The latest medical research on Geriatric Medicine

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about geriatric medicine gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Ampelopsin improves cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease and involvement of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in the hippocampus.

Current Alzheimer Research

Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress have important effects on cognitive functions in the pathophysiological process of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the current study, we determined the effects of Ampelopsin (AMP) on the levels of proinflammatory cytokines (PICs, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α), and products of oxidative stress 8-isoprostaglandin F2α (8-iso PGF2α, a product of oxidative stress); and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, a key biomarker of protein oxidation) in the hippocampus using a rat model of AD.

ELISA was used to examine PICs and products of oxidative stress; and western blot analysis was used to examine protein expression of NADPH oxidase (NOXs). The Spatial working memory tests and Morris water maze were used to assess cognitive functions.

We observed amplification of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α as well as 8-iso PGF2α and 8-OHdG in the hippocampus of AD rats. Systemic administration of AMP attenuated upregulation of PICs and products of oxidative stress. AMP also inhibited NOX4 in the hippocampus of AD rats. Notably, AMP largely recovered the impaired learning performance in AD rat and this was linked to signal pathways of PIC and oxidative stress.

We showed the significant role of AMP in improving the memory impairment in AD rats likely via inhibition of signal pathways of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress suggesting that AMP may present prospects in preventing and/or alleviating development of the impaired cognitive functions in AD as a complementary alternative intervention.

Dual inhibition of DPP-4 and cholinesterase enzymes by phytoconstituents of an ethanolic extract of Prosopis cineraria pods: Therapeutic implications for the treatment of diabetes-associated neurological impairments.

Current Alzheimer Research

Insulin resistance causes decreased uptake of glucose which promotes susceptibility of type 2 associated neurological impairments.

The study was aimed to evaluate inhibition potential of an ethanolic extract of Prosopis cineraria (EPC) pods against DPP-4 and cholinesterase enzymes by in-vitro, in-vivo and in-silico assessments. The present study consists of in vivo studies on diabetes induced rat model by HOMA (Homeostasis of model Assessment) and related parameters, in vitro studies through DPP-4 enzyme assay, cholinesterase assays using Ellman's reaction. The in-silico studies were conducted by molecular docking of Cinerin C with targeted enzymes. The phytochemical characterization of the extract was demonstrated through LCMS studies. The antioxidant studies of extract were performed by FRAP and TEAC assays.

The extract showed 64.8% maximum inhibition of DPP-4, 34.91% inhibition of AChE and 74.35% inhibition of BuChE. Antioxidant capacity by an extract showed 847.81±16.25µM Fe2+ equivalent in case of FRAP assay and 0.40 ± 0.08 mmol/l of Trolox equivalent in TEAC assay. In vivo study shown competent glycaemic control against significant HOMA IR (1.5), HOMA % β (26.5) and HOMA % S (68.8) as well as pancreatic cell mass proliferation. The in-silico analysis also revealed positive pharmacophores interactions of Cinerin C with targeted enzymes (DPP4 and cholinesterase).

It can be concluded that phytoconstituents of Prosopis cineraria pod extract may be significantly consider in neuropharmacology to resolve insulin resistance induced neurological complications as shown inhibition against DPP-4, AChE and BuChE targets enzymes.

Effects of functional tasks exercise on cognitive functions of older adults with mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled pilot trial.

Journal Alzheimers Research Therapy

Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN 12616001635459. Registered on 25 November 2016.

A four-arm, rater-blinded randomized controlled trial. Participants (N = 59) were randomized to either a functional task exercise group, a cognitive training group, an exercise training group, or a waitlist control group for 8 weeks. All outcome measures were undertaken at baseline and post-intervention using Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination, Trail Making Test A and B, Chinese Version Verbal Learning Test, Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale, and Zarit Burden Interview.

Results of the Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA showed higher improvement in the functional task exercise group with significant between-group differences in memory (p = 0.009) compared to the exercise group and cognitive training group, functional status (p = 0.005) compared to the cognitive training group and waitlist control group, and caregiver burden (p = 0.037) compared to the exercise group and cognitive training group.

