The latest medical research on Geriatric Medicine

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about geriatric medicine gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Trial of Psilocybin versus Escitalopram for Depression.

N Engl J

Psilocybin may have antidepressant properties, but direct comparisons between psilocybin and established treatments for depression are lacking.

In a phase 2, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial involving patients with long-standing, moderate-to-severe major depressive disorder, we compared psilocybin with escitalopram, a selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor, over a 6-week period. Patients were assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive two separate doses of 25 mg of psilocybin 3 weeks apart plus 6 weeks of daily placebo (psilocybin group) or two separate doses of 1 mg of psilocybin 3 weeks apart plus 6 weeks of daily oral escitalopram (escitalopram group); all the patients received psychological support. The primary outcome was the change from baseline in the score on the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Report (QIDS-SR-16; scores range from 0 to 27, with higher scores indicating greater depression) at week 6. There were 16 secondary outcomes, including QIDS-SR-16 response (defined as a reduction in score of >50%) and QIDS-SR-16 remission (defined as a score of ≤5) at week 6.

A total of 59 patients were enrolled; 30 were assigned to the psilocybin group and 29 to the escitalopram group. The mean scores on the QIDS-SR-16 at baseline were 14.5 in the psilocybin group and 16.4 in the escitalopram group. The mean (±SE) changes in the scores from baseline to week 6 were -8.0±1.0 points in the psilocybin group and -6.0±1.0 in the escitalopram group, for a between-group difference of 2.0 points (95% confidence interval [CI], -5.0 to 0.9) (P = 0.17). A QIDS-SR-16 response occurred in 70% of the patients in the psilocybin group and in 48% of those in the escitalopram group, for a between-group difference of 22 percentage points (95% CI, -3 to 48); QIDS-SR-16 remission occurred in 57% and 28%, respectively, for a between-group difference of 28 percentage points (95% CI, 2 to 54). Other secondary outcomes generally favored psilocybin over escitalopram, but the analyses were not corrected for multiple comparisons. The incidence of adverse events was similar in the trial groups.

On the basis of the change in depression scores on the QIDS-SR-16 at week 6, this trial did not show a significant difference in antidepressant effects between psilocybin and escitalopram in a selected group of patients. Secondary outcomes generally favored psilocybin over escitalopram, but the analyses of these outcomes lacked correction for multiple comparisons. Larger and longer trials are required to compare psilocybin with established antidepressants. (Funded by the Alexander Mosley Charitable Trust and Imperial College London's Centre for Psychedelic Research; number, NCT03429075.).

Frontotemporal dementia subtypes based on behavioral inhibition deficits.

Alzheimers Dementia Amsterdam

We aimed to investigate phenotypic heterogeneity in the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) through assessment of inhibition deficits.

We assessed occurrences of 16 behavioral inhibition deficits from video recordings of 15 bvFTD patients (early stage) and 15 healthy controls (HC) in an ecological setting. We extracted dimensions of inhibition deficit and analyzed their correlations with cognitive and clinical measures. Using these dimensions, we isolated patient clusters whose atrophy patterns were explored.

After identifying two patterns of inhibition deficit (compulsive automatic behaviors and socially unconventional behaviors), we isolated three behavioral clusters with distinct atrophy patterns. BvFTD-G0 (N = 3), an outlier group, showed severe behavioral disturbances and more severe ventromedial prefrontal cortex/orbitofrontal cortex atrophy. Compared to bvFTD-G1 (N = 6), bvFTD-G2 (N = 6) presented higher anxiety and depression along with less diffuse atrophy especially in midline regions.

Identifying clinico-anatomical profiles through behavior observation could help to stratify bvFTD patients for adapted treatments.

Achievements and challenges during the development of an advance care planning program.

Australasian Journal on Ageing

A nationwide program to promote preparation of advance care plans (AC Plans) was introduced in Canterbury, New Zealand, in 2013. The program was de...

Structural MRI of the basal forebrain as predictor of cognitive response to galantamine in healthy older adults-A randomized controlled double-blinded crossover study.

Alzheimers Dement (N

Cholinesterase inhibitors can enhance cognitive functions in healthy elderly and delay cognitive decline in patients with Alzheimer`s disease (AD). However, not everyone benefits from this treatment (non-responders). Current studies show clinical meaningful improvements only in one third of AD patients treated with cholinesterase inhibitors.

Here we investigate structural magnetic resonance imaging of the basal forebrain cholinergic system volume (BFvol) as a potential predictor of cognitive response to a single dose of galantamine in healthy adults (n = 18; 59 to 75 years).

We observed that the cognitive response to galantamine, more specifically the attention-dependent filtering performance in a delayed match-to-sample working memory task, correlated with BFvol: Only participants with high BFvol showed a significant positive effect of galantamine on the ability to filter out distracting information during the working memory encoding process.

Future studies need to assess whether BFvol may serve as a predictor of the galantamine response in AD patients, too.

