The latest medical research on Cardiothoracic Surgery

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about cardiothoracic surgery gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Frozen elephant trunk technique with different proximal landing zone for aortic dissection.

Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery

The objective of the study was to evaluate early and midterm outcomes after the frozen elephant trunk (FET) procedure with different proximal landing zones in patients with aortic dissection.

Forty-four patients with type A and type B aortic dissection that extended down to the abdominal aorta were enrolled in the study. All of the patients had the FET procedure. The patients were divided in 2 groups according to the level of the proximal landing zone: the zone 2 (Z2) group and zone 3 (Z3) group. Early and midterm outcomes including the false lumen (FL) thrombosis rate were monitored in both groups.

The incidence of stroke, delirium and spinal cord ischaemia was 5.9% vs 3.7% (P = 0.533), 5.9% vs 7.4% (P = 0.903) and 5.9% vs 0 (P = 0.533) in the Z2 and Z3 groups, respectively. The 30-day mortality was 9.1% in both groups. The mean distal landing zone was T7.5 (T7; T9) in the Z2 group vs T9 (T8; T10) in the Z3 group (P = 0.668). The 2-year overall survival was 62.2% with no significant difference in the Z2 and Z3 groups (61.6% vs 64.2%; P = 0.940). There were no aortic-related deaths during the follow-up period. Freedom from reintervention at 24 months was 73% and was comparable between Z2 and Z3 (74.1% vs 91.7%; P = 0.123). The rate of early complete FL thrombosis was comparable in the Z2 and Z3 groups. By 24 months of observation in the Z3 group, the rate of complete FL thrombosis was significantly higher (60% vs 77%; P = 0.046).

No statistically significant differences were observed between landing zones 2 and 3 during the FET procedure with regard to early outcomes. Proximalization of the FET was associated with a shorter FL thrombosis in the midterm follow-up period that affected the distal aortic reintervention rate.

Effect of cerebrospinal fluid pressure elevation on spinal cord perfusion during aortic cross-clamping with distal aortic perfusion.

Cardiothoracic Surgery

Distal aortic perfusion (DaP) is a widely accepted protective adjunct facilitating early reinstitution of visceral perfusion during extended thoracic and thoraco-abdominal aortic repair. DaP has also been suggested to secure distal inflow to the paraspinal collateral network via the hypogastric arteries and thereby reduce the risk of spinal cord ischaemia. However, an increase in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure is frequently observed during thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of DaP on regional spinal cord blood flow (SCBF) during descending aortic cross-clamping and iatrogenic elevation of cerebrospinal fluid pressure.

Eight juvenile pigs underwent central cannulation for cardiopulmonary bypass according to our established experimental protocol followed by aortic cross-clamping of the descending thoracic and abdominal aorta-mimicking sequential aortic clamping-with the initiation of DaP. Thereafter, CSF pressure elevation was induced by the infusion of blood plasma until baseline CSF pressure was tripled. At each time-point, microspheres of different colours were injected allowing for regional SCBF analysis.

DaP led to a pronounced hyperperfusion of the distal spinal cord [SCBF up to 480%, standard deviation (SD): 313%, compared to baseline]. However, DaP provided no or only limited additional flow to the upper and middle segments of the spinal cord (C1-Th7: 5% of baseline, SD: 5%; Th8-L2: 24%, SD: 39%), which was compensated by proximal flow only at C1-Th7 level. Furthermore, DaP could not counteract an experimental CSF pressure elevation, which led to a further decrease in regional SCBF most pronounced in the mid-thoracic spinal cord segment.

Protective DaP during thoraco-abdominal aortic repair may be associated with inadequate spinal protection particularly at the mid-thoracic spinal cord level ('watershed area') and result in the adverse effect of a potentially dangerous hyperperfusion of the distal spinal cord segments.

Exploring the potential of rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry (Intelligent Knife) for point-of-care testing in aortic surgery.

Cardiothoracic Surgery

Many intraoperative decisions regarding the extent of thoracic aortic surgery are subjective and are based on the appearance of the aorta, perceived surgical risks and likelihood of early recurrent disease. Our objective in this work was to carry out a cross-sectional study to demonstrate that rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry (REIMS) of electrosurgical aerosol is able to empirically discriminate ex vivo aneurysmal human thoracic aorta from normal aorta, thus providing supportive evidence for the development of the technique as a point-of-care test guiding intraoperative surgical decision-making.

Human aortic tissue was obtained from patients undergoing surgery for thoracic aortic aneurysms (n = 44). Normal aorta was obtained from a mixture of post-mortem and punch biopsies from patients undergoing coronary surgery (n = 13). Monopolar electrocautery was applied to samples and surgical aerosol aspirated and analysed by REIMS to produce mass spectral data.

