The latest medical research on Geriatric Medicine

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about geriatric medicine gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Alzheimer Disease and Cancer: A National Inpatient Sample Analysis.

Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders

Studies have demonstrated an inverse relationship between Alzheimer dementia (AD) and cancer. This inverse relationship was further explored. In addition, Pin1 expression has been implicated in the cell cycle regulation of both disease processes. The relationship of Pin1 expression in 10 cancer types and secondary diagnosis of AD was examined.

A cross-sectional analysis was performed using discharge data from the National Inpatient Sample from 1999 to 2008. Cancer was defined as the primary discharge diagnosis and AD was defined as the secondary discharge diagnosis. Cancer types were grouped according to their Pin1 expression to examine its relationship with AD. Analysis was performed by logistic regression.

Of ∼ 3 million cancer discharge diagnoses, 1.0% had a secondary diagnosis of AD. Discharge data of all 10 cancer types revealed a lower likelihood of secondary AD diagnosis. Prostate [crude odds ratios (OR): 0.26 (0.24 to 0.29), multivariate OR: 0.39 (0.35 to 0.43)], ovarian [crude OR: 0.38 (0.32 to 0.44), multivariate OR: 0.35 (0.30 to 0.41)], and lung cancer [crude OR: 0.39 (0.36 to 0.41), multivariate OR: 0.41 (0.39 to 0.44)] demonstrated the lowest odds of secondary AD diagnosis. When cancer types were grouped per Pin1 expression, cancer types with Pin1 underexpression were more likely to be associated with secondary diagnosis of AD than cancer types with Pin1 overexpression [crude OR: 1.4 (1.3 to 1.4), multivariate OR: 1.08 (1.02 to 1.14)].

This secondary data analysis further demonstrated an inverse relationship between AD and 10 cancer types, with prostate, ovarian, and lung cancers displaying the greatest inverse relationship. Pin1 underexpressing cancer types had a significantly higher likelihood of secondary diagnosis of AD than Pin1 overexpressing cancer types.

Consumer experiences of home care packages.

Australasian Journal on Ageing

The study aimed to explore consumers' experiences of receiving a home care package (HCP).

Community engagement was used to recruit older people approved for a HCP. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews, and data analysis identified themes.

Effective consumer-directed care depends on access to reliable information. Participants who reported satisfactory experiences had: (a) providers that charged reasonable fees; (b) case managers who delivered person-centred care; (c) support workers who were consistently assigned to them; (d) a family member for support and advocacy; and (e) ongoing community engagement.

Positive consumer experience requires tighter regulation of providers and policy attention to fees and minimal standards of staff training. The policy of full cost recovery restricts consumers' access to local government services.

A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019.

N Engl J

In December 2019, a cluster of patients with pneumonia of unknown cause was linked to a seafood wholesale market in Wuhan, China. A previously unkn...

Factors associated with accessing aged care services in Australia after approval for services: Findings from the historical cohort of the Registry of Senior Australians.

Australasian Journal on Ageing

To evaluate access to approved aged care services and factors associated with accessing these services.

A retrospective cohort study was conducted (1/7/2003-30/6/2013). The incidence of accessing permanent residential, home and respite care services within one year, or transition care within 28 days of approval, was evaluated. The association of participants' socio-demographic characteristics, limitations, health conditions and assessment characteristics with service use was evaluated.

In 799 750 older Australians, the incidence of accessing approved permanent residential care within one year was 70.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 70.8%-71.0%), home care 49.5% (95% CI 49.3%-49.7%) and respite care 41.8% (95% CI 41.7%-41.9%). The incidence of accessing transition care within 28 days was 78.5% (95% CI 78.2%-78.7%). Aged care seekers', assessments' and assessors' characteristics are associated with service access.

Monitoring the use of aged care service approvals to identify service access barriers can support ongoing evidence-based policy changes.

Patterns of hospital utilisation in the lead up to a diagnosis of dementia: A longitudinal retrospective study of hospital dementia patients in Australia.

Australasian Journal on Ageing

To describe patterns of hospitalisation in the years preceding the first (index) admission coded with dementia.

Retrospective longitudinal analysis of hospitalisation preceding an index admission for dementia for 7919 patients and a matched cohort in a regional local health district of New South Wales, Australia, from 1 July 2006 to 31 December 2016.

The dementia cohort experienced a sharp increase in frequency of hospitalisation, particularly in the year pre-index, and primarily for falls and urinary tract infections. They also demonstrated more episodes for nervous and musculoskeletal illnesses and injuries than controls and visited emergency department more frequently with neurological illnesses and injuries.

