The latest medical research on Occupational Therapist

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about occupational therapist gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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The Effect of Leisure Intervention on Occupational Performance and Occupational Balance in Individuals with Substance Use Disorder: A Pilot Study.

Occupational Therapy International

The sample for this quasiexperimental pretest-posttest with a two-month follow-up design comprised nine individuals aged between 18 and 55 years, selected using a convenience sampling method. The intervention consisted of a 2-month group leisure participation program, conducted twice a week, followed by a 2-month follow-up period. Primary outcome measures included occupational performance and occupational balance, and secondary outcome measures were leisure participation, quality of life, and drug craving. Outcome measures were assessed three times: preintervention, postintervention, and after the follow-up period. The outcome measures included the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), Occupational Balance Questionnaire-11 (OBQ11), Nottingham Leisure Questionnaire (NLQ), 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), and Desire to Drug Questionnaire (DDQ). Data analysis was performed using the Friedman test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test as a post hoc procedure, with a significance level set at 5%.

The findings showed significant improvements in participants' occupational performance in postintervention and follow-up assessments (p < 0.01, r = 0.59) and better occupational balance from pre- to postintervention (p < 0.01, r = 0.59) and after the follow-up period (p < 0.01, r = 0.60). Furthermore, significant enhancements were observed in leisure participation, quality of life, and a reduction in drug craving.

The findings indicate that leisure intervention positively impacted both occupational performance and occupational balance, suggesting its potential as a beneficial therapeutic approach for individuals with substance use disorder. Additional research is warranted to delve deeper into and validate the effectiveness of leisure intervention within this specific population.

Challenges of Measuring Self-Reported Exposure to Occupational Biomechanical Risk Factors Amongst People with Low Literacy Engaged in Manual Labour: Findings from a Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Investigation in an African Population with Chronic Low Back Pain.

Journal of Occupational Health Psychology

Occupational biomechanical factors are implicated in the aetiology and progression of low back pain (LBP). This study cross-culturally adapted and psychometrically investigated the Occupational Risk Factor Questionnaire (ORFQ) in a low literate Nigerian Igbo population with chronic LBP.

Forward and back translation of the original ORFQ by clinical and non-clinical translators was followed by an expert committee review. The adapted ORFQ was pre-tested amongst rural Nigerian adults with chronic LBP using cognitive think-aloud interviewing. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and test-retest reliability (unweighted and linear weighted k statistic for item-by-item agreement, and intra-class correlation coefficient-ICC) were investigated amongst 50 rural and urban Nigerian dwellers with chronic LBP. Spearman's correlation and regression analyses were conducted with the Igbo-ORFQ, and measures of disability [World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0), Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), Back performance scale (BPS)], pain intensity [Eleven-point box scale (BS-11)] and social support [Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS)], to test construct validity with 200 rural Nigerian dwellers with chronic LBP.

Cross-cultural adaptation highlighted difficulty conceptualising and concretising exposure to biomechanical risk factors. Item-by-item agreement, internal consistency (α = 0.84) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC = 0.83) were good. Some unexpected direction of associations between the biomechanical components of the Igbo-ORFQ, and disability, pain intensity, and social support prohibits establishment of construct validity.

Prospective studies comparing the Igbo-ORFQ to other measures of exposure to occupational biomechanical risk factors are required to establish the construct validity of the Igbo-ORFQ.

Addressing Participation in Adults With Postconcussive Symptoms Using Cognitive Strategy Training: A Feasibility Trial.

Am J Occ Therapy

To evaluate the feasibility and preliminary effect of metacognitive strategy training in a sample of adults with postconcussive symptoms.

Assessed feasibility outcomes included recruitment, retention, and adherence rates, and intervention acceptability was evaluated with the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire-8. The preliminary effect was measured on occupational performance (Canadian Occupational Performance Measure), concussive symptoms (Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory), sleep (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory), vision (College of Optometrists in Vision Development-Quality of Life Outcomes Assessment), and cognition outcomes (Dysexecutive Questionnaire, Weekly Calendar Planning Activity, and National Institutes of Health Toolbox Cognition Battery).

