The latest medical research on Geriatric Medicine

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about geriatric medicine gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Trastuzumab Deruxtecan in Previously Treated HER2-Positive Gastric Cancer.

N Engl J

Trastuzumab deruxtecan (DS-8201) is an antibody-drug conjugate consisting of an anti-HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) antibody, a cleavable tetrapeptide-based linker, and a cytotoxic topoisomerase I inhibitor. The drug may have efficacy in patients with HER2-positive advanced gastric cancer.

In an open-label, randomized, phase 2 trial, we evaluated trastuzumab deruxtecan as compared with chemotherapy in patients with HER2-positive advanced gastric cancer. Patients with centrally confirmed HER2-positive gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma that had progressed while they were receiving at least two previous therapies, including trastuzumab, were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive trastuzumab deruxtecan (6.4 mg per kilogram of body weight every 3 weeks) or physician's choice of chemotherapy. The primary end point was the objective response, according to independent central review. Secondary end points included overall survival, response duration, progression-free survival, confirmed response (response persisting ≥4 weeks), and safety.

Of 187 treated patients, 125 received trastuzumab deruxtecan and 62 chemotherapy (55 received irinotecan and 7 paclitaxel). An objective response was reported in 51% of the patients in the trastuzumab deruxtecan group, as compared with 14% of those in the physician's choice group (P<0.001). Overall survival was longer with trastuzumab deruxtecan than with chemotherapy (median, 12.5 vs. 8.4 months; hazard ratio for death, 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.39 to 0.88; P = 0.01, which crossed the prespecified O'Brien-Fleming boundary [0.0202 on the basis of number of deaths]). The most common adverse events of grade 3 or higher were a decreased neutrophil count (in 51% of the trastuzumab deruxtecan group and 24% of the physician's choice group), anemia (38% and 23%, respectively), and decreased white-cell count (21% and 11%). A total of 12 patients had trastuzumab deruxtecan-related interstitial lung disease or pneumonitis (grade 1 or 2 in 9 patients and grade 3 or 4 in 3), as adjudicated by an independent committee. One drug-related death (due to pneumonia) was noted in the trastuzumab deruxtecan group; no drug-related deaths occurred in the physician's choice group.

Therapy with trastuzumab deruxtecan led to significant improvements in response and overall survival, as compared with standard therapies, among patients with HER2-positive gastric cancer. Myelosuppression and interstitial lung disease were the notable toxic effects. (Funded by Daiichi Sankyo; DESTINY-Gastric01 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03329690.).

Oral Relugolix for Androgen-Deprivation Therapy in Advanced Prostate Cancer.

N Engl J

Injectable luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists (e.g., leuprolide) are the standard agents for achieving androgen deprivation for prostate cancer despite the initial testosterone surge and delay in therapeutic effect. The efficacy and safety of relugolix, an oral gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist, as compared with those of leuprolide are not known.

In this phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned patients with advanced prostate cancer, in a 2:1 ratio, to receive relugolix (120 mg orally once daily) or leuprolide (injections every 3 months) for 48 weeks. The primary end point was sustained testosterone suppression to castrate levels (<50 ng per deciliter) through 48 weeks. Secondary end points included noninferiority with respect to the primary end point, castrate levels of testosterone on day 4, and profound castrate levels (<20 ng per deciliter) on day 15. Testosterone recovery was evaluated in a subgroup of patients.

A total of 622 patients received relugolix and 308 received leuprolide. Of men who received relugolix, 96.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 94.9 to 97.9) maintained castration through 48 weeks, as compared with 88.8% (95% CI, 84.6 to 91.8) of men receiving leuprolide. The difference of 7.9 percentage points (95% CI, 4.1 to 11.8) showed noninferiority and superiority of relugolix (P<0.001 for superiority). All other key secondary end points showed superiority of relugolix over leuprolide (P<0.001). The percentage of patients with castrate levels of testosterone on day 4 was 56.0% with relugolix and 0% with leuprolide. In the subgroup of 184 patients followed for testosterone recovery, the mean testosterone levels 90 days after treatment discontinuation were 288.4 ng per deciliter in the relugolix group and 58.6 ng per deciliter in the leuprolide group. Among all the patients, the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events was 2.9% in the relugolix group and 6.2% in the leuprolide group (hazard ratio, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.88).