COVID-19 in adults with dementia: clinical features and risk factors of mortality-a clinical cohort study on 125 patients.

Journal Alzheimers Research Therapy

There is limited evidence on the characteristics and outcome of patients with dementia hospitalised for novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19).

We conducted a prospective study in 2 gerontologic COVID units in Paris, France, from March 14, 2020, to May 7, 2020. Patients with dementia hospitalised for confirmed COVID-19 infection were systematically enrolled. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with mortality at 21 days.

We included 125 patients. Median age was 86 (IQI 82-90); 59.4% were female. Most common causes of dementia were Alzheimer's disease, mixed dementia and vascular dementia. 67.2% had ≥ 2 comorbidities; 40.2% lived in a long-term care facility. The most common symptoms at COVID-19 onset were confusion and delirium (82.4%), asthenia (76.8%) and fever (72.8%) before polypnea (51.2%) and desaturation (50.4%). Falls were frequent at the initial phase of the disease (35.2%). The fatality rate at 21 days was 22.4%. Chronic kidney disease and CRP at admission were independent factors of death. Persisting confusion, mood and behavioural disorders were observed in survivors (19.2%).

COVID-19 in demented individuals is associated with severe outcome in SARS-CoV-2 infection and is characterised by specific clinical features and complications, with confusion and delirium at the forefront. COVID-19 testing should be considered in front of any significant change from baseline.

Evaluation of SAMP8 Mice as a Model for Sleep-Wake and Rhythm Disturbances Associated with Alzheimer's Disease: Impact of Treatment with the Dual Orexin (Hypocretin) Receptor Antagonist Lemborexant.

Journal of Alzheimer's Disease

Many patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) display circadian rhythm and sleep-wake disturbances. However, few mouse AD models exhibit these disturbances. Lemborexant, a dual orexin receptor antagonist, is under development for treating circadian rhythm disorders in dementia.

Evaluation of senescence-accelerated mouse prone-8 (SAMP8) mice as a model for sleep-wake and rhythm disturbances in AD and the effect of lemborexant by assessing sleep-wake/diurnal rhythm behavior.

SAMP8 and control senescence-accelerated mouse resistant-1 (SAMR1) mice received vehicle or lemborexant at light onset; plasma lemborexant and diurnal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) orexin concentrations were assessed. Sleep-wake behavior and running wheel activity were evaluated.

Plasma lemborexant concentrations were similar between strains. The peak/nadir timing of CSF orexin concentrations were approximately opposite between strains. During lights-on, SAMP8 mice showed less non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) and REM sleep than SAMR1 mice. Lemborexant treatment normalized wakefulness/non-REM sleep in SAMP8 mice. During lights-off, lemborexant-treated SAMR1 mice showed increased non-REM sleep; lemborexant-treated SAMP8 mice displayed increased wakefulness. SAMP8 mice showed differences in electroencephalogram architecture versus SAMR1 mice. SAMP8 mice exhibited more running wheel activity during lights-on. Lemborexant treatment reduced activity during lights-on and increased activity in the latter half of lights-off, demonstrating a corrective effect on overall diurnal rhythm. Lemborexant delayed the acrophase of activity in both strains by approximately 1 hour.

SAMP8 mice display several aspects of sleep-wake and rhythm disturbances in AD, notably mistimed activity. These findings provide some preclinical rationale for evaluating lemborexant in patients with AD who experience sleep-wake and rhythm disturbances.

An Effect of Education on Memory-Encoding Activation in Subjective Cognitive Decline.

Journal of Alzheimer's Disease

Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) may be an early manifestation of pre-clinical Alzheimer's disease. Elevated amyloid-β (Aβ) is a correlate of SCD symptoms in some individuals. The underlying neural correlates of SCD symptoms and their association with Aβ is unknown. SCD is a heterogeneous condition, and cognitive reserve may explain individual differences in its neural correlates.

We investigated the association between brain activation during memory encoding and SCD symptoms, as well as with Aβ, among older individuals. We also tested the moderating role of education (an index of cognitive reserve) on the associations.

We measured brain activation during the "face-name" memory-encoding fMRI task and Aβ deposition with Pittsburgh Compound-B (PiB)-PET among cognitively normal older individuals (n = 63, mean age 73.1 ± 7.4 years). We tested associations between activation and SCD symptoms by self-report measures, Aβ, and interactions with education.

Activation was not directly associated with SCD symptoms or Aβ. However, education moderated the association between activation and SCD symptoms in the executive control network, salience network, and subcortical regions. Greater SCD symptoms were associated with greater activation in those with higher education, but with lower activation in those with lower education.

SCD symptoms were associated with different patterns of brain activation in the extended memory system depending on level of cognitive reserve. Greater SCD symptoms may represent a saturation of neural compensation in individuals with greater cognitive reserve, while it may reflect diminishing neural resources in individuals with lower cognitive reserve.

Poorer Theory of Mind in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment Is Associated with Decreased Functional Connectivity in the Default Mode Network.

