative studies, we searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, and PsycINFO (1996 to September 2017) and included articles meeting the following criteria: (1)population: adult frequent users with chronic disease, (2)intervention: CM in a primary care setting with a postintervention evaluation, and (3)primary outcomes: integration of services, health care system use, cost, and patient outcome measures. Independent reviewers screened abstracts, read full texts, appraised methodologic quality (Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool), and extracted data from the included studies. Sufficient and necessary CM intervention characteristics were identified using configurational comparative methods.
Of the 10,687 records retrieved, 20 studies were included; 17 quantitative, 2 qualitative, and 1 mixed methods study. Analyses revealed that it is necessary to identify patients most likely to benefit from a CM intervention for CM to produce positive outcomes. High-intensity intervention or the presence of a multidisciplinary/interorganizational care plan was also associated with positive outcomes.
Policy makers and clinicians should focus on their case-finding processes because this is the essential characteristic of CM effectiveness. In addition, value should be placed on high-intensity CM interventions and developing care plans with multiple types of care providers to help improve patient outcomes.
Addressing Health Disparities Through Voter Engagement.Annals of Family Medicine
Although the public's essential capacity for self-rule in the United States lies in the power of the ballot, there exist many barriers to voting, p...