The latest medical research on Podiatry

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about podiatry gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Treatment Of Ingrown Toenail with a Minimally Invasive Nail Fixator: Comparative Study with Winograd Technique.

Am Podiatry Assoc

Many surgical techniques have been reported for the treatment of ingrown toenails. Occurrences of infection after matricectomy procedures could cause clinicians to prefer using external braces to treat ingrown toenails. This study compares patients with ingrown toenails who underwent the nail fixation technique and the Winograd technique.

Patients who underwent ingrown toenail surgery were retrospectively reviewed. The patients' demographic characteristics (age, gender, body mass index [BMI] morphology according to Heifetz classification, surgical technique, visual analog scale (VAS) values, time to return to daily activities (days), complications, and satisfaction levels were all recorded.

Seventy patients were included in the study. Of the patients, 33 underwent nail fixation and 37 underwent the Winograd technique. No significant statistical differences were found in terms of patients' age, gender, BMI, preoperative clinical features, long-term satisfaction, and ingrown toenail recurrence rates between the two groups, but time to return to daily activities and VAS values were statistically significantly lower in patients treated using nail fixation compared with the Winograd technique.

Nail fixation can be an effective surgical treatment option for an ingrown toenail.

Diagnostic Value of Lateral Ankle Radiography in Achilles Tendon Rupture.

Foot and Ankle International

Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) is a common sports injury, but approximately 20% of acute ATR cases are misdiagnosed as ankle sprains at first presentation. This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic value of lateral ankle radiography in the diagnosis of acute ATR.

This was a retrospective case-control study in which the lateral ankle radiographs of patients who presented to the emergency department between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2019 were examined. The study included a total of 154 patients with acute ATR, who underwent lateral ankle radiography at the presentation and were surgically or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed to have ATR in our hospital. The lateral ankle radiographs of the patients were examined by 2 clinicians blinded to clinical data for the following 3 findings: Kager's fat pad sign, tibio-first metatarsal angle, and tibiocalcaneal angle. The same procedure was repeated for 308 controls who underwent lateral ankle radiography and were diagnosed with ankle sprain.

Kager's fat pad sign was detected in 133 (86.4%) of the 154 patients with ATR and 26 (8.4%) of the 308 patients in the control group. The Kager's fat pad sign, tibio-first metatarsal angle, and tibiocalcaneal angle sensitivity values for the diagnosis of ATR were 86.4%, 61.7%, and 65.6%, respectively, and their specificity values were 91.6%, 78.9%, and 56.2%, respectively. Interobserver reliability was determined to be good for all 3 radiographic findings.

Clinicians should be particularly aware of Kager's fat pad sign when examining lateral ankle radiographs for ankle injury.

Level IV: Case control study.

Incidental Finding of Plantar Plate Pathology on Routine Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Foot and Ankle.

Foot and Ankle International

We hypothesized that there would be a comparable and high incidence of an incidental torn plantar plate on routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in asymptomatic patients.

We included adult patients undergoing a foot MRI from 2019 to 2020. Based on the documented reason for MRI, patients were divided into symptomatic and asymptomatic. A separate musculoskeletal radiologist re-evaluated MRI images. Findings were categorized as "torn vs intact." We also used the anatomical grading system (AGS).

We reviewed 218 records, including 165 asymptomatic and 53 symptomatic patients. The chance of finding a plantar plate (PP) tear on MRI of symptomatic patients was 28% (21% in PP2, 5.7% in PP3, 5.7% in PP4, and 2% in PP5), while PP tear in asymptomatic patients was only apparent in 2% of MRIs (1.5% in PP2, 0 in PP3, 0 in PP4, and 0.6% in PP5). Cohen's kappa coefficient was 0.92, showing excellent agreement between the radiologists. Odds calculation revealed that the chance of finding a torn PP in an asymptomatic patient is 2.5%. In comparison, the chance of finding an intact PP in a symptomatic patient is 72%, showing 2.5 times more likely to find an intact PP than a torn PP in symptomatic individuals.

Interestingly, there was a low rate of abnormal PP appearance on MRI in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, which suggests that the chance of finding a false-positive PP tear in an asymptomatic patient is minimal and probably negligible.

Level IV diagnostic.

Distal Fibula Fractures-Intramedullary Fixation Versus Plating: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Control Trials.

Foot and Ankle International

The aim of the present study is to compare the functional scores and complications of intramedullary fixation versus plate osteosynthesis of distal fibular fractures in adults.

Study was performed in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses format from MEDLINE, Embase, Ovid, and Cochrane databases. The included articles were assessed according to the risk of bias assessment tool by Cochrane collaboration.

