The latest medical research on Geriatric Medicine

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about geriatric medicine gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Aβ oligomer induced cognitive impairment and evaluation of ACU193-MNS-based MRI in rabbit.

Alzheimers & Dementia trans research)

Amyloid-beta oligomers (AβOs) accumulate in Alzheimer's disease and may instigate neuronal pathology and cognitive impairment. We examined the ability of a new probe for molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect AβOs in vivo, and we tested the behavioral impact of AβOs injected in rabbits, a species with an amino acid sequence that is nearly identical to the human sequence.

Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection with stabilized AβOs was performed. Rabbits were probed for AβO accumulation using ACUMNS (an AβO-selective antibody [ACU193] coupled to magnetic nanostructures). Immunohistochemistry was used to verify AβO presence. Cognitive impairment was evaluated using object location and object recognition memory tests and trace eyeblink conditioning.

AβOs in the entorhinal cortex of ICV-injected animals were detected by MRI and confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Injections of AβOs also impaired hippocampal-dependent, but not hippocampal-independent, tasks and the area fraction of bound ACUMNs correlated with the behavioral impairment.

Accumulation of AβOs can be visualized in vivo by MRI of ACUMNS and the cognitive impairment induced by the AβOs can be followed longitudinally with the novel location memory test.

Symptomatic amyloid-related imaging abnormalities in an APOE ε4/ε4 patient treated with aducanumab.

Alzheimers Dementia Amsterdam

Amyloid-related imaging abnormalities (ARIA) are a common, dose-dependent effect of amyloid-targeting antibodies, strongly associated with the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele.

We describe the clinical course and management of a 66-year-old white male (APOE ε4/ε4) enrolled in an observational study that included amyloid and tau positron emission tomography (PET), who received aducanumab through the ENGAGE clinical trial.

Acute symptoms included headache and encephalopathy, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed ARIA-E and ARIA-H. Malignant hypertension and epileptiform activity were treated with nicardipine and levetiracetam. Subsequent clinical/imaging worsening prompted a course of methylprednisolone. Symptoms and ARIA-E resolved over 6 months, while ARIA-H persisted. Quantitative analysis of interval amyloid PET showed reduced signal in pre-existing areas but increased signal posteriorly; while tau PET showed increased signal overall.

In an APOE ε4/ε4 patient, ARIA symptoms were accompanied by malignant hypertension and epileptiform activity, and pulsed steroids reversed edema. Studies from larger cohorts may clarify the optimal treatment and pathophysiology of ARIA.

Trial of Upadacitinib or Abatacept in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

N Engl J

Upadacitinib is an oral selective Janus kinase inhibitor to treat rheumatoid arthritis. The efficacy and safety of upadacitinib as compared with abatacept, a T-cell costimulation modulator, in patients with rheumatoid arthritis refractory to biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are unclear.

In this 24-week, phase 3, double-blind, controlled trial, we randomly assigned patients in a 1:1 ratio to receive oral upadacitinib (15 mg once daily) or intravenous abatacept, each in combination with stable synthetic DMARDs. The primary end point was the change from baseline in the composite Disease Activity Score for 28 joints based on the C-reactive protein level (DAS28-CRP; range, 0 to 9.4, with higher scores indicating more disease activity) at week 12, assessed for noninferiority. Key secondary end points at week 12 were the superiority of upadacitinib over abatacept in the change from baseline in the DAS28-CRP and the percentage of patients having clinical remission according to a DAS28-CRP of less than 2.6.

A total of 303 patients received upadacitinib, and 309 patients received abatacept. From baseline DAS28-CRP values of 5.70 in the upadacitinib group and 5.88 in the abatacept group, the mean change at week 12 was -2.52 and -2.00, respectively (difference, -0.52 points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.69 to -0.35; P<0.001 for noninferiority; P<0.001 for superiority). The percentage of patients having remission was 30.0% with upadacitinib and 13.3% with abatacept (difference, 16.8 percentage points; 95% CI, 10.4 to 23.2; P<0.001 for superiority). During the treatment period, one death, one nonfatal stroke, and two venous thromboembolic events occurred in the upadacitinib group, and more patients in the upadacitinib group than in the abatacept group had elevated hepatic aminotransferase levels.