In this trial involving men with advanced prostate cancer, relugolix achieved rapid, sustained suppression of testosterone levels that was superior to that with leuprolide, with a 54% lower risk of major adverse cardiovascular events. (Funded by Myovant Sciences; HERO ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03085095.).

Enzalutamide and Survival in Nonmetastatic, Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.

N Engl J

Preliminary trial results showed that enzalutamide significantly improved metastasis-free survival among men who had nonmetastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer and rapidly increasing prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels while taking androgen-deprivation therapy. Results from the final analysis of overall survival have not yet been reported.

In this double-blind, phase 3 trial, men with nonmetastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer (defined on the basis of conventional imaging and a PSA doubling time of ≤10 months) who were continuing to receive androgen-deprivation therapy were randomly assigned (in a 2:1 ratio) to receive enzalutamide at a dose of 160 mg or placebo once daily. Overall survival was assessed with a group sequential testing procedure and an O'Brien-Fleming-type alpha-spending function.

As of October 15, 2019, a total of 288 of 933 patients (31%) in the enzalutamide group and 178 of 468 (38%) in the placebo group had died. Median overall survival was 67.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 64.0 to not reached) in the enzalutamide group and 56.3 months (95% CI, 54.4 to 63.0) in the placebo group (hazard ratio for death, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.89; P = 0.001). The exposure-adjusted rate of adverse events of grade 3 or higher was 17 per 100 patient-years in the enzalutamide group and 20 per 100 patient-years in the placebo group. Adverse events in the enzalutamide group were consistent with those previously reported for enzalutamide; the most frequently reported events were fatigue and musculoskeletal events.

Enzalutamide plus androgen-deprivation therapy resulted in longer median overall survival than placebo plus androgen-deprivation therapy among men with nonmetastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer and a rapidly rising PSA level. The risk of death associated with enzalutamide was 27% lower than with placebo. Adverse events were consistent with the established safety profile of enzalutamide. (Funded by Pfizer and Astellas Pharma; PROSPER ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02003924.).

Tepotinib in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer with MET Exon 14 Skipping Mutations.

N Engl J

A splice-site mutation that results in a loss of transcription of exon 14 in the oncogenic driver MET occurs in 3 to 4% of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We evaluated the efficacy and safety of tepotinib, a highly selective MET inhibitor, in this patient population.

In this open-label, phase 2 study, we administered tepotinib (at a dose of 500 mg) once daily in patients with advanced or metastatic NSCLC with a confirmed MET exon 14 skipping mutation. The primary end point was the objective response by independent review among patients who had undergone at least 9 months of follow-up. The response was also analyzed according to whether the presence of a MET exon 14 skipping mutation was detected on liquid biopsy or tissue biopsy.

As of January 1, 2020, a total of 152 patients had received tepotinib, and 99 patients had been followed for at least 9 months. The response rate by independent review was 46% (95% confidence interval [CI], 36 to 57), with a median duration of response of 11.1 months (95% CI, 7.2 to could not be estimated) in the combined-biopsy group. The response rate was 48% (95% CI, 36 to 61) among 66 patients in the liquid-biopsy group and 50% (95% CI, 37 to 63) among 60 patients in the tissue-biopsy group; 27 patients had positive results according to both methods. The investigator-assessed response rate was 56% (95% CI, 45 to 66) and was similar regardless of the previous therapy received for advanced or metastatic disease. Adverse events of grade 3 or higher that were considered by investigators to be related to tepotinib therapy were reported in 28% of the patients, including peripheral edema in 7%. Adverse events led to permanent discontinuation of tepotinib in 11% of the patients. A molecular response, as measured in circulating free DNA, was observed in 67% of the patients with matched liquid-biopsy samples at baseline and during treatment.

Among patients with advanced NSCLC with a confirmed MET exon 14 skipping mutation, the use of tepotinib was associated with a partial response in approximately half the patients. Peripheral edema was the main toxic effect of grade 3 or higher. (Funded by Merck [Darmstadt, Germany]; VISION ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02864992.).

Reversal of calcium dysregulation as potential approach for treating Alzheimer's Disease.