This pilot study showed that functional tasks exercise using simulated functional tasks as a means of combined cognitive and exercise program is feasible and beneficial in improving the memory and functional status of older adults with mild cognitive impairment as well as reducing the care-related burdens of their caregivers. The present findings warrant further well-designed longitudinal studies to examine the sustainability of effects and draw more definitive conclusions.

Phase 3 Efficacy Analysis of a Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine Trial in Nepal.

N Engl J

Salmonella Typhi is a major cause of fever in children in low- and middle-income countries. A typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV) that was recently prequalified by the World Health Organization was shown to be efficacious in a human challenge model, but data from efficacy trials in areas where typhoid is endemic are lacking.

In this phase 3, randomized, controlled trial in Lalitpur, Nepal, in which both the participants and observers were unaware of the trial-group assignments, we randomly assigned children who were between 9 months and 16 years of age, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive either a TCV or a capsular group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenA) as a control. The primary outcome was typhoid fever confirmed by blood culture. We present the prespecified analysis of the primary and main secondary outcomes (including an immunogenicity subgroup); the 2-year trial follow-up is ongoing.

A total of 10,005 participants received the TCV and 10,014 received the MenA vaccine. Blood culture-confirmed typhoid fever occurred in 7 participants who received TCV (79 cases per 100,000 person-years) and in 38 who received MenA vaccine (428 cases per 100,000 person-years) (vaccine efficacy, 81.6%; 95% confidence interval, 58.8 to 91.8; P<0.001). A total of 132 serious adverse events (61 in the TCV group and 71 in the MenA vaccine group) occurred in the first 6 months, and 1 event (pyrexia) was identified as being vaccine-related; the participant remained unaware of the trial-group assignment. Similar rates of adverse events were noted in the two trial groups; fever developed in 5.0% of participants in the TCV group and 5.4% in the MenA vaccine group in the first week after vaccination. In the immunogenicity subgroup, seroconversion (a Vi IgG level that at least quadrupled 28 days after vaccination) was 99% in the TCV group (677 of 683 participants) and 2% in the MenA vaccine group (8 of 380 participants).

A single dose of TCV was immunogenic and effective in reducing S. Typhi bacteremia in children 9 months to 16 years of age. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN43385161.).

Endoscopic or Surgical Myotomy in Patients with Idiopathic Achalasia.

N Engl J

Pneumatic dilation and laparoscopic Heller's myotomy (LHM) are established treatments for idiopathic achalasia. Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a less invasive therapy with promising early study results.

In a multicenter, randomized trial, we compared POEM with LHM plus Dor's fundoplication in patients with symptomatic achalasia. The primary end point was clinical success, defined as an Eckardt symptom score of 3 or less (range, 0 to 12, with higher scores indicating more severe symptoms of achalasia) without the use of additional treatments, at the 2-year follow-up; a noninferiority margin of -12.5 percentage points was used in the primary analysis. Secondary end points included adverse events, esophageal function, Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index score (range, 0 to 144, with higher scores indicating better function), and gastroesophageal reflux.

A total of 221 patients were randomly assigned to undergo either POEM (112 patients) or LHM plus Dor's fundoplication (109 patients). Clinical success at the 2-year follow-up was observed in 83.0% of patients in the POEM group and 81.7% of patients in the LHM group (difference, 1.4 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -8.7 to 11.4; P = 0.007 for noninferiority). Serious adverse events occurred in 2.7% of patients in the POEM group and 7.3% of patients in the LHM group. Improvement in esophageal function from baseline to 24 months, as assessed by measurement of the integrated relaxation pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter, did not differ significantly between the treatment groups (difference, -0.75 mm Hg; 95% CI, -2.26 to 0.76), nor did improvement in the score on the Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (difference, 0.14 points; 95% CI, -4.01 to 4.28). At 3 months, 57% of patients in the POEM group and 20% of patients in the LHM group had reflux esophagitis, as assessed by endoscopy; at 24 months, the corresponding percentages were 44% and 29%.