In patients with rheumatoid arthritis refractory to biologic DMARDs, upadacitinib was superior to abatacept in the change from baseline in the DAS28-CRP and the achievement of remission at week 12 but was associated with more serious adverse events. Longer and larger trials are required in order to determine the effect and safety of upadacitinib in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (Funded by AbbVie; SELECT-CHOICE number, NCT03086343.).

Life Expectancy after Bariatric Surgery in the Swedish Obese Subjects Study.

N Engl J

Obesity shortens life expectancy. Bariatric surgery is known to reduce the long-term relative risk of death, but its effect on life expectancy is unclear.

We used the Gompertz proportional hazards regression model to compare mortality and life expectancy among patients treated with either bariatric surgery (surgery group) or usual obesity care (control group) in the prospective, controlled Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study and participants in the SOS reference study (reference cohort), a random sample from the general population.

In total, 2007 and 2040 patients were included in the surgery group and the control group, respectively, and 1135 participants were included in the reference cohort. At the time of the analysis (December 31, 2018), the median duration of follow-up for mortality was 24 years (interquartile range, 22 to 27) in the surgery group and 22 years (interquartile range, 21 to 27) in the control group; data on mortality were available for 99.9% of patients in the study. In the SOS reference cohort, the median duration of follow-up was 20 years (interquartile range, 19 to 21), and data on mortality were available for 100% of participants. In total, 457 patients (22.8%) in the surgery group and 539 patients (26.4%) in the control group died (hazard ratio, 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68 to 0.87; P<0.001). The corresponding hazard ratio was 0.70 (95% CI, 0.57 to 0.85) for death from cardiovascular disease and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.61 to 0.96) for death from cancer. The adjusted median life expectancy in the surgery group was 3.0 years (95% CI, 1.8 to 4.2) longer than in the control group but 5.5 years shorter than in the general population. The 90-day postoperative mortality was 0.2%, and 2.9% of the patients in the surgery group underwent repeat surgery.

Among patients with obesity, bariatric surgery was associated with longer life expectancy than usual obesity care. Mortality remained higher in both groups than in the general population. (Funded by the Swedish Research Council and others; SOS number, NCT01479452.).

Using Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing Results to Accelerate Alzheimer Disease Clinical Trial Recruitment.

Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders

The apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is the strongest known genetic risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD). APOE can be used as an enrichment strategy or inclusion criterion for AD prevention trials. Personal genomics companies market direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic tests, including APOE. We assessed DTC APOE testing usage among enrollees of the University of California Irvine Consent-to-Contact Registry, an online recruitment registry, and attitudes toward using this information in clinical trial recruitment.

We emailed links to an electronic survey to registry enrollees age 50 years or older. We assessed participants' use of DTC services, willingness to learn APOE status, and willingness to share genetic information. Logistic regression models assessed relationships between DTC testing usage and demographic characteristics, and with willingness to share results to assist trial recruitment.

Among 1312 responders (57% response rate), few (7%) had used DTC testing for APOE. Non-Hispanic Asian enrollees were 93% less likely to have used DTC testing, compared with non-Hispanic Whites [95% confidence interval: (0.01, 0.67)]. Willingness to share APOE information for study recruitment was >90% for both users and nonusers.

Matching participants to trials on the basis of DTC APOE information may be an effective way to streamline AD prevention trial recruitment.

Awareness of cognitive decline trajectories in asymptomatic individuals at risk for AD.

Journal Alzheimers Research Therapy

The present study was conducted as part of the INSIGHT-PreAD study. The identification number of INSIGHT-PreAD study (ID-RCB) is 2012-A01731-42.

We described different trends of evolution of ACD over 3 years in a cohort of memory-complainers and their association to amyloid burden and brain metabolism. We studied the impact of ACD at baseline on cognitive scores' evolution and the association between longitudinal changes in ACD and in cognitive score.