Findings highlight opportunities for earlier diagnosis of dementia in hospital, through more targeted screening and follow-up of suspected cases with comprehensive geriatric assessment prior to discharge. This may result in a definitive diagnosis on discharge, allowing for better coordination of ongoing management to prevent unnecessary readmissions.

Vaccination of Infants with Meningococcal Group B Vaccine (4CMenB) in England.

N Engl J

In September 2015, the United Kingdom introduced the multicomponent meningococcal group B vaccine (4CMenB, Bexsero) into its publicly funded national immunization program at a reduced two-dose priming schedule for infants, with a 12-month booster.

Using data from enhanced national surveillance of invasive meningococcal disease in England, we evaluated the effect of vaccination on the incidence of meningococcal group B disease during the first 3 years of the program. The effect of vaccination was assessed by comparing the observed incidence of disease with the expected incidence based on the incidence during the 4-year prevaccination period in equivalent cohorts and with the use of disease trends in cohorts of children younger than 5 years of age who were not eligible to receive the vaccine. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated with the use of the indirect screening method.

4CMenB uptake in England remained consistently high; data from the first 3 months of 2018 showed that 92.5% of children had completed the primary immunizations by their first birthday and 87.9% had received all three doses by 2 years. From September 2015 through August 2018, the incidence of meningococcal group B disease in England (average annual birth cohort, approximately 650,000 infants) was significantly lower in vaccine-eligible cohorts than the expected incidence (63 observed cases as compared with 253 expected cases; incidence rate ratio, 0.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.19 to 0.36), with a 75% reduction in age groups that were fully eligible for vaccination. The adjusted vaccine effectiveness against meningococcal group B disease was 52.7% (95% CI, -33.5 to 83.2) with a two-dose priming schedule for infants and 59.1% (95% CI, -31.1 to 87.2) with a two-dose priming schedule plus a booster at 1 year). Over the 3-year period, there were 169 cases of meningococcal group B disease in the vaccine-eligible cohorts, and an estimated 277 cases (95% CI, 236 to 323) were prevented.

The 4CMenB program was associated with continued positive effect against meningococcal group B disease in children in England, and protection after three doses of the vaccine was sustained for at least 2 years. (Funded by Public Health England.).

Meningococcal B Vaccine and Meningococcal Carriage in Adolescents in Australia.

N Engl J

The meningococcal group B vaccine 4CMenB is a new, recombinant protein-based vaccine that is licensed to protect against invasive group B meningococcal disease. However, its role in preventing transmission and, therefore, inducing population (herd) protection is uncertain.

We used cluster randomization to assign, according to school, students in years 10 to 12 (age, 15 to 18 years) in South Australia to receive 4CMenB vaccination either at baseline (intervention) or at 12 months (control). The primary outcome was oropharyngeal carriage of disease-causing Neisseria meningitidis (group A, B, C, W, X, or Y) in students in years 10 and 11, as identified by polymerase-chain-reaction assays for PorA (encoding porin protein A) and N. meningitidis genogroups. Secondary outcomes included carriage prevalence and acquisition of all N. meningitidis and individual disease-causing genogroups. Risk factors for carriage were assessed at baseline.

A total of 237 schools participated. During April through June 2017, a total of 24,269 students in years 10 and 11 and 10,220 students in year 12 were enrolled. At 12 months, there was no difference in the prevalence of carriage of disease-causing N. meningitidis between the vaccination group (2.55%; 326 of 12,746) and the control group (2.52%; 291 of 11,523) (adjusted odds ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 1.31; P = 0.85). There were no significant differences in the secondary carriage outcomes. At baseline, the risk factors for carriage of disease-causing N. meningitidis included later year of schooling (adjusted odds ratio for year 12 vs. year 10, 2.75; 95% CI, 2.03 to 3.73), current upper respiratory tract infection (adjusted odds ratio, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.63), cigarette smoking (adjusted odds ratio, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.29 to 2.83), water-pipe smoking (adjusted odds ratio, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.30 to 2.54), attending pubs or clubs (adjusted odds ratio, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.28 to 1.86), and intimate kissing (adjusted odds ratio, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.33 to 2.05). No vaccine safety concerns were identified.

Among Australian adolescents, the 4CMenB vaccine had no discernible effect on the carriage of disease-causing meningococci, including group B. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03089086.).

Elagolix for Heavy Menstrual Bleeding in Women with Uterine Fibroids.

N Engl J

Uterine fibroids are hormone-responsive neoplasms that are associated with heavy menstrual bleeding. Elagolix, an oral gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist resulting in rapid, reversible suppression of ovarian sex hormones, may reduce fibroid-associated bleeding.

