The latest medical research on Pharmacy
The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about pharmacy gathered by our medical AI research bot.
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Patient Experience and Satisfaction with Opioid-Related Screening and Intervention in North Dakota Community Pharmacies.Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Screening for patient-level opioid-related risk in the community pharmacy setting has increased patient education about opioids and naloxone distribution, helping to mitigate the impact of the opioid epidemic. However, patient experience and satisfaction with opioid screening and education is unknown. Fear of patient dissatisfaction may limit pharmacists' willingness to implement screening activities.
To report patient experience and satisfaction of a convenience sample of patients undergoing screening and intervention for opioid-related risk as a part of the ONE Program (formerly ONE Rx).
Patients who received ONE Program screening and intervention from their community pharmacist were recruited to participate in a 9 item survey regarding their experience and satisfaction. Results were analyzed by urban and rural location of participants.
Urban (n = 42) and rural (n = 32) patients who completed the survey reported positive experiences namely feeling comfortable with the ONE process (86.5%), the process taking an appropriate amount of time (93.2%) and feeling safer as a result of their pharmacist's attention to their opioid-related medication risk (86.3%). Urban patients were significantly more likely than rural patients to report positive attitude and behavior changes as a result of the ONE process.
High levels of patient satisfaction and positive experience with the ONE Program screening and intervention process for patient-level opioid-related risks may encourage community pharmacists to more broadly implement such activities.
Design, Implementation, and Assessment Approaches Within an Advanced Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Elective Course.Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
An estimated 38 million people are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) worldwide. Pharmacists are well positioned to provide care to patients with HIV, but gaps in HIV education among pharmacists exist. Recognizing the need to educate and prepare future pharmacists, a 2-credit advanced HIV elective course was created for Doctor of Pharmacy students at Washington State University College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences in the United States, and Masters of Clinical Pharmacy students from University of Western Cape School of Pharmacy in South Africa.
Course topics included diagnosis and treatment of HIV in children and adults, management of common comorbidities, pre-exposure prophylaxis, pharmacogenetic applications, and antiretroviral drug-drug interactions. Course effectiveness was evaluated using student examination results. Student perceptions were evaluated using pre- and post-course self-assessments involving abilities, confidence, and attitudes toward caring for people living with HIV.
Student pharmacists demonstrated competency in HIV knowledge, demonstrated skills in application to clinical-based scenarios, and reported significantly improved confidence and abilities as well as positive changes in attitudes toward people with HIV.
This course contributed to student learning across different student cohorts in an institutional program in the United States including successful execution of distance learning and clinical application for students at a program in South Africa.
Current Utilization of Antifungal Agents for Intra-abdominal Infections Categorized by Patient Risk Factors During Surgical Procedures: A Literature Review.Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
The high morbidity and mortality rates associated with invasive fungal infections have led to the overutilization of empiric antifungal therapies. ...
Polypharmacy and medication regimen complexity in older patients with hemophilia or von willebrand disease: the M'HEMORRH-AGE study.International Journal of Epidemiology
In older patients, multiple chronic conditions lead topolypharmacy which is associated with a higher risk of adverse drug events. Nowadays, the medication exposure of older patients with bleeding disorders has been poorly explored.
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of polypharmacy and the medication regimen complexity in older community-dwelling patients with hemophilia or von Willebrand Disease (VWD).
The M'HEMORRH-AGE study (Medication in AGEd patients with HEMORRHagic disease) is a multicenter prospective observational study. Community-dwelling patients over 65 years with hemophilia or VWD were included in the study. The rate of polypharmacy (use of 5 to 9 drugs daily) and excessive polypharmacy (use of 10 or more medications daily) was assessed. The complexity of prescribed medication regimens was assessed using the Medication Regimen Complexity Index (MRCI).
Overall, 142 older community-dwelling patients with hemophilia (n = 89) or VWD (n = 53) were included (mean age: 72.8 (5.8) years). Prevalence of polypharmacy and excessive polypharmacy were 40.8% and 17.6%, respectively. The mean MRCI score was 16.9 (6.1). The mean MRCI score related to bleeding disorders medications was 6.9 (1.1). There was no significant difference between older hemophilia patients and VWD patients.
The M'HEMORRH-AGE study showed that more than half of older community-dwelling patients were affected by polypharmacy. In addition, the high medication regimen complexity in this older population suggests that interventions focusing on medication review and deprescribing should be conducted to reduce polypharmacy with its negative health-related outcomes.
Limitations of access to antipsychotics in Canada: loss of the old and unavailability of the new options.International Journal of Epidemiology
Schizophrenia is a severe, debilitating disorder that is associated with a significant burden of illness. Antipsychotic medications remain the main...
The first nationwide implementation of pharmaceutical care practices through a continuous professional development approach for community pharmacists.International Journal of Epidemiology
Noncommunicable diseases account for the majority of all deaths and impose a high socioeconomic burden, causing disability and premature deaths. Pharmacists can contribute to the prevention and management of these diseases through the provision of pharmaceutical care services.
The aim of this study was to implement a nationwide practice developed by the Turkish Pharmacists' Association aiming to realize pharmaceutical care provision of standard quality to patients with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes and hypertension at community pharmacies through a continuous professional development approach.
The training process occurred as a peer-training activity. Academic staff trained the trainer pharmacists during a 3-day course. Community pharmacists (n = 6161) received training regarding pharmaceutical care, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes and hypertension from their peer trainers (n = 341) and began to practice pharmaceutical care and follow-up of patients' outcomes on a regular basis.
