The latest medical research on Optometrist

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Comparison of near vision in glaucoma patients using standard and reversed-contrast charts.

Clinical & Exp Optometry

Reversed-contrast testing is easy to perform via electronic devices and may improve reading performance and the quality of life of most glaucoma patients.

Electronic devices are becoming increasing popularity and most devices have easily adjustable contrast settings. This study investigated near vision acuity and preference between the standard visual acuity chart (black text on white background) and a reversed-contrast chart (white text on black background) in glaucoma patients with decreasing contrast sensitivity.

This cross-sectional study evaluated 177 eyes of 177 patients from a single glaucoma clinic. The better eye of primary glaucoma patients (visual acuity of 6/20 or better) was evaluated. Patients with any other condition affecting visual acuity or reading performance were excluded. Near visual acuity was measured using a device with an anti-glare screen at 40 cm distance for both standard and reversed-contrast charts.

Glaucoma patients had a significantly better average near visual acuity using the reversed-contrast chart than using the standard chart (median best-corrected visual acuity, LogMAR = 0.12; interquartile range = 0.18 vs median best-corrected visual acuity, LogMAR = 0.2; interquartile range = 0.26; respectively; P < 0.01), with more prominent differences in the advanced glaucoma group (median best-corrected visual acuity of reversed contrast chart: median best-corrected visual acuity of standard chart = 0.12:0.2, 0.12:0.13, and 0.18:0.22 in the early, moderate, and severe groups, respectively, P < 0.01 in early and severe group and P = 0.02 in moderate group). One hundred and nine (109) out of 177 patients (61.58%) preferred the reversed contrast version.

Reversed contrast materials may improve the reading performance and quality of life of patients with glaucoma, especially those with severe disease.

Animal models of age-related macular degeneration and their translatability into the clinic.

Expert Review of Vaccines

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness in people over the age of 55. Despite its common nature, the etiology of the...

Treatment zone decentration promotes retinal reshaping in Chinese myopic children wearing orthokeratology lenses.

Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics

To investigate whether the treatment zone (TZ) decentration in orthokeratology (OK) lenses affects retinal expansion in Chinese children with myopia.

Children aged 8 to 13 years (n = 30) were assessed over 13 months comprising 12 months of OK lens wear followed by discontinuation of lens wear for 1 month. Corneal topography was measured at 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 13 months. TZ decentration of the OK lens was calculated, and subjects were subdivided into a small decentration group (group S) and a large decentration group (group L) based on the median value of the weighted average decentration (dave ). Central axial length (AL) and peripheral eye lengths (PELs) at the central retina, as well as 10°, 20° and 30° nasally and temporally were measured at 0 and 13 months under cycloplegia. Second-order polynomial (y = ax2  + bx + c) and linear fits (y = Kx + B) were applied to the peripheral relative eye length (PREL), and the coefficients 'a' and 'K' were used to describe the shape of the eye.

Mean AL growth for one year was 0.28 ± 0.17 mm. In a multiple linear regression model, AL elongation was related to the baseline age (β = -0.41, p = 0.01) and the dave (β = -0.37, p = 0.03) (R2  = 0.34, p = 0.002). When compared with smaller dave (0.45 ± 0.15 mm), a larger dave (0.89 ± 0.17 mm) was associated with slower ocular growth (central: 0.20 ± 0.13 mm vs. 0.35 ± 0.17 mm, p = 0.009; 10° nasal: 0.26 ± 0.18 mm vs. 0.45 ± 0.21 mm, p = 0.02; 10° temporal: 0.17 ± 0.14 mm vs. 0.32 ± 0.19 mm, p = 0.02) and more oblate retina shape ('a': -0.13 ± 0.02 vs. -0.14 ± 0.02, p = 0.02; Knasal : 0.35 ± 0.11 vs. 0.39 ± 0.09, p = 0.02; Ktemporal : -0.42 ± 0.08 vs. -0.46 ± 0.08, p = 0.004).

Greater TZ decentration with the use of OK lenses was associated with slower axial growth and a more oblate retinal shape. TZ decentration caused local defocusing changes, which may inhibit myopic progression. These findings may have important implications for improving optical designs for myopia control.

Prediction of visual field defects from macular optical coherence tomography in glaucoma using cluster analysis.

Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics

To assess the accuracy of cluster analysis-based models in predicting visual field (VF) defects from macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) measurements in glaucomatous and healthy cohorts.

GCIPL measurements were extracted from posterior pole optical coherence tomography (OCT), from locations corresponding to central VF test grids. Models incorporating cluster analysis methods and corrections for age and fovea to optic disc tilt were developed from 493 healthy participants, and 5th and 1st percentile limits of GCIPL thickness were derived. These limits were compared with pointwise 5th and 1st percentile limits by calculating sensitivities and specificities in an additional 40 normal and 37 glaucomatous participants, as well as applying receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses to assess the accuracy of predicting VF results from co-localised GCIPL measurements.

Clustered models demonstrated globally low sensitivity, but high specificity in the glaucoma cohort (0.28-0.53 and 0.77-0.91, respectively), and high specificity in the healthy cohort (0.91-0.98). Clustered models showed similar sensitivities and superior specificities compared with pointwise methods (0.41-0.65 and 0.71-0.98, respectively). There were significant differences in accuracy between clusters, with relatively poor accuracy at peripheral macular locations (p < 0.0001 for all comparisons).

