The latest medical research on Geriatric Medicine

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about geriatric medicine gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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A Phase 3 Trial of Seladelpar in Primary Biliary Cholangitis.

N Engl J

Effective treatments for patients with primary biliary cholangitis are limited. Seladelpar, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta agonist, has potential benefits.

In this phase 3, 12-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned (in a 2:1 ratio) patients who had had an inadequate response to or who had a history of unacceptable side effects with ursodeoxycholic acid to receive oral seladelpar at a dose of 10 mg daily or placebo. The primary end point was a biochemical response, which was defined as an alkaline phosphatase level less than 1.67 times the upper limit of the normal range, with a decrease of 15% or more from baseline, and a normal total bilirubin level at month 12. Key secondary end points were normalization of the alkaline phosphatase level at month 12 and a change in the score on the pruritus numerical rating scale (range, 0 [no itch] to 10 [worst itch imaginable]) from baseline to month 6 among patients with a baseline score of at least 4 (indicating moderate-to-severe pruritus).

Of the 193 patients who underwent randomization and treatment, 93.8% received ursodeoxycholic acid as standard-of-care background therapy. A greater percentage of the patients in the seladelpar group than in the placebo group had a biochemical response (61.7% vs. 20.0%; difference, 41.7 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 27.7 to 53.4, P<0.001). Normalization of the alkaline phosphatase level also occurred in a greater percentage of patients who received seladelpar than of those who received placebo (25.0% vs. 0%; difference, 25.0 percentage points; 95% CI, 18.3 to 33.2, P<0.001). Seladelpar resulted in a greater reduction in the score on the pruritus numerical rating scale than placebo (least-squares mean change from baseline, -3.2 vs. -1.7; least-squares mean difference, -1.5; 95% CI, -2.5 to -0.5, P = 0.005). Adverse events were reported in 86.7% of the patients in the seladelpar group and in 84.6% in the placebo group, and serious adverse events in 7.0% and 6.2%, respectively.

In this trial involving patients with primary biliary cholangitis, the percentage of patients who had a biochemical response and alkaline phosphatase normalization was significantly greater with seladelpar than with placebo. Seladelpar also significantly reduced pruritus among patients who had moderate-to-severe pruritus at baseline. The incidence and severity of adverse events were similar in the two groups. (Funded by CymaBay Therapeutics; RESPONSE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04620733; EudraCT number, 2020-004348-27.).

CD19 CAR T-Cell Therapy in Autoimmune Disease - A Case Series with Follow-up.

N Engl J

Treatment for autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), idiopathic inflammatory myositis, and systemic sclerosis often involves long-term immune suppression. Resetting aberrant autoimmunity in these diseases through deep depletion of B cells is a potential strategy for achieving sustained drug-free remission.

We evaluated 15 patients with severe SLE (8 patients), idiopathic inflammatory myositis (3 patients), or systemic sclerosis (4 patients) who received a single infusion of CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells after preconditioning with fludarabine and cyclophosphamide. Efficacy up to 2 years after CAR T-cell infusion was assessed by means of Definition of Remission in SLE (DORIS) remission criteria, American College of Rheumatology-European League against Rheumatism (ACR-EULAR) major clinical response, and the score on the European Scleroderma Trials and Research Group (EUSTAR) activity index (with higher scores indicating greater disease activity), among others. Safety variables, including cytokine release syndrome and infections, were recorded.

The median follow-up was 15 months (range, 4 to 29). The mean (±SD) duration of B-cell aplasia was 112±47 days. All the patients with SLE had DORIS remission, all the patients with idiopathic inflammatory myositis had an ACR-EULAR major clinical response, and all the patients with systemic sclerosis had a decrease in the score on the EUSTAR activity index. Immunosuppressive therapy was completely stopped in all the patients. Grade 1 cytokine release syndrome occurred in 10 patients. One patient each had grade 2 cytokine release syndrome, grade 1 immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome, and pneumonia that resulted in hospitalization.

In this case series, CD19 CAR T-cell transfer appeared to be feasible, safe, and efficacious in three different autoimmune diseases, providing rationale for further controlled clinical trials. (Funded by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and others.).

Biomarker Changes during 20 Years Preceding Alzheimer's Disease.