Acceptable recruitment (32%), retention (93%), and adherence rates (100%) were observed, along with a high level of acceptability to participants. Large intervention effects were present for occupational performance, general concussive symptoms, and cognitive functioning.

Findings suggest that the CO-OP is feasible to administer for adults with postconcussive symptoms and perceived as suitable for the needs of this population. Feasibility findings, coupled with improvements in occupational performance outcomes, provide the foundation for a future larger scale trial. Plain-Language Summary: The Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance intervention is practical to use to address the functional impact of persistent concussive symptoms in adults. Further research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of the CO-OP intervention with this population.

Surveying the Landscape of Persistent Concussive Symptoms in Adults Through an Occupational Lens.

Am J Occ Therapy

To evaluate the impact of persistent postconcussive symptoms on occupational performance.

Occupational performance was evaluated using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. Data were then categorized by two researchers using the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework: Domain and Process (4th ed.).

The most commonly affected occupational performance areas included education and work, social participation, and performance of instrumental activities of daily living.

Aligning with prior knowledge of the impact of psychosocial difficulties and higher order cognitive deficits on daily life, performance of complex occupations is heavily affected in adults with persistent concussive symptoms. Plain-Language Summary: The functional impact of symptoms that adults experience postconcussion becomes apparent as they return to their life occupations. The results of this study showed that adults with persistent concussive symptoms more commonly experienced occupational challenges with participation in education, social activities, and the performance of instrumental activities of daily living, with subtle, important variations in symptoms across adults. Detailed, client-centered evaluation of occupational performance changes postconcussion is an area of potential growth for occupational therapy practice and research.

The Flow State Scale for Rehabilitation Tasks: A New Flow Experience Questionnaire for Stroke Patients.

Am J Occ Therapy

To develop and validate a new flow questionnaire for patients with (sub)acute stroke.

Development of the Flow State Scale for Rehabilitation Tasks (FSSRT) and determination of the psychometric properties of the FSSRT (internal consistency, test-retest reliability, structural and construct validity) in (sub)acute stroke patients.

The FSSRT showed good internal consistency and excellent test-retest reliability. Composed of four components-concentration, pleasure, movement control, and absorption-the FSSRT correlated significantly negatively with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, indicating good divergent validity.

The FSSRT is a reliable and valid questionnaire measuring flow experience in patients with (sub)acute stroke. This questionnaire can be easily used in occupational therapy as well as in physical therapy and gives therapists important information about the flow experience of patients during therapy to adjust the therapy accordingly. Plain-Language Summary: Measuring flow experience, or the extent to which patients engage in therapy activities, in the context of occupational therapy and physical therapy is a new approach. This study confirmed that the Flow State Scale for Rehabilitation Tasks questionnaire is reliable and valid for measuring the flow experience of patients after (sub)acute stroke. Occupational therapists and physical therapists can use the FSSRT to optimally adjust the therapy program and increase patient engagement during therapy.

Evaluation of Informative Content on Cerebral Palsy in the Era of Artificial Intelligence: The Value of ChatGPT.

Physical and Occupational Therapy in

In addition to the popular search engines on the Internet, ChatGPT may provide accurate and reliable health information. The aim of this study was to examine whether ChatGPT's responses to frequently asked questions concerning cerebral palsy (CP) by families were reliable and useful.

Google trends were used to find the most frequently searched keywords for CP. Five independent physiatrists assessed ChatGPT responses to 10 questions. Seven-point Likert-type scales were used to rate information reliability and usefulness based on whether the answer can be validated and is understandable.

The median ratings for reliability of information for each question varied from 2 (very unsafe) to 5 (relatively very reliable). The median rating was 4 (reliable) for four questions. The median ratings for usefulness of information varied from 2 (very little useful) to 5 (moderately useful). The median rating was 4 (partly useful) for seven questions.

Although ChatGPT appears promising as an additional tool for informing family members of individuals with CP about medical information, it should be emphasized that both consumers and health care providers should be aware of the limitations of artificial intelligence-generated information.

A scoping review into the service needs of people from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds living with disability to engage in meaningful occupations.

Australian Occupational Therapy Journal

Although there is a large proportion of people from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds within Australia, their rate of access to disability services is disproportionately low. This review aims to understand the service needs of people from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds with disability to facilitate engagement in meaningful occupations.

