The latest medical research on Cardiothoracic Surgery

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about cardiothoracic surgery gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Different aortic arch surgery methods for type A aortic dissection: clinical outcomes and follow-up results.

Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery

The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical outcomes and follow-up results among 5 main aortic arch surgery methods for type A aortic dissection in a single centre.

From 2002 to 2018, 958 type A aortic dissection patients who received surgical repair were divided into 5 groups according to the arch surgery method: hemiarch replacement (n = 206), island arch replacement (n = 54), total arch replacement with frozen elephant trunk (n = 425), triple-branched stent (n = 39) and fenestrated stent (n = 234). The indications for the different arch methods were related to the patient's preoperative status, the location and extent of the dissection and the surgical ability of the surgeons. A comparative study was performed to identify the differences in the perioperative data, and the Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess the long-term survival and reintervention rates. Thirty matched surviving patients that were included in each group completed Computed tomography angiography to determine long-term reshaping effect.

The 30-day mortality rate was 15.8%, and there was no difference among the 5 groups (P = 0.848). The follow-up survival rates were similar among the 5 groups (P = 0.130), and the same was true for patients without reintervention (P = 0.471). In the propensity matching study, patients with stents (frozen elephant trunk, triple-branched stent, fenestrated stent) had a slower aortic dilation rate and a higher ratio of thrombosis in the false lumen at the descending aortic and abdominal aortic levels than patients without stents.

No standard method is available for arch surgery, and indications and long-term effects should be identified with clinical data. In our experiences, simpler surgical procedures could reduce mortality in critically ill patients and stents in the distal aorta could improve long-term reshape effects.

A 0.6-protamine/heparin ratio in cardiac surgery is associated with decreased transfusion of blood products.

Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery

In cardiac surgery, adequate heparinization is necessary to prevent thrombus formation in the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). To counteract the heparin effect after weaning from CPB, protamine is administered. The optimal protamine/heparin ratio is still unknown.

In this before-after study, we evaluated the effect of a 0.6/1-protamine/heparin ratio implementation as of May 2017 versus a 0.8/1-protamine/heparin ratio on the 12-h postoperative blood loss and the amount of blood and blood component transfusions (fresh frozen plasma, packed red blood cells, fibrinogen concentrate, platelet concentrate and prothrombin complex concentrate) after cardiac surgery. A total of 2051 patients who underwent cardiac surgery requiring CPB between May 2016 and May 2018 were included.

In the 0.6/1-protamine/heparin ratio group, only 28.8% of the patients received blood component transfusion, compared to 37.9% of the patients in the 0.8/1-ratio group (P < 0.001). The median 12-h postoperative blood loss was 230 ml (interquartile range 140-320) in the 0.6/1-ratio group versus 260 ml (interquartile range 155-365) in the 0.8/1-ratio group (P < 0.001).

A 0.6/1-protamine/heparin ratio after weaning from CPB is associated with a significantly reduced 12-h postoperative blood loss and blood components transfusion.

Early outcomes in 147 consecutive cases of subxiphoid single-port thymectomy and evaluation of learning curves.

European Journal of Heart Failure

The aim of the present study was to examine some initial results and learning curves concerning subxiphoid single-port thymectomy (SSPT), thereby clarifying the safety of this surgical approach and describing the precautions for adopting it.

From March 2011 to August 2019, a total of 203 patients underwent thymectomy for either anterior mediastinal tumours or myasthenia gravis at Fujita Health University Hospital. Of these 203 patients, 147 patients who had undergone SSPT were selected as participants for the present study.

Of the 147 cases, transition to a different approach was required in three (2.0%) cases: two (1.3%) cases transitioned to median sternotomy, whereas one (0.7%) case transitioned to the side chest trans-intercostal approach. The two cases that transitioned to median sternotomy were the second cases for different operators after they began performing this technique. There were six (4.0%) cases with complications and no deaths. The operation time cumulative summation learning curve analysis revealed that the curves descended from the 38th case. In the 83 cases handled by one surgeon, the learning curves descended from the 31st case.

SSPT is a safe modality with few complications and no associated cases of mortality reported. Operators are required to experience 31-38 cases until the operation time for SSPT was stabilized. Special care should be exercised to prevent vascular damage in the vicinity of the innominate veins during the early stages after SSPT introduction.