N Engl J

Biomarker changes that occur in the period between normal cognition and the diagnosis of sporadic Alzheimer's disease have not been extensively investigated in longitudinal studies.

We conducted a multicenter, nested case-control study of Alzheimer's disease biomarkers in cognitively normal participants who were enrolled in the China Cognition and Aging Study from January 2000 through December 2020. A subgroup of these participants underwent testing of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), cognitive assessments, and brain imaging at 2-year-to-3-year intervals. A total of 648 participants in whom Alzheimer's disease developed were matched with 648 participants who had normal cognition, and the temporal trajectories of CSF biochemical marker concentrations, cognitive testing, and imaging were analyzed in the two groups.

The median follow-up was 19.9 years (interquartile range, 19.5 to 20.2). CSF and imaging biomarkers in the Alzheimer's disease group diverged from those in the cognitively normal group at the following estimated number of years before diagnosis: amyloid-beta (Aβ)42, 18 years; the ratio of Aβ42 to Aβ40, 14 years; phosphorylated tau 181, 11 years; total tau, 10 years; neurofilament light chain, 9 years; hippocampal volume, 8 years; and cognitive decline, 6 years. As cognitive impairment progressed, the changes in CSF biomarker levels in the Alzheimer's disease group initially accelerated and then slowed.

In this study involving Chinese participants during the 20 years preceding clinical diagnosis of sporadic Alzheimer's disease, we observed the time courses of CSF biomarkers, the times before diagnosis at which they diverged from the biomarkers from a matched group of participants who remained cognitively normal, and the temporal order in which the biomarkers became abnormal. (Funded by the Key Project of the National Natural Science Foundation of China and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03653156.).

Rusfertide, a Hepcidin Mimetic, for Control of Erythrocytosis in Polycythemia Vera.

N Engl J

Polycythemia vera is a chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by erythrocytosis. Rusfertide, an injectable peptide mimetic of the master iron regulatory hormone hepcidin, restricts the availability of iron for erythropoiesis. The safety and efficacy of rusfertide in patients with phlebotomy-dependent polycythemia vera are unknown.

In part 1 of the international, phase 2 REVIVE trial, we enrolled patients in a 28-week dose-finding assessment of rusfertide. Part 2 was a double-blind, randomized withdrawal period in which we assigned patients, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive rusfertide or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy end point was a response, defined by hematocrit control, absence of phlebotomy, and completion of the trial regimen during part 2. Patient-reported outcomes were assessed by means of the modified Myeloproliferative Neoplasm Symptom Assessment Form (MPN-SAF) patient diary (scores range from 0 to 10, with higher scores indicating greater severity of symptoms).

Seventy patients were enrolled in part 1 of the trial, and 59 were assigned to receive rusfertide (30 patients) or placebo (29 patients) in part 2. The estimated mean (±SD) number of phlebotomies per year was 8.7±2.9 during the 28 weeks before the first dose of rusfertide and 0.6±1.0 during part 1 (estimated difference, 8.1 phlebotomies per year). The mean maximum hematocrit was 44.5±2.2% during part 1 as compared with 50.0±5.8% during the 28 weeks before the first dose of rusfertide. During part 2, a response was observed in 60% of the patients who received rusfertide as compared with 17% of those who received placebo (P = 0.002). Between baseline and the end of part 1, rusfertide treatment was associated with a decrease in individual symptom scores on the MPN-SAF in patients with moderate or severe symptoms at baseline. During parts 1 and 2, grade 3 adverse events occurred in 13% of the patients, and none of the patients had a grade 4 or 5 event. Injection-site reactions of grade 1 or 2 in severity were common.

In patients with polycythemia vera, rusfertide treatment was associated with a mean hematocrit of less than 45% during the 28-week dose-finding period, and the percentage of patients with a response during the 12-week randomized withdrawal period was greater with rusfertide than with placebo. (Funded by Protagonist Therapeutics; REVIVE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04057040.).

The relationship between amyloid pathology, cerebral small vessel disease, glymphatic dysfunction, and cognition: a study based on Alzheimer's disease continuum participants.

Journal Alzheimers Research Therapy

Glymphatic dysfunction is a crucial pathway for dementia. Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathologies co-existing with cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is the most common pathogenesis for dementia. We hypothesize that AD pathologies and CSVD could be associated with glymphatic dysfunction, contributing to cognitive impairment.