76.8% of subjects constantly had an accurate ACD (reference class). 18.95% showed a steadily heightened ACD and were comparable to those with accurate ACD in terms of demographic characteristics and AD biomarkers. 4.25% constantly showed low ACD, had significantly higher amyloid burden than the reference class, and were mostly men. We found no overall effect of baseline ACD on cognitive scores' evolution and no association between longitudinal changes in ACD and in cognitive scores.

ACD begins to decrease during the preclinical phase in a group of individuals, who are of great interest and need to be further characterized.

β-Secretase1 biological markers for Alzheimer's disease: state-of-art of validation and qualification.

Journal Alzheimers Research Therapy

β-Secretase1 (BACE1) protein concentrations and rates of enzyme activity, analyzed in human bodily fluids, are promising candidate biological marke...

Neuropsychiatric symptoms in at-risk groups for AD dementia and their association with worry and AD biomarkers-results from the DELCODE study.

Journal Alzheimers Research Therapy

German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00007966 . Registered 4 May 2015.

We analyzed data of n = 687 participants from the German DZNE Longitudinal Cognitive Impairment and Dementia (DELCODE) study, including the diagnostic groups SCD (n = 242), mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 115), AD (n = 77), CO (n = 209), and first-degree relatives of AD patients (REL, n = 44). The Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), and Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI-SF) were used to assess NPS. We examined differences of NPS frequency between diagnostic groups. Logistic regression analyses were carried out to further investigate the relationship between NPS and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD biomarkers, focusing on a subsample of cognitively unimpaired participants (SCD, REL, and CO), who were further differentiated based on reported worries.

The numbers of reported NPS, depression scores, and anxiety scores were significantly higher in subjects with SCD compared to CO. The quantity of reported NPS in subjects with SCD was lower compared to the MCI and AD group. In cognitively unimpaired subjects with worries, low Aß42 was associated with higher rates of reporting two or more NPS (OR 0.998, 95% CI 0.996-1.000, p < .05).

These findings give insight into the prevalence of NPS in different diagnostic groups, including SCD and healthy controls. NPS based on informant report seem to be associated with underlying AD pathology in cognitively unimpaired participants who worry about cognitive decline.

Aß40 displays amyloidogenic properties in the non-transgenic mouse brain but does not exacerbate Aß42 toxicity in Drosophila.

Journal Alzheimers Research Therapy

Self-assembly of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide into aggregates, from small oligomers to amyloid fibrils, is fundamentally linked with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it is clear that not all forms of Aβ are equally harmful and that linking a specific aggregate to toxicity also depends on the assays and model systems used (Haass et al., J Biol. Chem 269:17741-17748, 1994; Borchelt et al., Neuron 17:1005-1013, 1996). Though a central postulate of the amyloid cascade hypothesis, there remain many gaps in our understanding regarding the links between Aβ deposition and neurodegeneration.

In this study, we examined familial mutations of Aβ that increase aggregation and oligomerization, E22G and ΔE22, and induce cerebral amyloid angiopathy, E22Q and D23N. We also investigated synthetic mutations that stabilize dimerization, S26C, and a phospho-mimetic, S8E, and non-phospho-mimetic, S8A. To that end, we utilized BRI2-Aβ fusion technology and rAAV2/1-based somatic brain transgenesis in mice to selectively express individual mutant Aβ species in vivo. In parallel, we generated PhiC31-based transgenic Drosophila melanogaster expressing wild-type (WT) and Aβ40 and Aβ42 mutants, fused to the Argos signal peptide to assess the extent of Aβ42-induced toxicity as well as to interrogate the combined effect of different Aβ40 and Aβ42 species.