Arksey and O'Malley's scoping review framework was employed. Ten databases were searched for Australian studies. A deductive content analysis framework was applied in the synthesis.

Fourteen papers were included. Themes that emerged include language and cultural needs and considerations, which highlights the need for information sharing to take account of intergenerational, intercultural and sociolinguistic differences. It also identified the need for improved training and skills of existing interpreters. Culturally competent and responsive services was another theme identified, which emphasised the need to enhance the workforces' understanding of cultural practices. There is also a strong call for a more culturally diverse workforce to reduce the use of some interpreters and to build a more culturally competent workforce. The last theme was responsive service delivery, which requires the governance to support the development of a nurturing trusting therapeutic relationship.

Service providers should be trained on the inequities and intersectionality of this population. Further research is required to explore current disability policy in Australia with an intersectionality lens to ensure recommendations can be made to address barriers and ensure this population receives services in a manner that enhances their ability to engage in occupations meaningfully.

Application of Noise Control Combined with Relaxation Training in Patients with Skin Laser Cosmetology: A Single-center Retrospective Study.

Noise and Health

Noise pollution has been listed as one of the three major types of pollution, along with air and water pollution. Hospitals should pay attention to noise control, which is of great importance for the treatment and rehabilitation of patients. This study focuses on the application value of noise control and relaxation training.

This study retrospectively collected and analyzed the clinical data of 184 patients who underwent skin laser cosmetology in Ningbo Yinzhou No. 2 Hospital from January 2021 to December 2022. Twelve patients who did not meet the criteria were excluded, and the remaining 172 patients were divided based on the type of intervention into the control group (CG, n = 82) and the study group (SG, n = 90). The CG received relaxation training and routine noise management, while the SG received noise control combined with relaxation training. The intervention effect was discussed from the aspects of noise, psychology, and satisfaction.

After the intervention, the SG had overtly lower noise levels and lower scores of anxiety and depression compared to the CG (all P < 0.001). Correlation analysis showed that noise levels were positively correlated with scores of anxiety and depression (r = 0.553, r = 0.592, P < 0.001). The two groups had no significant difference in total satisfaction (P > 0.05).

Noise poses a significant threat to the human body. Strengthening noise control in hospitals is beneficial for patients' recovery. Combining noise control with relaxation training is an intervention method worthy of clinical application. It can improve the hospitalization environment and reduce the noise levels to a great extent, thereby improving the psychological state of patients and enhancing the medical satisfaction.

Effects of Comprehensive Noise Reduction Management Combined with Reality Therapy on Anxiety and Depression in Hospitalised Patients with Breast Cancer.

Noise and Health

This study was conducted to explore the effects of comprehensive noise reduction management combined with reality therapy on anxiety and depression in hospitalised patients with breast cancer.

The medical records of 166 inpatients with breast cancer in Tongji Hospital affiliated with Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology from March 2020 to March 2022 were retrospectively analysed. According to different intervention methods, these patients were divided into group A (n = 58, receiving conventional intervention), group B (n = 55, receiving conventional intervention combined with reality therapy) and group C (n = 53, receiving conventional intervention combined with comprehensive noise reduction management and reality therapy intervention). Patients' anxiety and depression, quality of life and satisfaction degree in the three groups were compared.

Before the intervention, the scores of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Short-From-36 Health Survey (SF-36) scale did not significantly differ amongst the three groups (P > 0.05). After the intervention, we observed a difference in the pairwise comparison of HADS scores amongst the three groups, in which group C had the lowest score and group A had the highest HADS score (P < 0.001). We also noted a difference in the pairwise comparison of SF-36 scores amongst the three groups, in which group C had the highest SF-36 score and group A had the lowest SF-36 score (P < 0.001). The pairwise comparison of satisfaction revealed a difference amongst the three groups, in which group C had the highest satisfaction (92.45%, 94.34% and 94.34%), and group A had the lowest satisfaction (74.14%, 74.14% and 75.86%; P < 0.05).