Current Alzheimer Research

Despite decades of research and effort, there is still no effective disease-modifying treatment for Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Most of the recent AD...

APOE ε4 genotype-dependent cerebrospinal fluid proteomic signatures in Alzheimer's disease.

Journal Alzheimers Research Therapy

Aggregation of amyloid β into plaques in the brain is one of the earliest pathological events in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The exact pathophysiology leading to dementia is still uncertain, but the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 genotype plays a major role. We aimed to identify the molecular pathways associated with amyloid β aggregation using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteomics and to study the potential modifying effects of APOE ε4 genotype.

We tested 243 proteins and protein fragments in CSF comparing 193 subjects with AD across the cognitive spectrum (65% APOE ε4 carriers, average age 75 ± 7 years) against 60 controls with normal CSF amyloid β, normal cognition, and no APOE ε4 allele (average age 75 ± 6 years).

One hundred twenty-nine proteins (53%) were associated with aggregated amyloid β. APOE ε4 carriers with AD showed altered concentrations of proteins involved in the complement pathway and glycolysis when cognition was normal and lower concentrations of proteins involved in synapse structure and function when cognitive impairment was moderately severe. APOE ε4 non-carriers with AD showed lower expression of proteins involved in synapse structure and function when cognition was normal and lower concentrations of proteins that were associated with complement and other inflammatory processes when cognitive impairment was mild. Repeating analyses for 114 proteins that were available in an independent EMIF-AD MBD dataset (n = 275) showed that 80% of the proteins showed group differences in a similar direction, but overall, 28% effects reached statistical significance (ranging between 6 and 87% depending on the disease stage and genotype), suggesting variable reproducibility.

These results imply that AD pathophysiology depends on APOE genotype and that treatment for AD may need to be tailored according to APOE genotype and severity of the cognitive impairment.

The Alzheimer's Prevention Initiative Composite Cognitive Test: a practical measure for tracking cognitive decline in preclinical Alzheimer's disease.

Journal Alzheimers Research Therapy

There is growing interest in identifying sensitive composite cognitive tests to serve as primary endpoints in preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) treatment trials. We reported previously a composite cognitive test score sensitive to tracking preclinical AD decline up to 5 years prior to clinical diagnosis. Here we expand upon and refine this work, empirically deriving a composite cognitive test score sensitive to tracking preclinical AD decline up to 11 years prior to diagnosis and suitable for use as a primary endpoint in a preclinical AD trial.

This study used a longitudinal approach to maximize sensitivity to tracking progressive cognitive decline in people who progressed to the clinical stages of AD (n = 868) compared to those who remained cognitively unimpaired during the same time period (n = 989), thereby correcting for normal aging and practice effects. Specifically, we developed the Alzheimer's Prevention Initiative Preclinical Composite Cognitive test (APCC) to measure very early longitudinal cognitive decline in older adults with preclinical AD. Data from three cohorts from Rush University were analyzed using a partial least squares (PLS) regression model to identify optimal composites within different time periods prior to diagnosis, up to 11 years prior to diagnosis. The mean-to-standard deviation ratio (MSDRs) is an indicator of sensitivity to change and was used to inform the final calculation of the composite score.

The optimal composite, the APCC, is calculated: 0.26*Symbol Digit Modalities + 2.24*MMSE Orientation to Time + 2.14*MMSE Orientation to Place + 0.53*Logical Memory Delayed Recall + 1.36* Word List-Delayed Recall + 0.68*Judgment of Line Orientation + 1.39*Raven's Progressive Matrices Matrices (subset of 9 items from A and B). The MSDR of the APCC in a population of preclinical AD individuals who eventually progress to cognitive impairment, compared to those who remained cognitively unimpaired during the same time period, was - 1.10 over 1 year.

The APCC is an empirically derived composite cognitive test score with high face validity that is sensitive to preclinical AD decline up to 11 years prior to diagnosis of the clinical stages of AD. The components of the APCC are supported by theoretical understanding of cognitive decline that occurs during preclinical AD. The APCC was used as a primary outcome in the API Generation Program trials.

Partial reduction of amyloid β production by β-secretase inhibitors does not decrease synaptic transmission.

