The latest medical research on Cardiothoracic Surgery

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about cardiothoracic surgery gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Late cardiovascular complication after varicose vein endovascular ablation.

Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery

Venous insufficiency of the lower limbs is one of the most common vascular disorders affecting millions of people worldwide. Endovascular technique...

Testing the clinical validity of the Bemelman Rib Fracture Management Guideline.

Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery

Whilst surgical stabilization of rib fractures (SSRF) results in better outcomes, selection algorithms are lacking. We aimed to validate the Rib Fr...

Aortic valve-sparing root replacement (David): learning curve and impact on outcome.

Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery

Aortic valve-sparing root replacement (David procedure) offers the benefit of preserving the native aortic valve but is often criticized for being technically challenging and time-consuming. We analysed whether the surgeon's level of experience affects the early and long-term outcome after the David procedure.

From July 1993 to October 2015, a total of 582 patients underwent aortic valve-sparing David I procedure at our institution. A retrospective review with follow-up (mean follow-up time 8.6 ± 5.6 years) was performed. Statistical analysis of the surgeon's level of experience was performed as a categorical variable, after patients were chronologically assigned to groups of tens. Study end points assessing the surgeon's learning curve included both measures of patient outcome and measures of task efficiency. Study end points included both short- and long-term outcomes.

Analysis of task efficiency showed that there was a statistically significant inverse correlation between the surgeon's level of experience and both cardiopulmonary bypass time (P = 0.026) and aortic cross-clamp time (P = 0.017). Analysis of patient outcome revealed that the incidence of aortic valve-related reoperation during follow-up showed a significant inverse correlation with the surgeon's level of experience (P = 0.048). Cox regression analysis found that the surgeon's level of experience (odds ratio 0.802, 95% confidence interval 0.673-0.957; P = 0.014) was a significant risk factor for aortic valve-related reoperation-free survival during follow-up.

There is a surgeon's learning curve for aortic valve-sparing David procedure. The surgeon's experience has a direct impact on both the perioperative outcome and the long-term performance of the aortic valve.

Thrombotic risk following video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery versus open thoracotomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery

There is no consensus on the risk of thrombotic events following video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) versus open thoracotomy (OT), despite multiple studies. In fact, the estimates for the overall thrombotic risk for VATS versus OT are inconclusive. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we endeavoured to ascertain the best estimate of thrombotic risk in VATS versus OT.

Relevant studies were searched through PubMed and Cochrane Library database. Outcomes of interests were myocardial infarction (MI), pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Data were pooled using random-effects model. The results were presented as odds ratio (OR) with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI).

Nineteen studies were meta-analysed: 17 observational studies and 2 randomized controlled trials. Using propensity-matched data, in comparison with OT, VATS was associated with a statistically significant, postoperative reduction in MI (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.39-0.91; P = 0.017), DVT/PE (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.44-0.61; P < 0.001), PE (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.43-0.82; P = 0.001) and DVT (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.35-0.64; P < 0.001). Unadjusted data showed no statistical differences for all outcomes. The risk of DVT/PE (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.42-0.72; P < 0.001), but not the other outcomes, remained significantly lower following the exclusion of the sole large study. There is no significant statistical heterogeneity between the included studies.

Overall, the postoperative thrombotic risk following VATS is significantly lower than OT. Further prospective randomized controlled trials with large sample sizes are warranted to corroborate our findings.

Intraoperative identification of major blood supply to Adamkiewicz artery after multistep surgeries in thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery

Herein, we report a case of thoraco-abdominal aortic repair in a 55-year-old man with a multiple treatment history for aortic aneurysm and aortic d...

Improved method for the catheterization of the right ventricle in a rat model of pulmonary artery hypertension.

Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery

Ventricle catheterization in the rat is widely practiced in cardiopulmonary research. The catheters deployed are either fluid filled or solid tip p...

The EACTS simulation-based training course for endoscopic mitral valve repair: an air-pilot training concept in action.

Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery

We have developed a high-fidelity minimally invasive mitral valve surgery (MIMVS) simulator that provides a platform to train skills in an objective and reproducible manner, which has been incorporated in the European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery (EACTS) endoscopic mitral valve repair course. The aim of the study is to provide data on the application of simulation-based training in MIMVS using an air-pilot training concept.

