The latest medical research on Pharmacy

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about pharmacy gathered by our medical AI research bot.

The selection below is filtered by medical specialty. Registered users get access to the Plexa Intelligent Filtering System that personalises your dashboard to display only content that is relevant to you.

Want more personalised results?

Request Access

Diabetes Care in A Safety Net Hospital: Impact of a Pharmacist Transitional Care Service.

Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology

Diabetes is associated with increased risk of hospital readmission and imposes a significant economic burden on patients and healthcare systems. Literature suggests that pharmacist-led transitions-of-care (TOC) services reduce hospital readmissions and improve patient outcomes and data within safety-net hospitals is limited.

This was a single-center evaluation to assess the impact of pharmacist-led diabetes TOC services on hospital readmissions among diabetes patients vs standard care (SC). The evaluation included patients admitted from 11/1/2021-2/28/2022 and 10/19/2022-2/28/2023 who had a primary diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, were admitted for a diabetes-related reason, or were seen by the endocrine consult service during admission. The primary outcome was 30-day readmissions. Secondary outcomes included time to readmission, readmission diagnosis, changes in HbA1c, completion of follow-up visits, and number of pharmacist interventions at follow-up.

There were 109 patients included (TOC n = 65; SC n = 44) and 13.8% (9/65) of TOC and 18.2% (8/44) of SC patients readmitted within 30 days (P = .235). Average time to readmission was 15.3 days in the TOC and 10.4 days in the SC cohorts. There were no diabetes-related readmissions in the TOC cohort. Over 60% (5/8) of readmissions in the SC cohort were diabetes-related. The average change in HbA1c was -2.5% in the TOC cohort and -1.2% in the SC cohort, P = .046. Approximately 51% of TOC patients completed an outpatient follow-up visit and nearly 70% of those patients had an intervention made at that time.

Pharmacist-led diabetes TOC services within a safety-net hospital may reduce hospital readmissions and improve clinical outcomes.

The Use of Intraperitoneal Ampicillin in a Patient With Enterococcus faecalis Peritonitis.

Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology

Peritoneal dialysis (PD) - associated peritonitis is a serious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). The 2022 International Society of Peritoneal Dialysis (ISPD) guidelines do not recommend intraperitoneal (IP) ampicillin for treatment of Enterococcal PD - associated peritonitis. To date, there is no in vivo data to support use of IP ampicillin for the treatment of Enterococcus faecalis.

A 69-year-old man with a past medical history of end stage kidney disease (ESKD) requiring continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis (CCPD) was admitted to the hospital and treated for peritonitis with E. faecalis. The patient's CCPD prescription was 2.5% Dianeal with 5 total exchanges. IP ampicillin was added to the first 4 exchanges and additional ampicillin was added to the last fill. The patient successfully completed the treatment course with clinical cure.

The use of IP ampicillin for E. faecalis peritonitis is controversial and previously lacked compelling clinical evidence for or against its use. This case demonstrates treatment of peritonitis using a modified dosing strategy with ampicillin added to each CCPD exchange and last fill. The loss of ampicillin antimicrobial activity reported in vitro with E. faecalis was not supported by this case.

Managing Grief for Pharmacy Leaders.

Hospital Pharmacy

Grief is everywhere and affects individuals and teams in many different ways. The negative effects may not only be felt by the individual, but they...

Refining the CRiSPHe (checklist for reporting research using a simulated patient methodology in Health): a Delphi study.

International Journal of Epidemiology

A recent applicability study highlighted the need for the existing checklist for reporting research using a simulated patient methodology (CRiSP) to be clearer and user-friendly. The aim of this study was to update the checklist to address these concerns.

A fourth round of the Delphi consensus study, used in the original checklist development work, was conducted. Previous participants, who had expertise in SP methodology, were invited to complete a questionnaire including a list of 13 checklist items developed in the previous study and revised following applicability testing. Closed questions were analysed for frequency. Consensus was predefined as >80% agreement. All items were discussed in a roundtable meeting and further modified as necessary. Responses to open questions were content analysed.

Twenty-one authors participated. There was a statistical consensus in 12 out of 13 modified checklist items.

A final reporting checklist for studies in health research using SP methodology has been developed using a consensus approach. Further refinements may be needed to increase the generalizability of the checklist in different contexts.

Development and Delphi consensus validation of the Medication-Related Fall screening and scoring tool.

International Journal of Epidemiology

Falls are a significant public health problem and constitute a major cause of injuries and mortality. Risk factors for falls are multifactorial and include medication use.

To develop and investigate the content validity of the Medication-Related fall (MRF) screening and scoring tool.