Models generated from REIMS data can discriminate aneurysmal from normal aorta with accuracy and precision of 88.7% and 85.1%, respectively. In addition, further analysis investigating aneurysmal tissue from patients with bicuspid and tricuspid aortic valves was discriminated from normal tissue and each other with accuracies and precision of 93.5% and 91.4% for control, 83.8% and 76.7% for bicuspid aortic valve and 89.3% and 86.0% for tricuspid aortic valve, respectively.

Analysis of electrosurgical aerosol from ex vivo aortic tissue using REIMS allowed us to discriminate aneurysmal from normal aorta, supporting its development as a point-of-care test (Intelligent Knife) for guiding surgical intraoperative decision-making.

Surgical outcomes of infective endocarditis in children: should we delay surgery for infective endocarditis?

Cardiothoracic Surgery

We compared the surgical outcomes of infective endocarditis (IE) between early surgery and non-early surgery groups in children.

From January 2000 to April 2020, we retrospectively reviewed 50 patients <18years of age who underwent first surgery for IE. Early surgery was defined as that performed within 2 days for left-sided IE and 7 days for right-sided IE after diagnosis.

The median age and body weight at operation were 7.7 years [interquartile range (IQR), 2.3-13.2] and 23.7 kg (IQR, 10.3-40.7), respectively. The median follow-up duration was 9.5 years (IQR, 4.0-14.5). In 28 patients with native valve endocarditis, the native valve was preserved in 23 (82.1%). The most common causative microorganism was Streptococcus viridans (32.0%). The operative mortality was 2.0%, and 13 (26.0%) patients required reoperation most commonly for prosthesis failure (n = 7). There were no significant differences in patient characteristics and perioperative data between early surgery (n = 9) and non-early surgery (n = 36) groups, except for the interval between diagnosis and surgery (early surgery < non-early surgery, P < 0.001) and preoperative negative blood culture conversion (early surgery < non-early surgery, P = 0.025). There were no significant differences in overall survival, recurrent IE, and reoperation rate between the groups. Early surgery and preoperative negative blood culture conversion were not found as significant factors for surgical adverse outcomes.

Surgical outcomes for IE in children were acceptable irrespective of the time of surgery. Our results suggest that it may not be required to delay surgery for IE and the potential benefit of early surgery could be expected in children.

Early commercial experience with a newly designed balloon-expandable transcatheter heart valve: 30-day outcomes and implications of preprocedural computed tomography.

Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery

We herein report a single-centre experience with the SAPIEN 3 Ultra balloon-expandable transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) system.

Between March 2019 and January 2020, a total of 79 consecutive patients received transfemoral TAVI using the SAPIEN 3 Ultra device. Data were retrospectively analysed according to updated Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 definitions. Detailed analysis of multislice computed tomography data was conducted to identify potential predictors for permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantation and residual paravalvular leakage (PVL) post TAVI.

Device success and early safety were 97.5% (77/79) and 94.9% (75/79) with resulting transvalvular peak/mean pressure gradients of 21.1 ± 8.2/10.9 ± 4.4 and PVL >mild in 0/79 patients (0%). Mild PVL was seen in 18.9% (15/79) of cases. Thirty-day mortality was 2.5% (2/79). The Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 adjudicated clinical end points disabling stroke, acute kidney injury and myocardial infarction occurred in 1.3% (1/79), 5.1% (4/79) and 0% (0/79) of patients. Postprocedural PPM implantation was necessary in 7.6% (6/79) of patients. Multislice computed tomography analysis revealed significantly higher calcium amounts of the right coronary cusp in patients in need for postprocedural PPM implantation and a higher eccentricity index in patients with postinterventional mild PVL.

First experience with this newly designed balloon-expandable-transcatheter heart valve demonstrates adequate 30-day outcomes and haemodynamic results with low mortality, low rates of PPM implantation and no residual PVL >mild. The herein-presented multislice computed tomography values with an elevated risk for PPM implantation and residual mild PVL may help to further improve outcomes with this particular transcatheter heart valve in TAVI procedures.

Patient-reported outcome measures after mitral valve repair: a comparison between minimally invasive and sternotomy.

Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery

To compare patient-reported outcome measures of minimally invasive (MI) to sternotomy (ST) mitral valve repair.

We included all patients undergoing isolated mitral valve surgery via either a right mini-thoracotomy (MI) or ST over a 36-month period. Patients were asked to complete a modified Composite Physical Function questionnaire. Intraoperative and postoperative outcomes, and patient-reported outcome measures were compared between 2 propensity-matched groups (n = 47/group), assessing 3 domains: 'Recovery Time', 'Postoperative Pain' (at day 2 and 1, 3, 6 and 12 weeks) and 'Treatment Satisfaction'. Composite scores for each domain were subsequently constructed and multivariable analysis was used to determine whether surgical approach was associated with domain scores.