Journal of Alzheimer's Disease

Older adults living with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) not only demonstrate impairments in Theory of Mind (ToM), relative to adults with non-amnestic MCI (naMCI), but are also at a higher risk of developing dementia.

Our primary objective was to ascertain whether default mode network (DMN) functional connectivity was differentially associated with ToM abilities between MCI subgroups.

Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated alterations in resting-state functional connectivity within the brain's DMN in a sample of 43 older adults with aMCI (n = 19) and naMCI (n = 24), previously reported to demonstrate poorer ToM abilities.

Compared to naMCI, the aMCI subgroup revealed a significant association between poorer ToM performance and reduced functional connectivity between the bilateral temporal pole (TempP) and the left lateral temporal cortex (LTC) (LTC_L-TempP_L: b = -0.06, t(33) = -3.53, p = 0.02; LTC_L-TempP_R: b = -0.07,t(33) = -3.20, p = 0.03); between the right TempP and the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dMPFC) (b = -0.04, t(33) = -3.02, p = 0.03) and between the left and right TempP (b = -0.05, t(33) = -3.26, p = 0.03). In the naMCI subgroup, the opposite relationship was present between the bilateral TempP and the left LTC (Combined correlation: r = -0.47, p = 0.02), however, not between the right TempP and the dMPFC (r = -0.14, p = 0.51) or the left and right TempP (r = -0.31, p = 0.14).

Our findings suggest that alterations in functional connectivity within the DMN involving temporal and frontal lobe regions are associated with ToM deficits in aMCI.

Assessing Dementia Prevalence in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study: Cohort Profile, Protocol, and Preliminary Findings.

Journal of Alzheimer's Disease

There is growing consensus that non-genetic determinants of dementia can be linked to various risk- and resiliency-enhancing factors accumulating throughout the lifespan, including socioeconomic conditions, early life experiences, educational attainment, lifestyle behaviors, and physical/mental health. Yet, the causal impact of these diverse factors on dementia risk remain poorly understood due to few longitudinal studies prospectively characterizing these influences across the lifespan.

The Initial Lifespan's Impact on Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementia (ILIAD) study aims to characterize dementia prevalence in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS), a 60-year longitudinal study documenting life course trajectories of educational, family, occupational, psychological, cognitive, and health measures.

Participants are surveyed using the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-m) to identify dementia risk. Those scoring below cutoff undergo home-based neuropsychological, physical/neurological, and functional assessments. Dementia diagnosis is determined by consensus panel and merged with existing WLS data for combined analysis.

Preliminary findings demonstrate the initial success of the ILIAD protocol in detecting dementia prevalence in the WLS. Increasing age, hearing issues, lower IQ, male sex, APOE4 positivity, and a steeper annualized rate of memory decline assessed in the prior two study waves, all increased likelihood of falling below the TICS-m cutoff for dementia risk. TICS-m scores significantly correlated with standard neuropsychological performance and functional outcomes.

We provide an overview of the WLS study, describe existing key lifespan variables relevant to studies of dementia and cognitive aging, detail the current WLS-ILIAD study protocol, and provide a first glimpse of preliminary study findings.

Early Start of Anti-Dementia Medication Delays Transition to 24-Hour Care in Alzheimer's Disease Patients: A Finnish Nationwide Cohort Study.

Journal of Alzheimer's Disease

Dementia is one of the strongest predictors of admission to a 24-hour care facility among older people, and 24-hour care is the major cost of Alzheimer's disease (AD).

The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of early start of anti-dementia medication and other predisposing factors with 2-year risk of transition to 24-hour care in the nationwide cohort of Finnish AD patients.

This was a retrospective, non-interventional study based on individual-level data from Finnish national health and social care registers. The incident cohort included 7,454 AD patients (ICD-10, G30) comprised of two subgroups: those living unassisted at home (n = 5,002), and those receiving professional home care (n = 2,452). The primary outcome was admission to a 24-hour care facility. Exploratory variables were early versus late anti-dementia medication start, sociodemographic variables, care intensity level, and comorbidities.

Early anti-dementia medication reduced the risk of admission to 24-hour care both in patients living unassisted at home, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.58 (p <  0.001), and those receiving professional home care (HR, 0.84; p = 0.039). Being unmarried (HR, 1.69; p <  0.001), having an informal caregiver (HR, 1.69; p = 0.003), or having a diagnosis of additional neurological disorder (HR, 1.68; p = 0.006) or hip fracture (HR, 1.61; p = 0.004) were associated with higher risk of admission to 24-hour care in patients living unassisted at home.

To support living at home, early start of anti-dementia medication should be a high priority in newly diagnosed AD patients.

Neuronal Hyperexcitability in APPSWE/PS1dE9 Mouse Models of Alzheimer's Disease.

Journal of Alzheimer's Disease

Transgenic mouse models serve a better understanding of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis and its consequences on neuronal function. Well-known...