A total of 5 randomized control trials were included for quantitative review. Random sequence generation and allocation concealment of the study subjects were the strengths of all the included studies. There was high heterogeneity among the included studies (I2 > 75%). There was no significant difference between the Olerud-Molander scores in both the groups but the trend favored the intramedullary nailing of distal fibula (mean difference of 3.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] of 8.90). Complications were significantly lesser in the intramedullary group across the studies (odds ratio 0.26, 95% CI of 0.81).

Intramedullary nailing of fibula with the use of modern locking fibular nails is an alternative to fibular plating for unstable distal fibular fractures in properly selected cases. There remains the need for standardizing the method of operative treatment of distal fibular fractures which can be done by a well-planned large-scale prospective study design.

Level 1.

Intermediate to Long-Term Follow-up of the Salto Talaris Fixed-Bearing Total Ankle Prosthesis.

Foot and Ankle International

Total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) remains a viable option for recalcitrant, end-stage ankle arthritis. Among the various Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved prosthetic options is the fixed-bearing Salto Talaris implant. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intermediate to long-term clinical outcomes and radiographic complications following implantation of the Salto Talaris TAA.

Nineteen Salto Talaris total ankle implants were included in the present retrospective study. Medical records were reviewed to determine pre- and postoperative visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores, and both medical records and radiographs were utilized to assess for complications. Telephone interviews were then conducted to assess for overall patient satisfaction.

At a mean follow of 6.9 years (range, 3.5-12 years), there was a 21% complication rate according to the classification system described by Glazebrook et al. The reoperation rate was low at 10.5%, and there was 100% survivorship of the total ankle implant. The average pain decreased from 9.1 (range, 7-10) preoperatively to 2.6 (range, 0-10) postoperatively. Patients reported a 95% satisfaction rate, and 16% of patients reported using a brace postoperatively.

The Salto Talaris arthroplasty was associated with low complication and reoperation rates, and a high survivorship at intermediate to long-term follow-up.


Direct Plantar Approach to Plantar Plate Repair and Associated Wound Complications.

Foot and Ankle International

Lesser toe metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) instability, secondary to plantar plate tear, has been the focus of numerous recent publications, the majority reporting on repair through a dorsal approach. A plantar approach has been described with the advantage of direct ligamentous repair or repair to bone, which follows conventional techniques employed throughout the body. Previous clinical studies have shown success in deformity correction and the longevity of both approaches. The proponents of the dorsal approach advocate that indirect repair of the plantar plate avoids perceived risks of complications with a plantar incision without evidence of superior outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of the direct plantar approach to plantar plate repairs (PPRs) by reporting the rate of specific complications in a large clinical series.

This was the institutional review board (IRB) approved retrospective study of 204 PPRs in 185 patients (194 lesser MTP, 10 hallux MTP) with an average age of 56 and a mean body mass index (BMI) of 28. Surgical technique involved repair with absorbable braided suture (88%) versus suture anchor (12%) with or without MTPJ pinning (80%). Mean follow up was 53 weeks (range 5-170). Patients were screened for associated risk factors, including diabetes mellitus (8%), tobacco use (5%), neuropathy (1%), and additional concurrent procedures (96%). Complications were defined as superficial or deep infection, painful scars, and reoperation. Analysis was conducted using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test or Fisher's exact tests for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Risk factors were analyzed using univariate logistic analysis to produce odds ratios (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) and an inclusion criterion of a P-value, P > .2 for multivariate analysis as determined by Wald tests (significance at P < .05 for final modeling).

Overall, there were 31 total complications (15%) demonstrated by 14 superficial infections (6.8%) and 17 painful scars (8.3%) along with three reoperations (1.4%). All reoperations were performed for deformity or instability, not scar revision. There were no deep infections. No increased odds of complications were found with suture anchor repair, MTPJ pinning, neuropathy, or diabetes. Patients that used tobacco had 7.5 (CI 1.66, 34.06) the odds of developing any wound complication compared with nonsmokers. Tobacco use was also found to significantly increase the odds of superficial infection by 9.8 (CI 2.08, 46.15). There was no increase in painful scars or reoperation in tobacco users. This study did not find an increased complication rate with additional ipsilateral procedures performed at the time of surgery.

To our knowledge, this is the largest study evaluating the direct plantar approach to PPR as well as the evaluation of associated complications with the plantar incision. With low complication and minimal reoperation rates, the results of this study have demonstrated the clinical viability of plantar-based incisions. Previous studies have demonstrated the success of PPR and correction of deformity with a direct approach. This case series further demonstrates the safety and efficacy of plantar-based incisions, particularly for direct PPRs.

IV Retrospective Case Series.

Lesser Toes.

Utility of Post-Splinting Conventional Radiographs in Adult Patients With Ankle Fractures Presenting to the Emergency Department.

Foot and Ankle International

Post-splinting radiographs are often performed in patients with ankle fractures to identify displacement that potentially occurs during splinting. The objective of this study was to investigate the significance of post-splinting conventional radiographs, with an emphasis on stable ankle fractures, not requiring reduction.