Participants completed with amyloid PET, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and T2 fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) sequences were included from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). White matter hyperintensities (WMH), the most common CSVD marker, was evaluated from T2FLAIR images and represented the burden of CSVD. Amyloid PET was used to assess Aβ aggregation in the brain. We used diffusion tensor image analysis along the perivascular space (DTI-ALPS) index, the burden of enlarged perivascular spaces (PVS), and choroid plexus volume to reflect glymphatic function. The relationships between WMH burden/Aβ aggregation and these glymphatic markers as well as the correlations between glymphatic markers and cognitive function were investigated. Furthermore, we conducted mediation analyses to explore the potential mediating effects of glymphatic markers in the relationship between WMH burden/Aβ aggregation and cognition.

One hundred and thirty-three participants along the AD continuum were included, consisting of 40 CN - , 48 CN + , 26 MCI + , and 19 AD + participants. Our findings revealed that there were negative associations between whole-brain Aβ aggregation (r =  - 0.249, p = 0.022) and WMH burden (r =  - 0.458, p < 0.001) with DTI-ALPS. Additionally, Aβ aggregation (r = 0.223, p = 0.041) and WMH burden (r = 0.294, p = 0.006) were both positively associated with choroid plexus volume. However, we did not observe significant correlations with PVS enlargement severity. DTI-ALPS was positively associated with memory (r = 0.470, FDR-p < 0.001), executive function (r = 0.358, FDR-p = 0.001), visual-spatial (r = 0.223, FDR-p < 0.040), and language (r = 0.419, FDR-p < 0.001). Conversely, choroid plexus volume showed negative correlations with memory (r =  - 0.315, FDR-p = 0.007), executive function (r =  - 0.321, FDR-p = 0.007), visual-spatial (r =  - 0.233, FDR-p = 0.031), and language (r =  - 0.261, FDR-p = 0.021). There were no significant correlations between PVS enlargement severity and cognitive performance. In the mediation analysis, we found that DTI-ALPS acted as a mediator in the relationship between WMH burden/Aβ accumulation and memory and language performances.

Our study provided evidence that both AD pathology (Aβ) and CSVD were associated with glymphatic dysfunction, which is further related to cognitive impairment. These results may provide a theoretical basis for new targets for treating AD.

Macular vessel density in the superficial plexus is not a proxy of cerebrovascular damage in non-demented individuals: data from the NORFACE cohort.

Journal Alzheimers Research Therapy

Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) is a novel tool that allows the detection of retinal vascular changes. We investigated the association of macular vessel density (VD) in the superficial plexus assessed by OCT-A with measures of cerebrovascular pathology and atrophy quantified by brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in non-demented individuals.

Clinical, demographical, OCT-A, and brain MRI data from non-demented research participants were included. We analyzed the association of regional macular VD with brain vascular burden using the Fazekas scale assessed in a logistic regression analysis, and the volume of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) assessed in a multiple linear regression analysis. We also explored the associations of macular VD with hippocampal volume, ventricle volume and Alzheimer disease cortical signature (ADCS) thickness assessed in multiple linear regression analyses. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, syndromic diagnosis and cardiovascular variables.

The study cohort comprised 188 participants: 89 with subjective cognitive decline and 99 with mild cognitive impairment. No significant association of regional macular VD with the Fazekas categories (all, p > 0.111) and WMH volume (all, p > 0.051) were detected. VD in the nasal quadrant was associated to hippocampal volume (p = 0.007), but no other associations of macular VD with brain atrophy measures were detected (all, p > 0.05).

Retinal vascular measures were not a proxy of cerebrovascular damage in non-demented individuals, while VD in the nasal quadrant was associated with hippocampal atrophy independently of the amyloid status.

Profiles of subgingival microbiomes and gingival crevicular metabolic signatures in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

Journal Alzheimers Research Therapy

The relationship between periodontitis and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has attracted more attention recently, whereas profiles of subgingival microbiomes and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) metabolic signatures in AD patients have rarely been characterized; thus, little evidence exists to support the oral-brain axis hypothesis. Therefore, our study aimed to characterize both the microbial community of subgingival plaque and the metabolomic profiles of GCF in patients with AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) for the first time.