The MRF tool was developed from clinical practice guidelines addressing medication-related problems, and additional medications identified by specialist pharmacists across a region of the United Kingdom (Northern Ireland). Medication classes were categorised according to their 'potential to cause falls' as: high-risk (three points), moderate-risk (two points) or low-risk (one point). The overall medication-related falls risk for the patient was determined by summing the scores for all medications. The MRF was validated using Delphi consensus methodology, whereby three iterative rounds of surveys were conducted using SurveyMonkey®. Twenty-two experts from 10 countries determined their agreement with the falls risk associated with each medication on a 5-point Likert scale. Only medications with at least 75% of respondents agreeing or strongly agreeing were retained in the next round.

Consensus was reached for 19 medications/medication classes to be included in the final version of the MRF tool; ten were classified as high-risk, eight as moderate-risk and one as low-risk.

The MRF tool is simple and has the potential to be integrated into medicines optimisation to reduce falls risk and negative fall-related outcomes. The score from the MRF tool can be used as a clinical parameter to assess the need for medication review and clinical interventions.

Developing a machine learning model for predicting venlafaxine active moiety concentration: a retrospective study using real-world evidence.

International Journal of Epidemiology

Venlafaxine is frequently prescribed for patients with depression. To control the concentration of venlafaxine within the therapeutic window for the best treatment effect, a model to predict venlafaxine concentration is necessary.

Our objective was to develop a prediction model for venlafaxine concentration using real-world evidence based on machine learning and deep learning techniques.

Patients who underwent venlafaxine treatment between November 2019 and August 2022 were included in the study. Important variables affecting venlafaxine concentration were identified using a combination of univariate analysis, sequential forward selection, and machine learning techniques. Predictive performance of nine machine learning and deep learning algorithms were assessed, and the one with the optimal performance was selected for modeling. The final model was interpreted using SHapley Additive exPlanations.

A total of 330 eligible patients were included. Five influential variables that affect venlafaxine concentration were venlafaxine daily dose, sex, age, hyperlipidemia, and adenosine deaminase. The venlafaxine concentration prediction model was developed using the eXtreme Gradient Boosting algorithm (R2 = 0.65, mean absolute error = 77.92, root mean square error = 93.58). In the testing cohort, the accuracy of the predicted concentration within ± 30% of the actual concentration was 73.49%. In the subgroup analysis, the prediction accuracy was 69.39% within the recommended therapeutic range of venlafaxine concentration within ± 30% of the actual value.

The XGBoost model for predicting blood concentration of venlafaxine using real-world evidence was developed, guiding the adjustment of regimen in clinical practice.

Preliminary feasibility assessment of a targeted, pharmacist-led intervention for older adults with polypharmacy: a mixed-methods study.

International Journal of Epidemiology

ACTRN12621000268842 Date registered: 11/03/2021.

To conduct a preliminary feasibility assessment of the intervention in primary care, testing whether specific components of the intervention procedures and processes can be executed as intended.

The mixed-methods study was approved by the New Zealand Health and Disability Ethics Committees and public health agency. Patients from a New Zealand general practice clinic were recruited over 4 weeks to receive the intervention. The preliminary feasibility assessment included measures of intervention delivery, patient-reported outcome measures, and perspectives from ten patients and six clinicians. Data were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively to determine if a full-scale intervention trial is warranted. The study's progression criteria were based on established research and guided the decision-making process.

The intervention met the study's progression criteria, including patient recruitment, retention, and adherence to the intervention procedures. However, several modifications were identified, including: (1) enhancing patient recruitment, (2) conducting a preliminary meeting between the patient and pharmacist, (3) supporting pharmacists in maintaining a patient-centred approach, (4) reviewing the choice of patient-reported outcome measure, (5) extending the 8-week follow-up period, (6) allocating more time for pharmacists to conduct the intervention.

The study found the intervention feasible; however, additional development is required before progressing to a full-scale trial. This intervention has the potential to effectively reduce medication-related harm and improve outcomes for older adults with polypharmacy.

Optimizing the Hospital Discharge Process: Perspectives of the Health Care Team.

Canadian Journal of Psychiatry

Prior research capturing pharmacists' perspectives on the discharge process has shown that their involvement is essential. Given the multidisciplinary nature of the hospital environment, it is important to understand the perspectives of nonpharmacist health care providers.

To explore the perspectives of nonpharmacist health care providers concerning current discharge practices, components of an effective discharge plan, and perceived barriers to an optimal discharge, and to explore their expectations of pharmacists at discharge.

This qualitative study used key informant interviews of allied health professionals and prescribers at Vancouver General Hospital and North Island Hospital Comox Valley (British Columbia). Participants primarily working on general medicine, family practice, or hospitalist wards were invited to participate.

A total of 16 health care providers participated, consisting of 12 allied health professionals and 4 prescribers. Thematic analysis of the interview transcripts revealed 5 themes for each group. The following 3 themes were common to both groups: systems-related barriers to an optimal discharge; patient- and community-related barriers to an optimal discharge; and patient involvement and education. For allied health professionals, themes of prioritization of patients for discharge and direct communication/teamwork were also key for an optimal discharge. Prescriber-specific themes were limitations related to technology infrastructure and inefficiency of existing collaborative processes. Key responsibilities expected of the pharmacist at discharge included preparing the discharge medication reconciliation and prescriptions, addressing medication-related cost concerns, organizing adherence aids/tools, and providing medication counselling.