In this randomized trial, POEM was noninferior to LHM plus Dor's fundoplication in controlling symptoms of achalasia at 2 years. Gastroesophageal reflux was more common among patients who underwent POEM than among those who underwent LHM. (Funded by the European Clinical Research Infrastructure Network and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01601678.).

Ubrogepant for the Treatment of Migraine.

N Engl J

Ubrogepant is an oral, small-molecule calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist for acute migraine treatment.

We conducted a randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and side-effect profile of ubrogepant. We assigned adults with migraine, with or without aura, in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive an initial dose of placebo, ubrogepant at a dose of 50 mg, or ubrogepant at a dose of 100 mg for treatment of a single migraine attack, with the option to take a second dose. The coprimary efficacy end points were freedom from pain at 2 hours after the initial dose and absence of the most bothersome migraine-associated symptom at 2 hours. Secondary end points included pain relief (at 2 hours), sustained pain relief (from 2 to 24 hours), sustained freedom from pain (from 2 to 24 hours), and absence of symptoms associated with migraine (photophobia, phonophobia, and nausea) at 2 hours.

A total of 1672 participants were enrolled; 559 were assigned to receive placebo, 556 to receive 50 mg of ubrogepant, and 557 to receive 100 mg of ubrogepant. The percentage of participants who had freedom from pain at 2 hours was 11.8% in the placebo group, 19.2% in the 50-mg ubrogepant group (P = 0.002, adjusted for multiplicity, for the comparison with placebo), and 21.2% in the 100-mg ubrogepant group (P<0.001). The percentage of participants who had freedom from the most bothersome symptom at 2 hours was 27.8% in the placebo group, 38.6% in the 50-mg ubrogepant group (P = 0.002), and 37.7% in the 100-mg ubrogepant group (P = 0.002). Adverse events within 48 hours after the initial or optional second dose were reported in 12.8% of participants in the placebo group, in 9.4% in the 50-mg ubrogepant group, and in 16.3% in the 100-mg ubrogepant group. The most common adverse events were nausea, somnolence, and dry mouth (reported in 0.4 to 4.1%); these events were more frequent in the 100-mg ubrogepant group (reported in 2.1 to 4.1%). Serious adverse events reported within 30 days in the ubrogepant groups included appendicitis, spontaneous abortion, pericardial effusion, and seizure; none of the events occurred within 48 hours after the dose.

A higher percentage of participants who received ubrogepant than of those who received placebo had freedom from pain and absence of the most bothersome symptom at 2 hours after the dose. The most commonly reported adverse events were nausea, somnolence, and dry mouth. Further trials are needed to determine the durability and safety of ubrogepant for acute migraine treatment and to compare it with other drugs for migraine. (Funded by Allergan; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02828020.).

Transcranial magnetic stimulation and amyloid markers in mild cognitive impairment: impact on diagnostic confidence and diagnostic accuracy.

Journal Alzheimers Research Therapy

The development of diagnostic tools capable of accurately identifying the pathophysiology of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has become a crucial target considering the claim that disease-modifying treatments should be administered as early as possible in the disease course. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) protocols have demonstrated analytical validity in discriminating different forms of dementia; however, its value in daily clinical practice in MCI subjects is still unknown.

To evaluate the clinical value of TMS compared to amyloid markers on diagnostic confidence and accuracy in MCI subjects, considering clinicians' expertise.

One hundred seven MCI subjects were included and classified as MCI-Alzheimer disease (MCI-AD), MCI-frontotemporal dementia (MCI-FTD), MCI-dementia with Lewy bodies (MCI-DLB), or MCI-other in a three-step process based on (i) demographic, clinical, and neuropsychological evaluation (clinical work-up); (ii) clinical work-up PLUS amyloidosis markers or clinical work-up PLUS TMS measures; and (iii) clinical work-up PLUS both markers. Two blinded neurologists with different clinical expertise were asked to express a diagnostic confidence for each MCI subgroup, and ROC curve analyses were performed at each step.