We conducted two identical, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, 6-month phase 3 trials (Elaris Uterine Fibroids 1 and 2 [UF-1 and UF-2]) to evaluate the efficacy and safety of elagolix at a dose of 300 mg twice daily with hormonal "add-back" therapy (to replace reduced levels of endogenous hormones; in this case, estradiol, 1 mg, and norethindrone acetate, 0.5 mg, once daily) in women with fibroid-associated bleeding. An elagolix-alone group was included to assess the impact of add-back therapy on the hypoestrogenic effects of elagolix. The primary end point was menstrual blood loss of less than 80 ml during the final month of treatment and at least a 50% reduction in menstrual blood loss from baseline to the final month; missing data were imputed with the use of multiple imputation.

A total of 412 women in UF-1 and 378 women in UF-2 underwent randomization, received elagolix or placebo, and were included in the analyses. Criteria for the primary end point were met in 68.5% of 206 women in UF-1 and in 76.5% of 189 women in UF-2 who received elagolix plus add-back therapy, as compared with 8.7% of 102 women and 10% of 94 women, respectively, who received placebo (P<0.001 for both trials). Among the women who received elagolix alone, the primary end point was met in 84.1% of 104 women in UF-1 and in 77% of 95 women in UF-2. Hot flushes (in both trials) and metrorrhagia (in UF-1) occurred significantly more commonly with elagolix plus add-back therapy than with placebo. Hypoestrogenic effects of elagolix, especially decreases in bone mineral density, were attenuated with add-back therapy.

Elagolix with add-back therapy was effective in reducing heavy menstrual bleeding in women with uterine fibroids. (Funded by AbbVie; Elaris UF-1 and Elaris UF-2 ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT02654054 and NCT02691494.).

Teprotumumab for the Treatment of Active Thyroid Eye Disease.

N Engl J

Thyroid eye disease is a debilitating, disfiguring, and potentially blinding periocular condition for which no Food and Drug Administration-approved medical therapy is available. Strong evidence has implicated the insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) in the pathogenesis of this disease.

In a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, phase 3 multicenter trial, we assigned patients with active thyroid eye disease in a 1:1 ratio to receive intravenous infusions of the IGF-IR inhibitor teprotumumab (10 mg per kilogram of body weight for the first infusion and 20 mg per kilogram for subsequent infusions) or placebo once every 3 weeks for 21 weeks; the last trial visit for this analysis was at week 24. The primary outcome was a proptosis response (a reduction in proptosis of ≥2 mm) at week 24. Prespecified secondary outcomes at week 24 were an overall response (a reduction of ≥2 points in the Clinical Activity Score plus a reduction in proptosis of ≥2 mm), a Clinical Activity Score of 0 or 1 (indicating no or minimal inflammation), the mean change in proptosis across trial visits (from baseline through week 24), a diplopia response (a reduction in diplopia of ≥1 grade), and the mean change in overall score on the Graves' ophthalmopathy-specific quality-of-life (GO-QOL) questionnaire across trial visits (from baseline through week 24; a mean change of ≥6 points is considered clinically meaningful).

A total of 41 patients were assigned to the teprotumumab group and 42 to the placebo group. At week 24, the percentage of patients with a proptosis response was higher with teprotumumab than with placebo (83% [34 patients] vs. 10% [4 patients], P<0.001), with a number needed to treat of 1.36. All secondary outcomes were significantly better with teprotumumab than with placebo, including overall response (78% of patients [32] vs. 7% [3]), Clinical Activity Score of 0 or 1 (59% [24] vs. 21% [9]), the mean change in proptosis (-2.82 mm vs. -0.54 mm), diplopia response (68% [19 of 28] vs. 29% [8 of 28]), and the mean change in GO-QOL overall score (13.79 points vs. 4.43 points) (P≤0.001 for all). Reductions in extraocular muscle, orbital fat volume, or both were observed in 6 patients in the teprotumumab group who underwent orbital imaging. Most adverse events were mild or moderate in severity; two serious events occurred in the teprotumumab group, of which one (an infusion reaction) led to treatment discontinuation.

Among patients with active thyroid eye disease, teprotumumab resulted in better outcomes with respect to proptosis, Clinical Activity Score, diplopia, and quality of life than placebo; serious adverse events were uncommon. (Funded by Horizon Therapeutics; OPTIC ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03298867, and EudraCT number, 2017-002763-18.).

Lack of Association Between the CCR5-delta32 Polymorphism and Neurodegenerative Disorders.

Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders

Recent studies have suggested that diminished Ccr5 functioning has an effect on synaptic plasticity and hippocampal memory in mouse models. CCR5-delta32, a 32-bp frameshift deletion in human CCR5 encoding a nonfunctional receptor, has been reported to have a protective effect against human immunodeficiency virus infection but its role as a modifier of neurodegenerative disease has been minimally explored. We investigated whether the CCR5-delta32 polymorphism could have an effect in the context of human neurodegenerative diseases.

We examined the frequency of the CCR5-delta32 polymorphism in a large and well-characterized cohort including 1425 patients with neurodegenerative dementias and 2032 controls.

We did not observe a significant association between the CCR5-delta32 polymorphism and any of the neurodegenerative diseases screened in this study. However, we observed an earlier age of onset among neurodegenerative disease patients carrying the CCR5-delta32 allele.

Although our findings were inconclusive, the earlier age of onset observed among neurodegenerative disease patients carrying the CCR5-delta32 allele suggests that the deletion may have a detrimental effect in the context of neurodegeneration.

A cross-sectional and longitudinal study on the protective effect of bilingualism against dementia using brain atrophy and cognitive measures.

Journal Alzheimers Research Therapy

Evidence from previous studies suggests that bilingualism contributes to cognitive reserve because bilinguals manifest the first symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) up to 5 years later than monolinguals. Other cross-sectional studies demonstrate that bilinguals show greater amounts of brain atrophy and hypometabolism than monolinguals, despite sharing the same diagnosis and suffering from the same symptoms. However, these studies may be biased by possible pre-existing between-group differences.

In this study, we used global parenchymal measures of atrophy and cognitive tests to investigate the protective effect of bilingualism against dementia cross-sectionally and prospectively, using a sample of bilinguals and monolinguals in the same clinical stage and matched on sociodemographic variables.

Our results suggest that the two groups did not differ in their cognitive status at baseline, but bilinguals had less parenchymal volume than monolinguals, especially in areas related to brain atrophy in dementia. In addition, a longitudinal prospective analysis revealed that monolinguals lost more parenchyma and had more cognitive decline than bilinguals in a mean follow-up period of 7 months.

These results provide the first prospective evidence that bilingualism may act as a neuroprotective factor against dementia and could be considered a factor in cognitive reserve.

Nrf2 activation through the PI3K/GSK-3 axis protects neuronal cells from Aβ-mediated oxidative and metabolic damage.

Journal Alzheimers Research Therapy

Mounting evidence points to a crucial role of amyloid-β (Aβ) in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a disorder in which brain glucose hypometabolism, downregulation of central elements of phosphorylation pathways, reduced ATP levels, and enhanced oxidative damage coexist, and sometimes precede, synaptic alterations and clinical manifestations. Since the brain has limited energy storage capacity, mitochondria play essential roles in maintaining the high levels of energy demand, but, as major consumers of oxygen, these organelles are also the most important generators of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Thus, it is not surprising that mitochondrial dysfunction is tightly linked to synaptic loss and AD pathophysiology. In spite of their relevance, the mechanistic links among ROS homeostasis, metabolic alterations, and cell bioenergetics, particularly in relation to Aβ, still remain elusive.

We have used classic biochemical and immunocytochemical approaches together with the evaluation of real-time changes in global energy metabolism in a Seahorse Metabolic Analyzer to provide insights into the detrimental role of oligAβ in SH-SY5Y and primary neurons testing their pharmacologic protection by small molecules.

Our findings indicate that oligomeric Aβ induces a dramatic increase in ROS production and severely affects neuronal metabolism and bioenergetics. Assessment of global energy metabolism in real time demonstrated Aβ-mediated reduction in oxygen consumption affecting basal and maximal respiration and causing decreased ATP production. Pharmacologic targeting of Aβ-challenged neurons with a set of small molecules of known antioxidant and cytoprotective activity prevented the metabolic/bioenergetic changes induced by the peptide, fully restoring mitochondrial function while inducing an antioxidant response that counterbalanced the ROS production. Search for a mechanistic link among the protective small molecules tested identified the transcription factor Nrf2-compromised by age and downregulated in AD and transgenic models-as their main target and the PI3K/GSK-3 axis as the central pathway through which the compounds elicit their Aβ protective action.

Our study provides insights into the complex molecular mechanisms triggered by oligAβ which profoundly affect mitochondrial performance and argues for the inclusion of small molecules targeting the PI3K/GSK-3 axis and Nrf2-mediated pathways as part of the current or future combinatorial therapies.