This was a cross-sectional study. Clinical examinations were performed on all participants. The microbial community of subgingival plaque and the metabolomic profiles of GCF were characterized using the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene high-throughput sequencing and liquid chromatography linked to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis, respectively.

Thirty-two patients with AD, 32 patients with aMCI, and 32 cognitively normal people were enrolled. The severity of periodontitis was significantly increased in AD patients compared with aMCI patients and cognitively normal people. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing results showed that the relative abundances of 16 species in subgingival plaque were significantly correlated with cognitive function, and LC-MS/MS analysis identified a total of 165 differentially abundant metabolites in GCF. Moreover, multiomics Data Integration Analysis for Biomarker discovery using Latent cOmponents (DIABLO) analysis revealed that 19 differentially abundant metabolites were significantly correlated with Veillonella parvula, Dialister pneumosintes, Leptotrichia buccalis, Pseudoleptotrichia goodfellowii, and Actinomyces massiliensis, in which galactinol, sn-glycerol 3-phosphoethanolamine, D-mannitol, 1 h-indole-1-pentanoic acid, 3-(1-naphthalenylcarbonyl)- and L-iditol yielded satisfactory accuracy for the predictive diagnosis of AD progression.

This is the first combined subgingival microbiome and GCF metabolome study in patients with AD and aMCI, which revealed that periodontal microbial dysbiosis and metabolic disorders may be involved in the etiology and progression of AD, and the differential abundance of the microbiota and metabolites may be useful as potential markers for AD in the future.

Lessons From the Coronavirus Disease Experience: Research Participant and Staff Satisfaction With Remote Cognitive Evaluations.

Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders

In New York City in 2020 the pandemic shut down in-person research. Icahn School of Medicine's Alzheimer's Disease Research Center transitioned longitudinal evaluations from in-person to telephone to enhance equity of access. We assessed diverse research participants' and clinical research coordinators' (CRC) satisfaction with remote evaluation and examined sociodemographic, cognitive, and behavioral factors that might impact satisfaction.

Data collected: 241 participants with Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) = 0/0.5 (3/2020 to 6/2021). A Telehealth Satisfaction Questionnaire for CRCs and participants was administered at the end of remote evaluations. We compared Telehealth Satisfaction Questionnaire items by CDR and Geriatric Depression Scale.

Participants' mean age was 78.4, 61.4% were females, 16.2% were Hispanic, 17.1% Asian, 15.8% were non-Hispanic black, and 72.6% CDR = 0. Participant satisfaction was high [14.1 ± 1.4 (out of 15)] but was lower among those with depression. CRC satisfaction was high [16.9 ± 1.8 (out of 18)] but was lower concerning the ability to explain the test battery and interact with participants with CDR = 0.5.

Telephone research assessments provide flexibility in a hybrid model. They offer equitable access to research participation for those who do not use computer technology and may promote the retention of diverse elderly research participants.

APOE ε4 allele status modulates the spatial patterns of progressive atrophy in the temporal lobes after mild traumatic brain injury.

Alzheimers Dementia Amsterdam

We evaluated how the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele modulated the spatial patterns of longitudinal atrophy in the Alzheimer's disease-vulnerable brain areas of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) from the acute to chronic phase post injury.

Fifty-nine adult patients with acute mTBI and 48 healthy controls with APOE ε4 allele testing underwent T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological assessments with 6 to 12 months of follow-up. Progressive brain volume loss was compared voxel-wise in the temporal lobes.

Patients with the APOE ε4 allele presented significant longitudinal atrophy in the left superior and middle temporal gyri, where the progressive gray matter volume loss predicted longitudinal impairment in language fluency, whereas mTBI APOE ε4 allele noncarriers showed mainly significant longitudinal atrophy in the medial temporal lobes, without significant neuropsychological relevance.

The atrophy progression observed in mTBI patients with the APOE ε4 allele may increase the possibility of developing a specific phenotype of Alzheimer's disease with language dysfunction.

The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression.It is unclear how the interaction of mTBI with the APOE ε4 allele impacts the progressive atrophy topography in AD-vulnerable brain regions.In this study, patients with the APOE ε4 allele showed progressive atrophy patterns similar to the early stage of logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA) phenotype of AD. APOE ε4 allele carriers with mTBI history may be at the risk of developing a given AD phenotype with language dysfunction.