The midterm results of thoracic endovascular aortic repair with a precurved fenestrated endograft in zone 0-1.

European Journal of Heart Failure

Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) for the treatment of aortic arch disease remains challenging due to certain anatomical and haemodynamic features. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the midterm results of TEVAR with a second-generation fenestrated endograft for aortic arch disease.

This non-randomized, interventional study was part of a multicentre clinical trial conducted between 2010 and 2011 and was designed to assess the effectiveness of a second-generation precurved fenestrated endograft for aortic arch disease. Midterm data collected during the fifth postoperative year from 205 patients treated with this endograft with the proximal landing of zone 0 or 1 were assessed regarding survival, reoperation and complications.

The initial and technical success rates were 94% and 91%, respectively. Ninety-seven percent of patients were treated using zone 0. The rate of in-hospital deaths was 3%. Overall survival was 71% at 5 years; thoracic aorta-related death-free survival rates at 1 and 5 years after surgery were 99.5% and 97.8%, respectively. Aneurysm-related event-free survival rates at 1 and 5 years after surgery were 86.8% and 77.1%, respectively. Reoperation-free survival rates at 5 years were 86.6%. The most frequent reason for reoperation was type Ia endoleak (5%), followed by type II endoleak (2%). Incidences of cerebral infarction, device migration, spinal cord ischaemia and supra-aortic branch stenosis were 6%, 1%, 1% and 1%, respectively.

The precurved fenestrated endograft provided appropriate conformability to the aortic arch and made zone 0 landing possible with simplified, less-invasive manipulations. The midterm results of TEVAR with this endograft suggest this method is a valuable endovascular treatment option for aortic arch disease.

UMIN000007213.

Uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic carinal resections: technical aspects and outcomes.

European Journal of Heart Failure

Important benefits in uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) for lung cancer have recently been achieved. However, the use of this technique for complex sleeve procedures is limited. We describe the technical aspects of and patient outcomes following carinal resections using uniportal VATS.

Since 2015, 16 sleeve carinal resections, including 11 right pneumonectomies, 4 right upper lobectomies and 1 lung-sparing carinal resection, have been performed at the Regional Clinic Hospital, Tyumen, Russia.

The mean surgical time was 215.9 ± 67.2 min (range 125-340 min). The mean blood loss volume was 256.3 ± 284.5 ml (range 50-1200 ml). There was 1 case of conversion to thoracotomy. The morbidity rate was 25%, and the mortality rate was 0%. The median overall survival was 38.6 ± 3.5 months.

The use of uniportal VATS for carinal resections in certain patients allows for radical resections with low rates of morbidity and mortality.

Two-step treatment of dysphagia lusoria: robotic-assisted resection of aberrant right subclavian artery following aortic debranching.

European Journal of Heart Failure

A 69-year-old female suffering from severe dysphagia due to an aberrant right subclavian artery was treated with a two-step approach. A right carot...

Robotic-assisted single-incision gastric mobilization for minimally invasive oesophagectomy for oesophageal cancer: preliminary results.

European Journal of Heart Failure

With the gradual acceptance of robotic-assisted surgery to treat oesophageal cancer and the application of a single-port approach in several abdominal procedures, we adopted a single-port technique in robotic-assisted minimally invasive oesophagectomy during the abdominal phase for gastric mobilization and abdominal lymph node dissection.

Robotic-assisted oesophagectomy and mediastinal lymph node dissection in the chest were followed by robotic-assisted gastric mobilization and conduit creation with abdominal lymph node dissection, which were performed via a periumbilicus single incision. The oesophagogastrostomy was accomplished either in the chest (Ivor Lewis procedure) or neck (McKeown procedure) depending on the status of the proximal resection margin.

The procedure was successfully performed on 11 patients with oesophageal cancer from January 2017 to December 2018 in our institute. No surgical or in-hospital deaths occurred, though we had one case each of anastomotic leakage, pneumonia and hiatal hernia (9%).

Robotic single-incision gastric mobilization for minimally invasive oesophagectomy for treating oesophageal cancer seems feasible. Its value in terms of perioperative outcome and long-term survival results awaits future evaluation.