Further studies are warranted to investigate optimization of the discharge process through implementation of standardized discharge protocols and electronic health record-related tools. The primary responsibilities of the pharmacist at discharge, as perceived by study participants, were consistent with previous literature.

What Patients Want: A Qualitative Study of Patients' Perspectives on Optimizing the Hospital Discharge Process.

Canadian Journal of Psychiatry

Poor discharge planning can lead to increases in adverse drug events, hospital readmissions, and costs. Prior research has identified the pharmacist as an integral part of the discharge process.

To gain patients' perspectives on the discharge process and what they would like pharmacists to do to ensure a successful discharge.

Twenty patients discharged from tertiary care hospitals were interviewed after discharge. A phenomenological approach was used to conduct this qualitative study.

Five main themes were identified from the patient interviews: interactions with health care professionals, importance of discharge documentation, importance of seamless care, comprehensive and patient-specific medication counselling, and patients' preference for involvement and communication at all stages of hospital stay.

Although participants generally reported positive interactions with health care providers at discharge, several areas for improvement were identified, particularly in terms of communication, discharge documentation, and continuity of care. A list of recommendations aligning with patient preferences is provided for clinicians.

Antipsychotic Prescribing in Older Adults after In-Hospital Initiation.

Canadian Journal of Psychiatry

In older adults, the use of antipsychotics to treat delirium or the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia is potentially inappropriate and may be associated with adverse effects. Antipsychotics newly initiated in hospital may be inadvertently continued after discharge. In the Saskatchewan Health Authority (SHA) - Regina area, the frequency and duration of antipsychotic continuation for older adults after initiation during a hospital stay is unknown.

To describe potentially inappropriate antipsychotic use in older adults after discharge from hospital, specifically rates of postdischarge antipsychotic therapy after initiation in hospital and continuation up to 180 days after discharge; prescribing regimens used; risk factors associated with continuation; pharmacist involvement; and plans for antipsychotic discontinuation, tapering, and/or follow-up.

This retrospective chart review included inpatients 65 years of age or older who were discharged from medicine units at SHA - Regina area hospitals between September 30, 2021, and June 28, 2022. Outpatient dispensing histories were also gathered.

Of the 189 patients included in the analysis, 60 (31.7%) had continuation of antipsychotic therapy at discharge. Of these, 48 (80.0%), 33 (55.0%), and 24 (40.0%) had continuation of antipsychotic therapy at 30, 90, and 180 days after discharge, respectively. Of the patients with continuing antipsychotic therapy, 53 (88.3%) were 75 years of age or older, and 9 (15.0%) had documentation of an outpatient antipsychotic follow-up plan.

Postdischarge continuation of antipsychotics was similar to that reported in the literature. Patients continued on antipsychotics after discharge were at a greater than 50% risk of continuation at 90 days and were unlikely to have a follow-up plan. Future quality improvement efforts should include standardized prioritization of medication reviews, documentation of indications, and regular reassessment of therapy.

The role of community pharmacists as oral health advisors in the management of oral effects of asthma medications: an exploratory survey.

International Journal of Epidemiology

To investigate community pharmacists' attitudes, confidence, practice, knowledge, and barriers towards the management of oral side effects of asthma medications.

A paper-based questionnaire was developed from previous research, trialled, and validated. Convenience sampling through web search was used to identify pharmacy practices across Cairns, Queensland, Australia. Practices were contacted by email and phone before hand-delivering and collecting questionnaires.

Thirty eight community pharmacist responses were descriptively analysed. Community pharmacists surveyed within the Cairns region feel that it is within their role to help manage the side effects of asthma medications. Many feel this is best conveyed during inhaler dispensing and instruction. Current advice is more prompted rather than preventative. Pharmacists routinely advise patients of mouth-rinsing following inhaler use, however the link to preventing side effects is not clearly communicated. Pharmacists are confident in recognizing and managing common side effects such as oral thrush and dry mouth, but fewer are aware of dental decay and gingivitis. Many identify a lack of guidelines as the largest barrier to providing preventive oral health advice.

Cairns community pharmacists already self-perceive their role in the management of oral side effects of asthma medications. Advice given to patients is practical but does not clearly convey the causative associations between asthma medications and their potential oral side effects. Patient education is prompted more by enquiry rather than a preventative approach. The development of standardized practice protocols and integration within undergraduate degrees or continuing education may benefit the community-pharmacist delivered care.

Assessing, communicating and managing cardiovascular disease risk: a practical summary of the 2023 guideline.

Australian Prescriber

The outdated cardiovascular disease risk calculator has been reported to overestimate cardiovascular disease risk for a contemporary Australian pop...