Journal Alzheimers Research Therapy

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Cerebral deposition of Aβ peptides, especially Aβ42, is considered the major neuropathological hallmark of AD and the putative cause of AD-related neurotoxicity. Aβ peptides are produced by sequential proteolytic processing of APP, with β-secretase (BACE) being the initiating enzyme. Therefore, BACE has been considered an attractive therapeutic target in AD research and several BACE inhibitors have been tested in clinical trials, but so far, all have had negative outcomes or even led to worsening of cognitive function. AD can be triggered by Aβ years before the first symptoms appear and one reason for the failures could be that the clinical trials were initiated too late in the disease process. Another possible explanation could be that BACE inhibition alters physiological APP processing in a manner that impairs synaptic function, causing cognitive deterioration.

The aim of this study was to investigate if partial BACE inhibition, mimicking the putative protective effect of the Icelandic mutation in the APP gene, could reduce Aβ generation without affecting synaptic transmission. To investigate this, we used an optical electrophysiology platform, in which effects of compounds on synaptic transmission in cultured neurons can be monitored. We employed this method on primary cortical rat neuronal cultures treated with three different BACE inhibitors (BACE inhibitor IV, LY2886721, and lanabecestat) and monitored Aβ secretion into the cell media.

We found that all three BACE inhibitors tested decreased synaptic transmission at concentrations leading to significantly reduced Aβ secretion. However, low-dose BACE inhibition, resulting in less than a 50% decrease in Aβ secretion, did not affect synaptic transmission for any of the inhibitors tested.

Our results indicate that Aβ production can be reduced by up to 50%, a level of reduction of relevance to the protective effect of the Icelandic mutation, without causing synaptic dysfunction. We therefore suggest that future clinical trials aimed at prevention of Aβ build-up in the brain should aim for a moderate CNS exposure of BACE inhibitors to avoid side effects on synaptic function.

Testing whether the progression of Alzheimer's disease changes with the year of publication, additional design, and geographical area: a modeling analysis of literature aggregate data.

Journal Alzheimers Research Therapy

Our objectives were to develop a disease progression model for cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to determine whether disease progression of AD is related to the year of publication, add-on trial design, and geographical regions.

Placebo-controlled randomized AD clinical trials were systemically searched in public databases. Longitudinal placebo response (mean change from baseline in the cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale [ADAS-cog]) and the corresponding demographic information were extracted to establish a disease progression model. Covariate screening and subgroup analyses were performed to identify potential factors affecting the disease progression rate.

A total of 134 publications (140 trials) were included in this model-based meta-analysis. The typical disease progression rate was 5.82 points per year. The baseline ADAS-cog score was included in the final model using an inverse U-type function. Age was found to be negatively correlated with disease progression rate. After correcting the baseline ADAS-cog score and the age effect, no significant difference in the disease progression rate was found between trials published before and after 2008 and between trials using an add-on design and those that did not use an add-on design. However, a significant difference was found among different trial regions. Trials in East Asian countries showed the slowest decline rate and the largest placebo effect.

Our model successfully quantified AD disease progression by integrating baseline ADAS-cog score and age as important predictors. These factors and geographic location should be considered when optimizing future trial designs and conducting indirect comparisons of clinical outcomes.

Remdesivir for 5 or 10 Days in Patients with Severe Covid-19.

N Engl J

Remdesivir is an RNA polymerase inhibitor with potent antiviral activity in vitro and efficacy in animal models of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19).

We conducted a randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial involving hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, oxygen saturation of 94% or less while they were breathing ambient air, and radiologic evidence of pneumonia. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive intravenous remdesivir for either 5 days or 10 days. All patients received 200 mg of remdesivir on day 1 and 100 mg once daily on subsequent days. The primary end point was clinical status on day 14, assessed on a 7-point ordinal scale.

In total, 397 patients underwent randomization and began treatment (200 patients for 5 days and 197 for 10 days). The median duration of treatment was 5 days (interquartile range, 5 to 5) in the 5-day group and 9 days (interquartile range, 5 to 10) in the 10-day group. At baseline, patients randomly assigned to the 10-day group had significantly worse clinical status than those assigned to the 5-day group (P = 0.02). By day 14, a clinical improvement of 2 points or more on the ordinal scale occurred in 64% of patients in the 5-day group and in 54% in the 10-day group. After adjustment for baseline clinical status, patients in the 10-day group had a distribution in clinical status at day 14 that was similar to that among patients in the 5-day group (P = 0.14). The most common adverse events were nausea (9% of patients), worsening respiratory failure (8%), elevated alanine aminotransferase level (7%), and constipation (7%).