The 2-day EACTS endoscopic mitral training course design was based on backwards chaining, pre- and post-assessment, performance feedback, hands-on training on MIMVS, theoretical content and follow-up. One hundred two participants who completed the full programme throughout 2016-2018 in the EACTS endoscopic mitral training courses were enrolled in the current study.

Of the 102 participants, 83 (83.3%) participants were staff/attending surgeons, 12 (11.8%) participants had finished residency and 5 (4.9%) participants were residents. Theoretical pre- and post-assessment showed that participants scored significantly higher on post-assessment (median score 58% vs 67%, P < 0.001). Pre- and post-assessment of skills on MIMVS showed that participants could work with long-shafted instruments more accurately (suture accuracy 43% vs 99%, P < 0.001) and faster (87 vs 42 s, P < 0.001). Follow-up, based on course evaluation and a survey, had a response rate of 55% (57 participants). Of all surveyed participants, 33.3% (n = 19) had started an endoscopic mitral programme successfully, while 66.7% (n = 38) did not yet start.

The MIMVS is a valuable tool for the development and assessment of endoscopic mitral repair skills. This EACTS course provides surgeons with theoretical knowledge and necessary skills to start an endoscopic mitral valve programme successfully.

Effect of Multimodal Prehabilitation vs Postoperative Rehabilitation on 30-Day Postoperative Complications for Frail Patients Undergoing Resection of Colorectal Cancer: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Surgery

Research supports use of prehabilitation to optimize physical status before and after colorectal cancer resection, but its effect on postoperative complications remains unclear. Frail patients are a target for prehabilitation interventions owing to increased risk for poor postoperative outcomes.

To assess the extent to which a prehabilitation program affects 30-day postoperative complications in frail patients undergoing colorectal cancer resection compared with postoperative rehabilitation.

This single-blind, parallel-arm, superiority randomized clinical trial recruited patients undergoing colorectal cancer resection from September 7, 2015, through June 19, 2019. Patients were followed up for 4 weeks before surgery and 4 weeks after surgery at 2 university-affiliated tertiary hospitals. A total of 418 patients 65 years or older were assessed for eligibility. Of these, 298 patients were excluded (not frail [n = 290], unable to exercise [n = 3], and planned neoadjuvant treatment [n = 5]), and 120 frail patients (Fried Frailty Index,≥2) were randomized. Ten patients were excluded after randomization because they refused surgery (n = 3), died before surgery (n = 3), had no cancer (n = 1), had surgery without bowel resection (n = 1), or were switched to palliative care (n = 2). Hence, 110 patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis (55 in the prehabilitation [Prehab] and 55 in the rehabilitation [Rehab] groups). Data were analyzed from July 25 through August 21, 2019.

Multimodal program involving exercise, nutritional, and psychological interventions initiated before (Prehab group) or after (Rehab group) surgery. All patients were treated within a standardized enhanced recovery pathway.

The primary outcome included the Comprehensive Complications Index measured at 30 days after surgery. Secondary outcomes were 30-day overall and severe complications, primary and total length of hospital stay, 30-day emergency department visits and hospital readmissions, recovery of walking capacity, and patient-reported outcome measures.

Of 110 patients randomized, mean (SD) age was 78 (7) years; 52 (47.3%) were men and 58 (52.7%) were women; 31 (28.2%) had rectal cancer; and 87 (79.1%) underwent minimally invasive surgery. There was no between-group difference in the primary outcome measure, 30-day Comprehensive Complications Index (adjusted mean difference, -3.2; 95% CI, -11.8 to 5.3; P = .45). Secondary outcome measures were also not different between groups.

In frail patients undergoing colorectal cancer resection (predominantly minimally invasive) within an enhanced recovery pathway, a multimodal prehabilitation program did not affect postoperative outcomes. Alternative strategies should be considered to optimize treatment of frail patients preoperatively.

ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02502760.

Association of Early Postdonation Renal Function With Subsequent Risk of End-Stage Renal Disease in Living Kidney Donors.