When expressed in the mouse brain for 6 months, Aβ42 E22G, Aβ42 E22Q/D23N, and Aβ42WT formed amyloid aggregates consisting of some diffuse material as well as cored plaques, whereas other mutants formed predominantly diffuse amyloid deposits. Moreover, while Aβ40WT showed no distinctive phenotype, Aβ40 E22G and E22Q/D23N formed unique aggregates that accumulated in mouse brains. This is the first evidence that mutant Aβ40 overexpression leads to deposition under certain conditions. Interestingly, we found that mutant Aβ42 E22G, E22Q, and S26C, but not Aβ40, were toxic to the eye of Drosophila. In contrast, flies expressing a copy of Aβ40 (WT or mutants), in addition to Aβ42WT, showed improved phenotypes, suggesting possible protective qualities for Aβ40.

These studies suggest that while some Aβ40 mutants form unique amyloid aggregates in mouse brains, they do not exacerbate Aβ42 toxicity in Drosophila, which highlights the significance of using different systems for a better understanding of AD pathogenicity and more accurate screening for new potential therapies.

Stimulators of medical students' interest in geriatric medicine-A Systematic Review.

Australasian Journal on Ageing

This study is a systematic review on stimulators of interest in pursuing a geriatric career among medical students in different countries. The review also assessed whether there were differences or similarities based on geographic regions or income categorisations.

A 20-year (1998-2018) review of quality primary research articles was conducted (n = 10). For analysis, studies were categorised into low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and high-income countries, based on World Health Organization and World Bank's income grouping for the 2019 fiscal year.

The frequently mentioned stimulators of interest in geriatrics were as follows: cultivating positive attitudes towards older people, participation in geriatric-related interventions and positive experiences during a geriatric training. Lack of published peer-reviewed articles from the LMICs limited the researchers' ability to compare the two income groups.

Suggestions to improve future systematic reviews that consider global factors, global participation or any aspect of global inclusion are discussed.

Interim guidance for health-care professionals and administrators providing hospital care to adult patients with cognitive impairment, in the context of COVID-19 pandemic.

Australasian Journal on Ageing

We developed interim guidance for the care of patients with cognitive impairment in hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic.

A Guidance Committee and Readers Group were recruited. The content was identified by the Committee and content-specific subgroups, resulting in a draft document, which was sent to the Readers for review. People with dementia and care partners were involved in all aspects of the process.

Infection control measures can lead to an escalation of distress. In an environment where visiting bans are applied to care partners/advocates, hospitals need to ensure care partners can continue to provide decision-making support. Health-care professionals can proactively engage care partners using videoconferencing technologies. Developing models of care that proactively support best practice can minimise the risk of delirium, mitigate escalating symptoms and guide the use of non-pharmacological, pharmacological (start low, go slow) or physical restraint in managing behavioural and psychological symptoms.

Interaction Between BDNF Val66Met and APOE4 on Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease and Cognitive Decline.

Journal of Alzheimer's Disease

Whether brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Met carriage impacts the risk or progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is unknown.

To evaluate the interaction of BDNF Met and APOE4 carriage on cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRgl), amyloid burden, hippocampus volume, and cognitive decline among cognitively unimpaired (CU) adults enrolled in the Arizona APOE cohort study.

114 CU adults (mean age 56.85 years, 38% male) with longitudinal FDG PET, magnetic resonance imaging, and cognitive measures were BDNF and APOE genotyped. A subgroup of 58 individuals also had Pittsburgh B (PiB) PET imaging. We examined baseline CMRgl, PiB PET amyloid burden, CMRgl, and hippocampus volume change over time, and rate of change in cognition over an average of 15 years.

Among APOE4 carriers, BDNF Met carriers had significantly increased amyloid deposition and accelerated CMRgl decline in regions typically affected by AD, but without accompanying acceleration of cognitive decline or hippocampal volume changes and with higher baseline frontal CMRgl and slower frontal decline relative to the Val/Val group. The BDNF effects were not found among APOE4 non-carriers.

Our preliminary studies suggest that there is a weak interaction between BDNF Met and APOE4 on amyloid-β plaque burden and longitudinal PET measurements of AD-related CMRgl decline in cognitively unimpaired late-middle-aged and older adults, but with no apparent effect upon rate of cognitive decline. We suggest that cognitive effects of BDNF variants may be mitigated by compensatory increases in frontal brain activity-findings that would need to be confirmed in larger studies.