Among all community pharmacists in Turkey (n = 26,177), 24% attended training. Among these pharmacists, 21% started to implement practice. With community pharmacists' contribution to patient care, significant improvements in the majority of the outcome parameters regarding asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes and hypertension management were noted.
This first nationwide practice showed us that community pharmacists can help improve the health outcomes of patients with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes and hypertension through the provision of pharmaceutical care services.
Commentary on the new English smoking cessation Advanced service: a sustainable gateway to care or will it disappear in a puff of smoke?International Journal of Epidemiology
Further to plans to make England 'smoke-free' by 2030, a new English community pharmacy smoking cessation service was launched in March 2022. The s...
Pharmacologic Options for Prevention and Management of Cerebral Vasospasm in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.Hospital Pharmacy
Cerebral vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia continue to be major contributors to morbidity and mortality after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).
The purpose of this review was to evaluate the pharmacotherapy interventions for the prevention and management of cerebral vasospasm in patients with SAH.
A search of MEDLINE (January 1966-April 2012) and EMBASE (January 1974-April 2012) was conducted to retrieve relevant studies of pharmacotherapy options for prevention or treatment of cerebral vasospasm in SAH.
Triple-H therapy (hypervolemia, hemodilution, hypertension) has been a widely accepted option by many clinicians for the management of cerebral vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia. However, implementation of Triple-H therapy varies considerably at individual institutions. Nimodipine and nicardipine have demonstrated the most dependable improvements in patient outcomes to date. High doses of intravenous magnesium have failed to show consistent benefits. Magnesium supplementation to prevent hypomagnesaemia should be employed. Statin therapy should be continued in patients who are taking statins prior to hospital admission. Use of statins in naive patients may be recommended when the results of an ongoing prospective study are available. Of the available locally administered pharmacologic therapies, nicardipine and thrombolytics appear to provide the most intriguing benefit-to-risk ratio. However, the data supporting the use of locally administered therapy are modest at best and require careful consideration prior to application.
Clinical studies have tested a variety of pharmacotherapy interventions for the prevention and treatment of cerebral vasospasm. Of available therapies, nimodipine has demonstrated consistent benefits and should be employed routinely. Demonstration of reduced cerebral vasospasm and improved neurological outcomes in larger prospective studies are needed for most pharmacologic therapy options prior to recommending their routine use.
Artificially Elevated Tacrolimus Concentrations Obtained From a Venous Catheter Previously Used for Tacrolimus Administration in a Pediatric Patient.Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Intravenous (IV) administration of calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporine (CsA) and tacrolimus (TAC), has been associated with spuriously high serum ...
European Society of Clinical Pharmacy definition of the term clinical pharmacy and its relationship to pharmaceutical care: a position paper.International Journal of Epidemiology
Many definitions of the term clinical pharmacy exist, but a number of ambiguities remain. In order to clarify the European Society of Clinical Phar...
A Retrospective, Longitudinal External Study of the robustness and reproducibility of National Antibacterial Prescribing Survey Data.International Journal of Epidemiology
Point prevalence surveys are used internationally to audit antibacterial use as well as the impact of interventions on improving prescribing and resistance rates. The annual National Antibacterial Prescribing Survey provides data on the appropriateness of antibacterial agent prescribing in Australian hospitals. Assessing the survey's robustness and result reproducibility is essential to its role in improving antibacterial prescribing practice.
To evaluate the reproducibility of internal assessments of antibacterial agent prescribing of both guideline compliance and appropriateness from a Western Australian hospital.
Census data of 1051 prescriptions from 2013 to 2017 surveys were independently assessed for compliance based on Australian Therapeutic Guidelines - Antibiotics, and appropriateness, based on agent selection, therapy duration and microbiological test results. Concordance of these findings with internal hospital assessments was analysed.
This external study did not reproduce internal hospital audit results for compliance with guideline parameters. Non-compliant prescribing rate was significantly (p < 0.001) higher externally at 50.7% (533/1051) than internal assessment at 34.9% (367/1051). External analysis also found a significantly smaller proportion of prescriptions to be appropriate (551/1051, 52.4%) compared to internal analysis (745/1051, 70.9%) p < 0.001. Cohen's Kappa analysis found a moderate agreement for compliance (0.49) and appropriateness (0.50) between the external and internal evaluations.
The lack of adequate reproducibility of compliance and appropriateness assessments may limit the generalisability of the audit's results. Validating point prevalence surveys that assess antibacterial agent prescribing can increase confidence and improve reproducibility of their findings; as they provide important data for antimicrobial stewardship programs.
Hypoglycaemia incidence with a simple, low-dose insulin protocol for adult diabetic ketoacidosis.International Journal of Epidemiology
The objective of this study is to validate the glycaemic safety of a simple insulin protocol using weight-based insulin rates adapted from American guidance for the management of adult diabetic ketoacidosis.
Measures of hypoglycaemia were retrospectively assessed in a single cohort of inpatient adults. The primary outcome was incidence of hypoglycaemia during insulin infusion.
Hypoglycaemia during infusion occurred in 6/81 patients (7% [95% CI 3-16%]). Five of these occurrences were associated with protocol nonadherence.
The glycaemic safety of a novel, variable-rate insulin protocol directly incorporating weight-based infusion rates is supported by this single-centre study.