A retrospective study in which all adult patients presenting with ankle fractures to the emergency department of a level 1 trauma center were included. The primary outcome was frequency of displacement at post-splinting radiographs. Secondary outcome was the rate of successful reduction attempts.

A total of 225 patients were included and the majority had a Supination-External Rotation (SER) type 2 or Weber B ankle fracture. One hundred fifty patients (mainly SER 2 fractures [68%] or Weber B [89%] fractures), were treated with a splint without fracture reduction. Post-splinting radiographs in these patients, as well as in all patients with a Supination-Adduction (SA) type 1 and 2 fractures, did not show loss of alignment.

Post-splinting radiographs are probably not necessary in any SA and SER type 2 or Weber A/B ankle fractures without medical clear space widening or need for reduction as no loss of alignment occurred when applying a splint.

IV-Case Series.

Functional Activity After Flatfoot Reconstruction With Lateral Column Lengthening.

Foot and Ankle International

The objective of this study was to evaluate return to activity following flatfoot reconstruction with lateral column lengthening (LCL) by assessing functional postoperative data and identifying patient characteristics associated with poor function following surgery.

Consecutive patients that underwent operative flatfoot correction including LCL and other necessary procedures from 2014 to 2019 by 3 fellowship trained foot and ankle orthopedic surgeons were retrospectively administered Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and FAAM Sports questionnaires with no preoperative scoring available. Patient demographic factors, comorbidities, and radiographic features were evaluated as predictors of outcome scores to simulate return to activity. Statistical analysis, including student's t-tests and analysis of variance, was performed.

A total of 54 patients were included. A body mass index (BMI) of 30 kg/m2 or greater was associated with a lower ADL score (P = .002) and Sports score (P = .002). Preoperative hindfoot valgus of 9° or higher was associated with higher ADL scores (P = .040). Neither age nor any flatfoot radiographic parameters yielded significant differences in functional scores.

This study demonstrated relatively high average FAAM scores in both the ADL and the sports subscales, consistent with previous studies. This study also identified lower BMI and greater preoperative hindfoot valgus as potential predictors of improved functional outcome following reconstruction.

Level III: Retrospective case control.

Intraosseous Technique for Correction of Hammertoe Deformity.

Am Podiatry Assoc

Hammertoe deformities are among the most common conditions treated by foot and ankle surgeons. Many different types of proximal interphalangeal joi...

Tension Band Suture Fixation of Fifth Metatarsal Tuberosity Fracture: A Case Report.

Am Podiatry Assoc

Tuberosity fractures of the fifth metatarsal are common. The majority of these fractures are treated nonoperatively with good outcome. Surgery is i...

Surgical Treatment of Plantar First Metatarsal Ulcerations in High-Risk Patients: A Case Series.

Am Podiatry Assoc

Plantar first metatarsal ulcerations pose a difficult challenge to clinicians. Etiologies vary and include first metatarsal declination, cavus foot deformity, equinus contracture, and hallux limitus/rigidus. Our pragmatic, sequential approach to the multiple contributing etiologies of increased plantar pressure sub-first metatarsal can be addressed through minimal skin incisions.

A retrospective review was performed for patients with surgically treated preulcerations or ulcerations sub-first metatarsal head. All of the patients underwent a dorsiflexory wedge osteotomy, and the need for each additional procedure was independently assessed. Equinus contracture was treated with Achilles tendon lengthening, cavovarus deformity was mitigated with Steindler stripping, and plantarflexed first ray was treated with dorsiflexory wedge osteotomy.

Eight patients underwent our pragmatic, sequential approach for increased plantar pressure sub-first metatarsal, four with preoperative ulcerations and four with preoperative hyperkeratotic preulcerative lesions. The preoperative ulcerations were present for an average of 25.43 weeks (range, 6.00-72.86 weeks), with an average size of 0.19 cm3 (median, 0.04 cm3). Procedure breakdown was as follows: eight first metatarsal osteotomies, four Achilles tendon lengthenings, and six Steindler strippings. Postoperatively, all eight patients returned to full ambulation, and the four ulcerations healed at an average of 24 days (range, 15-38 days). New ulceration occurred in one patient, and postoperative infection occurred in one patient. There were no ulceration recurrences, dehiscence of surgical sites, or minor or major amputations.

The outcomes in patients surgically treated for increased plantar first metatarsal head pressure were evaluated. This case series demonstrates that our pragmatic, sequential approach yields positive results. In diabetic or high-risk patients, it is our treatment algorithm of choice for increased plantar first metatarsal pressure.

An Unusual Pediatric Manifestation of the Herpes Simplex Virus.

Am Podiatry Assoc

Herpetic whitlow is a viral infection of the fingers or toes caused by the herpes simplex virus. Herpes simplex virus is a common pathogen that cau...