The addition of TMS markers to clinical work-up significantly increased the diagnostic confidence for MCI-AD (p = 0.003), MCI-FTD (p = 0.044), and MCI-DLB (p = 0.033) compared to clinical work-up alone, but not for MCI-other (p > 0.05). No significant differences between the add-on effect of TMS and the add-on effect of amyloid markers to clinical work-up were observed (p > 0.732), while the diagnostic confidence further increased when both markers were available. The greater the clinical expertise, the greater the flexibility in considering alternative diagnosis, and the greater the ability to modify diagnostic confidence with TMS and amyloid markers.

TMS in addition to routine clinical assessment in MCI subjects has a significant effect on diagnostic accuracy and confidence, comparable to well-established biomarkers of amyloidosis.

Plasma Aβ42/40 ratio alone or combined with FDG-PET can accurately predict amyloid-PET positivity: a cross-sectional analysis from the AB255 Study.

Journal Alzheimers Research Therapy

To facilitate population screening and clinical trials of disease-modifying therapies for Alzheimer's disease, supportive biomarker information is necessary. This study was aimed to investigate the association of plasma amyloid-beta (Aβ) levels with the presence of pathological accumulation of Aβ in the brain measured by amyloid-PET. Both plasma Aβ42/40 ratio alone or combined with an FDG-PET-based biomarker of neurodegeneration were assessed as potential AD biomarkers.

We included 39 cognitively normal subjects and 20 patients with mild cognitive impairment from the AB255 Study who had undergone PiB-PET scans. Total Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels in plasma (TP42/40) were quantified using ABtest kits. Subjects were dichotomized as Aβ-PET positive or negative, and the ability of TP42/40 to detect Aβ-PET positivity was assessed by logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic analyses. Combination of plasma Aβ biomarkers and FDG-PET was further assessed as an improvement for brain amyloidosis detection and diagnosis classification.

Eighteen (30.5%) subjects were Aβ-PET positive. TP42/40 ratio alone identified Aβ-PET status with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.881 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.779-0.982). Discriminating performance of TP42/40 to detect Aβ-PET-positive subjects yielded sensitivity and specificity values at Youden's cutoff of 77.8% and 87.5%, respectively, with a positive predictive value of 0.732 and negative predictive value of 0.900. All these parameters improved after adjusting the model for significant covariates. Applying TP42/40 as the first screening tool in a sequential diagnostic work-up would reduce the number of Aβ-PET scans by 64%. Combination of both FDG-PET scores and plasma Aβ biomarkers was found to be the most accurate Aβ-PET predictor, with an AUC of 0.965 (95% CI = 0.913-0.100).

Plasma TP42/40 ratio showed a relevant and significant potential as a screening tool to identify brain Aβ positivity in preclinical and prodromal stages of Alzheimer's disease.

Characterization of the selective in vitro and in vivo binding properties of crenezumab to oligomeric Aβ.

Journal Alzheimers Research Therapy

Accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) in the brain is proposed as a cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD), with Aβ oligomers hypothesized to be the primary mediators of neurotoxicity. Crenezumab is a humanized immunoglobulin G4 monoclonal antibody that has been shown to bind to synthetic monomeric and aggregated Aβ in vitro; however, less is known about the binding characteristic in vivo. In this study, we evaluated the binding patterns of crenezumab to synthetic and native forms of Aβ both in vitro and in vivo.

Crenezumab was used to immunoprecipitate Aβ from synthetic Aβ preparations or brain homogenates from a PS2APP mouse model of AD to determine the forms of Aβ that crenezumab interacts with. Following systemic dosing in PS2APP or nontransgenic control mice, immunohistochemistry was used to localize crenezumab and assess its relative distribution in the brain, compared with amyloid plaques and markers of neuritic dystrophies (BACE1; LAMP1). Pharmacodynamic correlations were performed to investigate the relationship between peripheral and central target engagement.