Subxiphoid uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic pulmonary segmentectomy: effect of learning curve and future perspectives.

European Journal of Heart Failure

Subxiphoid uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic segmentectomy (SU-VATs) has been widely adopted because it is associated with better postoperative pain scores. Nevertheless, it also has had some limitations that have gradually been decreasing. Therefore, our goal was to evaluate the change in perioperative results with SU-VATs as the learning curve developed to outline the current status and the points that should be of future concern.

Three hundred patients who underwent SU-VATs from September 2014 to May 2018 were divided chronologically into 2 groups; group 1 comprised the first 150 cases and group 2 comprised the last 150 cases. Different perioperative variables were analysed and compared between the 2 groups. In addition, the cumulative sum analysis and multivariable logistic regression were conducted to identify the cut-off point and predictors of significant improvement in operative time.

The cumulative sum analysis showed significant improvement in the operative time after the 148th case. Group 2 showed a statistically significant decrease in operative time (104.3 ± 36.7 vs 132 ± 43.1 min; P < 0.001), amount of operative blood loss [50 (80 ml) vs 100 (50 ml); P < 0.001], chest drain duration (2.6 ± 1.6 vs 3.2 ± 1.4 days; P = 0.004) and hospital stay (3.7 ± 1.7 vs 4.2 ± 1.7 days; P = 0.008). The number of dissected lymph nodes was significantly higher in the second group [11 (4) vs 9 (4); P < 0.001].

Limitations of SU-VATs are being overcome by the improvement in the learning curve and in the expertise of the surgeons. Our future concerns should focus on examining the long-term survival rate, the oncological efficacy and the effect on quality of life.

Association of Medicaid Expansion Under the Affordable Care Act With Breast Cancer Stage at Diagnosis.

JAMA Surgery

The expansion of Medicaid sought to fill gaps in insurance coverage among low-income Americans. Although coverage has improved, little is known about the relationship between Medicaid expansion and breast cancer stage at diagnosis.

To review the association of Medicaid expansion with breast cancer stage at diagnosis and the disparities associated with insurance status, age, and race/ethnicity.

This cohort study used data from the National Cancer Database to characterize the relationship between breast cancer stage and race/ethnicity, age, and insurance status. Data from 2007 to 2016 were obtained, and breast cancer stage trends were assessed. Additionally, preexpansion years (2012-2013) were compared with postexpansion years (2015-2016) to assess Medicaid expansion in 2014. Data were analyzed from August 12, 2019, to January 19, 2020. The cohort included a total of 1 796 902 patients with primary breast cancer who had private insurance, Medicare, or Medicaid or were uninsured across 45 states.

Percent change of uninsured patients with breast cancer and stage at diagnosis, stratified by insurance status, race/ethnicity, age, and state.

This study included a total of 1 796 902 women. Between 2012 and 2016, 71 235 (4.0%) were uninsured or had Medicaid. Among all races/ethnicities, in expansion states, there was a reduction in uninsured patients from 22.6% (4771 of 21 127) to 13.5% (2999 of 22 150) (P < .001), and in nonexpansion states, there was a reduction from 36.5% (5431 of 14 870) to 35.6% (4663 of 13 088) (P = .12). Across all races, there was a reduction in advanced-stage disease from 21.8% (4603 of 21 127) to 19.3% (4280 of 22 150) (P < .001) in expansion states compared with 24.2% (3604 of 14 870) to 23.5% (3072 of 13 088) (P = .14) in nonexpansion states. In African American patients, incidence of advanced disease decreased from 24.6% (1017 of 4136) to 21.6% (920 of 4259) (P < .001) in expansion states and remained at approximately 27% (27.4% [1220 of 4453] to 27.5% [1078 of 3924]; P = .94) in nonexpansion states. Further analysis suggested that the improvement was associated with a reduction in stage 3 diagnoses.

In this cohort study, expansion of Medicaid was associated with a reduced number of uninsured patients and a reduced incidence of advanced-stage breast cancer. African American patients and patients younger than 50 years experienced particular benefit. These data suggest that increasing access to health care resources may alter the distribution of breast cancer stage at diagnosis.

Engagement and Effectiveness of a Smoking Cessation Quitline Intervention in a Thoracic Surgery Clinic.