JAMA Surgery

Living kidney donation is associated with increased long-term risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). An early postdonation marker of ESRD risk could improve postdonation risk assessment and counseling for kidney donors and allow early intervention for donors at increased risk.

To determine the association between renal function in the first 6 months postdonation and subsequent risk of ESRD in kidney donors.

This secondary analysis of a prospective national cohort uses a population-based registry of all living kidney donors in the United States between October 26, 1999, and January 1, 2018, with follow-up through December 31, 2018. All kidney donors who had donated in the date range and had serum creatinine measured at 6 months (±3 months) postdonation were included.

Renal function as measured by estimated glomerular filtration rate 6 months after donation (eGFR6).

End-stage renal disease, ascertained via linkage to Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services data.

A total of 71 468 living kidney donors were included (of 109 065 total donors over this period). Their median (interquartile range) eGFR6 was 63 (54-74) mL/min/1.73 m2. Cumulative incidence of ESRD at 15 years postdonation ranged from 11.7 donors per 10 000 donors with eGFR6 values greater than 70 mL/min/1.73 m2 to 33.1 donors per 10 000 donors with eGFR6 values of 50 mL/min/1.73 m2 or less. Adjusting for age, race, sex, body mass index, and biological relationship, every 10 mL/min/1.73 m2 reduction in eGFR6 was associated with a 28% increased risk of ESRD (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.06-1.54]; P = .009). The association between predonation eGFR and ESRD was not significant and was fully mediated by eGFR6 (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.00 [95% CI, 0.86-1.17]; P = .97). The postdonation eGFR value was a better marker of ESRD than eGFR decline after donation or the ratio of eGFR6 to predonation eGFR, as determined by the Akaike information criterion (in which a lower value indicates a better model fit; eGFR6, 1495.61; predonation eGFR - eGFR6, 1503.58; eGFR6 / predonation eGFR, 1502.30).

In this study, there was an independent association of eGFR6 with subsequent ESRD risk in living kidney donors, even after adjusting for predonation characteristics. The findings support measurement of early postdonation serum creatinine monitoring in living kidney donors, and the use of these data to help identify donors who might need more careful surveillance and early intervention.

Tranexamic acid and convulsive seizures after isolated coronary artery bypass surgery: the role of cardiopulmonary bypass and renal function.

Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery

In cardiac surgical patients, tranexamic acid (TXA) has been associated with an increased risk of convulsive seizure (CS). We aimed to investigate ...

Clinical study of an outbreak of postoperative mediastinitis caused by Serratia marcescens in adult cardiac surgery.

Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery

Nosocomial infection caused by Serratia marcescens after cardiac surgery is rare but causes high rates of morbidity and mortality. Knowledge about postoperative mediastinitis due to S. marcescens is limited. The purpose of this work was to study the clinical presentation, management and outcome of an outbreak of postoperative sternal infection due to S. marcescens.

During a 7-week period, a total of 54 patients underwent open heart procedures in our hospital. A postoperative wound infection caused by S. marcescens was diagnosed in 10 patients. We performed a clinical study to investigate patient characteristics and outcomes as well as the possible source of the infection.

The mean age of the infected patients was 74.5 ± 10 years. Mediastinitis was present in 6 cases, superficial wound infection in 3 and isolated bacteraemia in 1. Purulent exudate through the sternal incision was observed in all infected cases except in 1 patient, who presented only with bacteraemia. Serratia marcescens was isolated from the samples taken from all infected wounds. The mean time elapsed between the operation and the isolation S. marcescens was 5.9 ± 2.4 days. Response to treatment was favourable in all cases except 1, who died. Contamination of the aqueous chlorhexidine solution used to prepare the patients' skin with S. marcescens was reported. Microbiological studies demonstrated that S. marcescens strains isolated from patients and from the aqueous chlorhexidine solution belonged to the same clone.

The use of an aqueous chlorhexidine solution contaminated with S. marcescens caused an outbreak of postoperative sternal wound infections. The time elapsed between wound contamination and signs of infection was brief, but the systemic inflammatory response and tissue necrosis were limited. Alcohol-based solutions are recommended for the prevention of surgical site infections.