In vitro, crenezumab immunoprecipitated Aβ oligomers from both synthetic Aβ preparations and endogenous brain homogenates from PS2APP mice. In vivo studies in the PS2APP mouse showed that crenezumab localizes to regions surrounding the periphery of amyloid plaques in addition to the hippocampal mossy fibers. These regions around the plaques are reported to be enriched in oligomeric Aβ, actively incorporate soluble Aβ, and contribute to Aβ-induced neurotoxicity and axonal dystrophy. In addition, crenezumab did not appear to bind to the dense core region of plaques or vascular amyloid.

Crenezumab binds to multiple forms of amyloid β (Aβ), particularly oligomeric forms, and localizes to brain areas rich in Aβ oligomers, including the halo around plaques and hippocampal mossy fibers, but not to vascular Aβ. These insights highlight a unique mechanism of action for crenezumab of engaging Aβ oligomers.

Feasibility and Accuracy of Different Methods for Collecting Data on Falls Among Older People With Dementia.

Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders

This study compared different methods for collecting data on falls among people with dementia to identify which is most feasible and accurate. Eigh...

Study partner types and prediction of cognitive performance: implications to preclinical Alzheimer's trials.

Journal Alzheimers Research Therapy

Alzheimer's disease (AD) clinical trials require enrollment of a participant and a study partner, whose role includes assessing participant cognitive and functional performance. AD trials now investigate early stages of the disease, when participants are not cognitively impaired. This gives rise to the question of whether study partners or participants provide more information in these trials.

We used data from the AD Cooperative Study Prevention Instrument Project (ADCS-PI) to compare participant and study partner predictions of the participant's current and future cognitive state. We used the Cognitive Function Instrument (CFI) as a measure of evaluation of the participant's cognitive status and the modified ADCS Preclinical Alzheimer's Cognitive Composite (mADCS-PACC) as an objective measure of cognition. Stratifying by cognitive status and study partner type and adjusting for other predictors of the participant's cognitive state, we used random forests along with estimated mean variable importance (eMVI) to assess how well each member of the dyad can predict cognitive state at current and later visits. We also fit linear regression models at each time point and for each scenario.

Participants were better at predicting future cognitive status compared to their study partners regardless of study partner type, though the difference between participants and partners was greatest for non-spousal dyads in the lowest-performing quartile. Cross-sectional assessments differed substantially by dyad type. Within the lowest cognitive performance quartile, participants having a non-spousal study partner outperformed their partners in assessing cognition at later times. Spousal partners, in contrast, outperformed participants later in the study in predicting current cognitive performance.

These results indicate that participants tend to be better at predicting future cognition compared to their study partners regardless of the study partner type. When assessing current cognition, however, spousal study partners perform better at later time points and non-spousal study partners do not provide as much information regarding participant cognitive state.

Plasma levels of soluble TREM2 and neurofilament light chain in TREM2 rare variant carriers.

Journal Alzheimers Research Therapy

Results from recent clinical studies suggest that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers that are indicative of Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be replicated in blood, e.g. amyloid-beta peptides (Aβ42 and Aβ40) and neurofilament light chain (NFL). Such data proposes that blood is a rich source of potential biomarkers reflecting central nervous system pathophysiology and should be fully explored for biomarkers that show promise in CSF. Recently, soluble fragments of the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (sTREM2) protein in CSF have been reported to be increased in prodromal AD and also in individuals with TREM2 rare genetic variants that increase the likelihood of developing dementia.

In this study, we measured the levels of plasma sTREM2 and plasma NFL using the MesoScale Discovery and single molecule array platforms, respectively, in 48 confirmed TREM2 rare variant carriers and 49 non-carriers.

Our results indicate that there are no changes in plasma sTREM2 and NFL concentrations between TREM2 rare variant carriers and non-carriers. Furthermore, plasma sTREM2 is not different between healthy controls, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or AD.

Concentrations of plasma sTREM2 do not mimic the recent changes found in CSF sTREM2.