Personalized modeling of Alzheimer's disease progression estimates neurodegeneration severity from EEG recordings.

Alzheimers Dementia Amsterdam

Early identification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is necessary for a timely onset of therapeutic care. However, cortical structural alterations associated with AD are difficult to discern.

We developed a cortical model of AD-related neurodegeneration accounting for slowing of local dynamics and global connectivity degradation. In a monocentric study we collected electroencephalography (EEG) recordings at rest from participants in healthy (HC, n = 17), subjective cognitive decline (SCD, n = 58), and mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 44) conditions. For each patient, we estimated neurodegeneration model parameters based on individual EEG recordings.

Our model outperformed standard EEG analysis not only in discriminating between HC and MCI conditions (F1 score 0.95 vs 0.75) but also in identifying SCD patients with biological hallmarks of AD in the cerebrospinal fluid (recall 0.87 vs 0.50).

Personalized models could (1) support classification of MCI, (2) assess the presence of AD pathology, and (3) estimate the risk of cognitive decline progression, based only on economical and non-invasive EEG recordings.

Personalized cortical model estimating structural alterations from EEG recordings.Discrimination of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Healthy (HC) subjects (95%)Prediction of biological markers of Alzheimer's in Subjective Decline (SCD) Subjects (87%)Transition correctly predicted for 3/3 subjects that converted from SCD to MCI after 1y.

Day-to-day sleep variability with Alzheimer's biomarkers in at-risk elderly.

Alzheimers Dementia Amsterdam

Measuring day-to-day sleep variability might reveal unstable sleep-wake cycles reflecting neurodegenerative processes. We evaluated the association between Alzheimer's disease (AD) fluid biomarkers with day-to-day sleep variability.

In the PREVENT-AD cohort, 203 dementia-free participants (age: 68.3 ± 5.4; 78 males) with a parental history of sporadic AD were tested with actigraphy and fluid biomarkers. Day-to-day variability (standard deviations over a week) was assessed for sleep midpoint, duration, efficiency, and nighttime activity count.

Lower cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ApoE, higher CSF p-tau181/amyloid-β (Aβ)42, and higher plasma p-tau231/Aβ42 were associated with higher variability of sleep midpoint, sleep duration, and/or activity count. The associations between fluid biomarkers with greater sleep duration variability were especially observed in those that carried the APOE4 allele, mild cognitive impairment converters, or those with gray matter atrophy.

Day-to-day sleep variability were associated with biomarkers of AD in at-risk individuals, suggesting that unstable sleep promotes neurodegeneration or, conversely, that AD neuropathology disrupts sleep-wake cycles.

Caregivers' attitudes toward blood-based biomarker testing for Alzheimer's disease.

Alzheimers Dementia Amsterdam

We aimed to evaluate informal caregivers' attitudes toward undergoing and future implementation of blood-based biomarkers (BBBM) testing for Alzheimer's disease (AD).

We explored caregivers' perspectives, by combining an online survey (n = 107) with a subsequent focus group (n = 7). We used descriptive statistics and thematic content analysis to identify common themes in answers to open-ended survey questions and focus group data.

Most caregivers (72.0%) favored BBBM for AD diagnosis. Provided with hypothetical scenarios, confidence in a normal result decreased significantly if experienced symptoms were more severe (mild: 78.5% vs. severe: 48.6%). Caregivers' attitudes toward BBBM for screening purposes significantly improved with prospect of treatment (53.3% vs. 92.5%). Concerns toward BBBM testing included treatment unavailability, increased/prolonged distress, and AD-related stigma. Potential benefits were actionability, explanation for symptoms, and opportunities for better care and future treatment.

Emerging AD treatment and reduction of AD-related stigma could profoundly increase public interest in BBBM testing for AD.

Most informal caregivers would want blood-based biomarker (BBBM) testing for Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosis.Perceived (dis)advantages were related to diagnosing AD early.With severe symptoms, there was less confidence in normal BBBM results.Treatment availability would significantly increase interest in BBBM testing for AD.Informal caregivers showed uncertainty regarding the meaning of the term "AD."