In patients with severe Covid-19 not requiring mechanical ventilation, our trial did not show a significant difference between a 5-day course and a 10-day course of remdesivir. With no placebo control, however, the magnitude of benefit cannot be determined. (Funded by Gilead Sciences; GS-US-540-5773 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04292899.).

WWP1 Gain-of-Function Inactivation of PTEN in Cancer Predisposition.

N Engl J

Patients with PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS) have germline mutations in the tumor-suppressor gene encoding phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN). Such mutations have been associated with a hereditary predisposition to multiple types of cancer, including the Cowden syndrome. However, a majority of patients who have PHTS-related phenotypes have tested negative for PTEN mutations. In a previous study, we found that the E3 ubiquitin ligase WWP1 negatively regulates the function of PTEN.

In a prospective cohort study conducted from 2005 through 2015, we enrolled 431 patients with wild-type PTEN who met at least the relaxed diagnostic criteria of the International Cowden Consortium. Patients were scanned for WWP1 germline variants. We used the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data set as representative of apparently sporadic cancers and the Exome Aggregation Consortium data set excluding TCGA (non-TCGA ExAC) and the noncancer Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD) as representative of population controls without a reported cancer diagnosis. We established both in vitro and murine in vivo models to functionally characterize representative WWP1 variants.

The existence of germline WWP1 variants was first established in a family with wild-type PTEN who had oligopolyposis and early-onset colon cancers. A validation series indicated that WWP1 germline variants occurred in 5 of 126 unrelated patients (4%) with oligopolyposis as a predominant phenotype. Germline WWP1 variants, particularly the WWP1 K740N and N745S alleles, were enriched in patients who did not have PHTS but had prevalent sporadic cancers, including PTEN-related cancer types in TCGA (odds ratio, 1.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 2.1; P = 0.01). The prioritized WWP1 variants resulted in gain-of-function effects, which led to aberrant enzymatic activation with consequent PTEN inactivation, thereby triggering hyperactive growth-promoting PI3K signaling in cellular and murine models.

In this study involving patients with disorders resulting in a predisposition to the development of multiple malignant neoplasms without PTEN germline mutations, we confirmed the function of WWP1 as a cancer-susceptibility gene through direct aberrant regulation of the PTEN-PI3K signaling axis. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).

FDA Initiative for Drug Facts Label for Over-the-Counter Naloxone.

N Engl J

The opioid crisis highlights the need to increase access to naloxone, possibly through regulatory approval for over-the-counter sales. To address industry-perceived barriers to such access, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) developed a model drug facts label for such sales to assess whether consumers understood the key statements for safe and effective use.

In this label-comprehension study, we conducted individual structured interviews with 710 adults and adolescents, including 430 adults who use opioids and their family and friends. Eight primary end points were developed to assess user comprehension of each of the key steps in the label. Each of these end points included a prespecified target threshold ranging from 80 to 90% that was evaluated through a comparison of the lower boundary of the 95% exact confidence interval.

The results for performance on six primary end points met or exceeded thresholds, including the steps "Check for a suspected overdose" (threshold, 85%; point estimate [PE], 95.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 94.0 to 97.1) and "Give the first dose" (threshold, 85%; PE, 98.2%; 95% CI, 96.9 to 99.0). The lower boundaries for four other primary end points ranged from 88.8 to 94.0%. One exception was comprehension of "Call 911 immediately," but this instruction closely approximated the target of 90% (PE, 90.3%; 95% CI, 87.9 to 92.4). Another exception was comprehension of the composite step of "Check, give, and call 911 immediately" (threshold, 85%; PE, 81.1%; 95% CI, 78.0 to 83.9).

Consumers met thresholds for sufficient understanding of six of eight components of the instructions in the drug facts label for naloxone use and came close on two others. Overall, the FDA found that the model label was adequate for use in the development of a naloxone product intended for over-the-counter sales.