Comprehensive noise reduction management combined with reality therapy can effectively relieve the negative emotions of inpatients with breast cancer, as well as improve their survival state of patients. It is suggested that it be included in the clinical intervention system for breast cancer.

Effect of White Noise Intervention Combined with Multi-dimensional Nursing Mode on Sleep Quality and Incidence of Nosocomial Infection in Patients Undergoing Hip Replacement.

Noise and Health

To investigate the clinical effects of white noise intervention combined with multi-dimensional nursing mode in patients receiving hip replacement (HR).

The study selected the clinical data of 161 patients who underwent HR in our hospital from February 2020 to February 2022 for retrospective analysis. According to patients' willingness, they were divided into the study group (n = 77, receiving white noise intervention combined with multi-dimensional nursing mode) and the control group (n = 84, receiving routine nursing). Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) scale was used to evaluate patients' sleep quality in the two groups, and the incidence of nosocomial infection in the both groups was counted.

Before nursing and white noise intervention, the PSQI scores of patients' sleep quality in the two groups were all lower, with no obvious difference (P > 0.05). After nursing and white noise intervention, the sleep quality of the two groups was all improved, and the study group had overtly lower PSQI score and score of psychological status than the control group (P < 0.05). After nursing and white noise intervention, the study group had remarkably lower incidence of nosocomial infection than the control group (p < 0.05).

White noise intervention combined with multi-dimensional nursing mode can effectively improve the sleep quality of patients undergoing HR and reduce the incidence of nosocomial infection, which is of positive significance for promoting the recovery of postoperative limb function.

Immunoinflammatory Response to Acute Noise Stress in Male Rats Adapted with Different Exercise Training.

Noise and Health

Noise pollution is a kind of stress that impairs various physiological functions. This study evaluated the effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MCT) on corticosterone, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and monocyte responses to acute noise stress in male rats.

Forty-two male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups, including control which was assessed at the beginning, control time which was assessed simultaneously with experimental groups (CT), HIIT, MCT, HIIT followed by noise stress (HIIT+S), MCT followed by noise stress (MCT+S), and noise stress. HIIT and MCT were performed for 8 weeks. Noise stress was induced for one session. Blood samples were taken 48 hours after the last exercise session in training and CT groups and immediately after acute noise stress in stress groups of HIIT+S, MCT+S, and noise stress.

In response to acute noise stress, MCT and HIIT adaptations increased corticosterone, while reduced monocytes compared to CT. MCT increased basal corticosterone and IL-6 and decreased monocytes; however, in response to acute noise stress, corticosterone was higher and monocyte count was lower in the HIIT+S group. Regarding the effect of training, corticosterone and monocytes in MCT were higher than in HIIT. The serum level of IL-6 was lower in MCT than CT group, while it was not significantly different between stress groups.

In response to noise stress, previous exercise, especially HIIT, increased stress while did not increase inflammatory and innate immune response.

Young Adults' Knowledge and Perceptions of Permanent Noise-Induced Tinnitus and its Influence on Behavioural Intentions.

Noise and Health

Young adults' music-listening behaviours may put them at risk of developing permanent hearing loss and tinnitus. This study aimed to assess knowledge of permanent tinnitus and whether this knowledge may influence listening behaviours to a greater degree than knowledge of hearing loss.

A two-group (between subjects), randomised post-test only, single-factor experimental design was used to determine the effects of health message focus (permanent tinnitus vs. permanent hearing loss) on the main outcome measure of protective behavioural intention. The sample included 109 male and 287 female adults, aged 18 to 25 years, living in the United Kingdom. The young adults' existing knowledge of either permanent hearing loss or permanent tinnitus was measured, and after exposure to a health message, their perceptions and resultant behavioural intentions were assessed and compared. The pooled data were used to test a proposed model of factors influencing hearing protective behavioural intention using path analysis.

Whilst 83% knew about the link with hearing loss, only 75% knew that loud music may cause permanent tinnitus. The participants viewed tinnitus as closer temporally than hearing loss, perceived themselves as equally susceptible to both, but perceived hearing loss as more severe. There was no significant difference in behavioural intention between the groups.

Perceived susceptibility and severity have a positive effect on behavioural intentions. In light of these results, recommendations for future noise-damage prevention campaigns are made.