The response rate was 79%. There was no mortality in either group. In the matched groups, operative times were longer in the MI group (P < 0.001), but postoperative outcomes were similar. Composite scores for Recovery Time [ST 51.7 (31.8-62.1) vs MI 61.7 (43.1-73.9), P = 0.03] and Pain [ST 65.7 (40.1-83.1) vs MI 79.1 (65.5-89.5), P = 0.02] significantly favoured the MI group. Scores in the Treatment Satisfaction domain were high for both surgical approaches [ST 100 (82.5-100) vs MI 100 (95.0-100), P = 0.15]. The strongest independent predictor of both faster recovery parameter estimate 12.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.7-18.3, P < 0.001] and less pain parameter estimate 7.6 (95% CI 0.7-14.5, P = 0.03) was MI surgery.

MI surgery was associated with faster recovery and less pain; treatment satisfaction and safety profiles were similar.

Comparison of early postoperative cytokine changes in patients undergoing intubated and non-intubated thoracic surgery: a randomized controlled trial.

Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery

The inflammatory response after surgery is associated with patient prognosis. Patients who undergo thoracic surgery exhibit a profound systemic inflammatory response due to the surgical procedures used and application of one-lung ventilation. The aim of this study was to compare perioperative inflammatory changes in patients after intubated and non-intubated thoracic surgery for primary lung cancer resection.

This prospective randomized controlled study included forty patients who underwent surgical resection for stage I non-small-cell lung cancer. Blood samples for cytokine analysis were collected just before induction, at 1 and 24 h after surgery. Levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine and anti-inflammatory cytokines were measured using quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay kits.

The basal values of cytokines were comparable between 2 groups. Within each group, the postoperative levels of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α increased, while those of IL-4 and IL-10 did not change significantly. The levels of IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α were significantly lower in group NI at 1 and 24 h postoperatively. Other cytokines did not differ in both groups during postoperative period. The IL-6/IL-10 ratio at 1 h after surgery was lower in non-intubated patients than in intubated patients, but there was no difference at 24 h after surgery.

Non-intubated thoracic surgery may attenuate the early inflammatory cytokine changes following major resection for primary lung cancer compared with intubated conventional surgery. registry number NCT04007354.

Depression as a predictor of postoperative delirium after cardiac surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery

Depression is common in patients with cardiac disease. The importance of preoperative depression for development of postoperative delirium (POD) following cardiac surgery is not well known. The aim is to provide a summary estimate of depression as a predictor of POD following cardiac surgery.

Systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science Core Collection and Psycinfo (Ovid) was performed from inception to October 2019, including cohort studies reporting odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for POD following cardiac surgery in patients with preoperative depression compared to patients without depression. ORs and 95% CIs for POD were calculated using random-effects meta-analyses. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed.

Seven studies were included with a combined study population of 2066 patients. The pooled prevalence of POD in the combined study population was 26% and preoperative depression was present in ∼9% of the total study population. All studies showed a positive association between preoperative depression and POD; and in 5 studies, the association was statistically significant. Patients with depression had a pooled OR of 2.31 (95% CI 1.37-3.90) for POD.

This systematic review and meta-analysis confirm the findings that the previous association between preoperative depression and increased risk for developing POD reported for other patient groups is found also in cardiac surgery. Depression screening prior to cardiac surgery may be effective in identifying patients at higher risk for POD.

Risk analysis for early mortality in emergency acute type A aortic dissection surgery: experience of Tokyo Acute Aortic Super-network.

European Journal of Heart Failure

We investigated the various pre- and postoperative complications related to early (30-day) mortality after open surgery for acute type A aortic dissection.

Data from the Tokyo Acute Aortic Super-network database spanning January 2015 to December 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Pre- and postoperative factors related to early postoperative mortality were assessed in 1504 of 2058 (73.0%) consecutive patients [age: 66.6 (SD: 13.5) years, male: 52.9%] who underwent acute type A aortic dissection repair.