JAMA Surgery

Smoking quitline programs effectively promote smoking cessation in outpatient primary care settings.

To examine the factors associated with smoking quitline engagement and smoking cessation among patients undergoing thoracic surgery who consented to a quitline electronic referral.

A retrospective cohort study was conducted from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2018, among 111 active smoking patients referred to the quitline from a thoracic surgery outpatient clinic visit. Patients were divided into operative and nonoperative cohorts.

Primary outcomes were engagement rates in the quitline program and successful smoking cessation. Secondary outcomes were self-reported point prevalence abstinence at 1 month and 6 months after the smoking quit date.

Of 111 patients (62 men; mean [SD] age, 61.8 [11.2] years) who had a quitline referral, 58 (52%) underwent surgery, and 32 of these 58 patients (55%) participated in the program. Of the 53 nonoperative patients (48%), 24 (45%) participated in the program. In the operative cohort, there was no difference in the smoking cessation rate between quitline participants and nonparticipants (21 of 32 [66%] vs 16 of 6 [62%]; P = .79) or in point prevalence abstinence at 1 month (23 of 32 [72%] vs 14 of 25 [56%]; P = .27) or 6 months (14 of 28 [50%] vs 6 of 18 [33%]; P = .36). Similarly, in the nonoperative cohort, there was no difference in the smoking cessation rate between quitline participants and nonparticipants (8 of 24 [33%] vs 11 of 29 [38%]; P = .78) or in point prevalence abstinence at 1 month (7 of 24 [29%] vs 8 of 27 [30%]; P = .99) or 6 months (6 of 23 [26%] vs 6 of 25 [24%]; P = .99). Regardless of quitline participation, operative patients had a 1.8-fold higher proportion of successful smoking cessation compared with nonoperative patients (37 of 58 [64%] vs 19 of 53 [36%]; P = .004) as well as a 2.2-fold higher proportion of 1-month point prevalence abstinence (37 of 57 [65%] vs 15 of 51 [29%]; P < .001) and a 1.8-fold higher proportion of 6-month point prevalence abstinence (20 of 45 [44%] vs 12 of 48 [25%]; P = .05). Having surgery doubled the odds of smoking cessation (odds ratio, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.06-5.64; P = .04) and quitline engagement tripled the odds of remaining smoke free at 6 months (odds ratio, 3.57; 95% CI, 1.03-12.38; P = .04).

Patients undergoing thoracic surgery were nearly twice as likely to quit smoking as those who did not have an operation, and smoking quitline participation further augmented point prevalence abstinence. Improved smoking cessation rates, even among nonoperative patients, were associated with appropriate outpatient counseling and intervention.

Prosthesis-patient mismatch after surgical aortic valve replacement in patients with aortic stenosis.

Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery

The issue of prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) after surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) has been a controversial topic. We sought to evaluate the long-term clinical impacts of PPM in patients undergoing SAVR in an updated, homogeneous cohort.

Using the prospective institutional database, we identified 895 adult patients (median age 66, interquartile range 58-72; 45.6% women) who underwent isolated SAVR from January 2000 to March 2016. Those with pure aortic insufficiency and concomitant other cardiac operations were excluded from this study cohort. The presence of a significant PPM was defined as an indexed effective orifice area 0.85 cm2/m2 or less. The outcome of interest was all-cause deaths. Propensity score matching was performed for adjusting bias.

Significant PPM was present in 247 patients (27.6%). During the follow-up period (mean 71.2 ± 51.04 months), 134 patients (15%) died. Survival rates at 10 and 15 years were 78.3% vs 83.8% and 71.3% vs 57.6% in the PPM and non-PPM groups (P = 0.972). Risk factor analysis indicated that developing PPM was not associated with a risk of death. After propensity score matching (1:1), developing PPM was not a risk factor for long-term death as well (P = 0.584).

Significant PPM was common after SAVR in patients with aortic stenosis. However, there was no significant difference in survival rate between those with and without PPM.

Bare stent removal in open thoraco-abdominal aortic repair after endovascular treatment with the PETTICOAT technique.

Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery

The Provisional Extension to Induce Complete Attachment (PETTICOAT) technique using distal bare stents can enhance the effect of proximal thoracic ...