The early mortality rate following surgical repair was 8.9%. According to multivariable analysis, male sex [odds ratio (OR) 1.670, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.063-2.624, P = 0.026], use of percutaneous circulatory assist devices (n = 116, 7.7%) including extracorporeal membrane oxygenators or intra-aortic balloon pumps (OR 4.857, 95% CI 2.867-8.228, P < 0.001), shock (n = 162, 10.8%) (OR 3.06, 95% CI 1.741-5.387, P < 0.001), cardiopulmonary arrest (n = 41, 2.7%) (OR 7.534, 95% CI 3.407-16.661, P < 0.001), coronary ischaemia (n = 36, 2.3%) (OR 2.583, 95% CI 1.042-6.404, P = 0.041) and cerebral ischaemia (n = 59, 3.9%) (OR 2.904, 95% CI 1.347-6.261, P = 0.007) were independent preoperative risk factors for early mortality, while cardiac tamponade (n = 34, 2.3%) (OR 10.282, 95% CI 4.640-22.785, P < 0.001), cerebral ischaemia (n = 80, 5.3%) (OR 2.409, 95% CI 1.179-4.923, P = 0.016) and mesenteric ischaemia (n = 15, 1.0%) (OR 44.763, 95% CI 13.027-153.808, P < 0.001) were independent postoperative risk factors.

Not only critical preoperative conditions but also postoperative cardiac tamponade and vital organ ischaemia are risk factors for early mortality after acute type A aortic dissection repair.

United in earnest: first pilot sites for increased surgical capacity for rheumatic heart disease announced by cardiac surgery intersociety alliance.

European Journal of Heart Failure

Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) affects >33 000 000 individuals, mostly from low- and middle-income countries. The Cape Town Declaration on Access to Cardiac Surgery in the Developing World was published in August 2018, signalling the commitment of the global cardiac surgery and cardiology communities to improving care for patients with RHD.

As the Cape Town Declaration formed the basis for which the Cardiac Surgery Intersociety Alliance (CSIA) was formed, the purpose of this article is to describe the history of the CSIA, its formation, ongoing activities and future directions, including the announcement of selected pilot sites.

The CSIA is an international alliance consisting of representatives from major cardiothoracic surgical societies and the World Heart Federation. Activities have included meetings at annual conferences, exhibit hall participation for advertisement and recruitment and publication of selection criteria for cardiac surgery centres to apply for CSIA support. Criteria focused on local operating capacity, local championing, governmental and facility support, appropriate identification of a specific gap in care and desire to engage in future research. Eleven applications were received for which 3 finalist sites were selected and site visits conducted. The 2 selected sites were Hospital Central Maputo (Mozambique) and King Faisal Hospital Kigali (Rwanda).

Substantial progress has been made since the passing of the Cape Town Declaration and the formation of the CSIA, but ongoing efforts with collaboration of all committed parties-cardiac surgery, cardiology, industry and government-will be necessary to improve access to life-saving cardiac surgery for patients with RHD.

Donation after circulatory death (DCD)-lung procurement.

Indian Journal of Thoracic and

The number of lungs available for lung transplantation is far lower than the number of patients awaiting them. Consequently, there is a significant...

Post hoc patient satisfaction with the choice of valve prosthesis for aortic valve replacement: results of a single-centre survey.

Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery

Our goal was to examine post hoc patient satisfaction and the decision-making process of choosing a prosthesis for aortic valve replacement (AVR).

We surveyed 113 patients who were operated on for AVR at 60-70 years of age, including 74 patients with a mechanical valve (MECH) and 39 with a bioprosthesis (BIO). The study focused on quality of life and the decision pathway in relation to prosthesis choice and valve-related complications. Decisional conflict was defined as the post hoc uncertainty perceived by patients regarding their choice of prosthesis.

The survey was performed at a median of 5.2 (3.2-8.1) years after the AVR. Patients with a biological valve were older (BIO: 68.4 years [66.2-69.4] vs MECH: 63.9 [61.9-66.7]; P < 0.001). Global post hoc satisfaction with prosthesis choice was high in both groups (MECH: 95.9%; BIO: 100%), and 85.1% (MECH) and 92.3% (BIO) of them would repeat their choice. Conflict about their decision was equal (MECH: 30.3%; BIO: 32.6%) for different reasons: MECH patients experienced more anticoagulation-related inconvenience (25.9% vs 0%), fear of bleeding (31.1% vs 0%) and prosthesis noise (26.2% vs 0%), whereas more BIO patients feared prosthesis failure (39.7% vs 17.4%) or reoperation (43.5% vs 18.1%). Active involvement in the decision (odds ratio 0.37, 95% confidence interval 0.16-0.85; P = 0.029) and adequate information about the prosthesis (odds ratio 0.34, 95% confidence interval 0.14-0.86; P = 0.020) decreased the risk of conflict about the decision.

Although 30% of the responders showed a decisional conflict related to prosthesis-specific interferences, global patient satisfaction with the prosthesis choice for AVR is excellent. Increasing the patient's involvement in the prosthesis choice through shared accountability and improved information is recommended to decrease the choice-related uncertainty.