Cluster analysis-based models incorporating age correction and holistic consideration of fovea to optic disc tilt demonstrated superior performance in predicting VF results to pointwise methods in both glaucomatous and healthy eyes. However, relatively low sensitivity and poorer performance at the peripheral macula indicate that OCT in isolation may be insufficient to predict visual function across the macula accurately. With modifications to criteria for abnormality, the concepts suggested by the described normative models may guide prioritisation of VF assessment requirements, with the potential to limit excessive VF testing.

Learning retinoscopy: A journey through problem space.

Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics

Retinoscopy is a skill that requires the integration of procedural skill and declarative knowledge. Whilst the actual technique is simple, retinoscopy is a complex skill to acquire and is one that students often find challenging. This study compared the strategies that novices, third-year students and experts use when performing retinoscopy, with the aim of identifying the key stages of learning that may enlighten teaching practice.

This study employed a protocol-based approach in which the verbal protocols and cognitive strategies of novices, students and experts were recorded and then subjected to 'problem space' analysis.

Clear differences existed when the retinoscopy of novices, students and experts was directly compared using a standardised simulated task. Experts were more accurate in performance and used defined strategies to reach the goal. The presence of these strategies significantly predicted the accuracy of the retinoscopy result.

This study highlights the importance of meta-cognitive strategies and the need for an adequate theoretical foundation in skill acquisition. The underpinning knowledge provides a pedagogic tool that specifies activities which are beneficial to learning a clinical skill.

Gaze tracker parameters have little association with visual field metrics of intrasession frontloaded SITA-Faster 24-2 visual field results.

Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics

To determine the usefulness of Humphrey Field Analyser (HFA) SITA-Faster 24-2 gaze tracker outputs on interpreting intra-visit visual field (VF) result pairs.

Analysis of 1380 right-left eye pairs and 1432 pairs of test 1-test 2 intrasession VF results of patients seen within a university-based glaucoma service was undertaken to understand gaze deviation distributions. Output gaze tracker results were aggregated into total ticks, sum of amplitudes and average amplitudes. Correlations between visual field indices (mean deviation [MD], "events" and overall hill of vision) and independent variables (age and test order) were performed using one eye from each subject.

There was no association of test order (right-left, test 1-test 2) with eye movements. There was a significant, but weak correlation between eye movements and age (r = 0.16). Correlations of eye movements with MD were driven by more severe MD values. There were no significant correlations between intrasession difference in eye movements and the change in MD, number of "events" and hill of vision, or in the root mean square of sensitivity and total deviation values. There was also no significant correlation between gaze tracker outputs and another commonly used "reliability" metric, false positive rate.

Eye movement parameters as currently reported by the HFA do not appear to be correlated with key sensitivity parameters when considering the repeatability of intrasession SITA-Faster 24-2 VF results. Thus, current gaze tracker outputs do not appear to provide clinically meaningful information for interpretation of intra-visit visual field results that cannot already be garnered using other strategies.

Evaluation of Ocular Surface Characteristics in Dry Eye Disease With and Without Soft Contact Lens Wear: A Comparative Study.

Eye Contact Lens

To investigate ocular surface alterations and in vivo confocal microscopic characteristics of the cornea in dry eye disease (DED) with contact lens wear (CLW).

Sixty participants were divided into three groups: DED with CLW (n=20), DED without CLW (n=20), and normal control (n=20). Ocular surface parameters were evaluated. Basal tears and in vivo confocal microscopy images of the cornea were collected. Multiplex bead analysis was used to assess interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, nerve growth factor (NGF), and substance P (SP) in tears. Nerve morphology and dendritic cell density in corneal subbasal nerve images were calculated.

The DED with CLW group showed significantly higher ocular surface staining scores (P=0.022) and higher levels of IL-1β, NGF, and SP in tears (P=0.014, P=0.004 and P=0.025) than the DED without CLW group. Corneal dendritic cell density in the DED with CLW group was significantly higher than that in the normal controls (P=0.001) and DED without CLW group (P=0.043). Tear cytokine levels of IL-1β, NGF, and SP were correlated with ocular surface parameters in the DED with CLW group. Moreover, the years of CLW were positively correlated with corneal dendritic cell density (r=0.527, P=0.017) and negatively correlated with corneal nerve density (r=-0.511, P=0.021).

Patients with DED with CLW showed greater epithelial damage, elevated inflammatory cytokines and neuromediators in tears, and higher corneal dendritic cell density than patients with DED without CLW. The immune and nervous systems may be involved in contact lens-related DED.

Scleral Lens Thickness and Corneal Edema Under Closed Eye Conditions.

Eye Contact Lens

To examine the relationship between central lens thickness and central corneal edema during short-term closed eye scleral lens wear.

Nine participants (mean age 30 years) with normal corneas wore scleral lenses (Dk 141) under closed eye conditions on separate days with nominal center thicknesses of 150, 300, 600, and 1,200 μm. Epithelial, stromal, and total corneal edema were measured using high-resolution optical coherence tomography immediately after lens application and after 90 min of wear, before lens removal. Data were corrected for variations in initial fluid reservoir thickness and compared with predictions from theoretical modeling of overnight scleral lens wear.

Scleral lens-induced central corneal edema was primarily stromal in nature. The mean±standard error of corrected total corneal edema was 4.31%±0.32%, 4.55%±0.42%, 4.92%±0.50%, and 4.83%±0.22% for the 150-, 300-, 600-, and 1,200-μm lenses, respectively. No significant differences in the corrected total corneal edema were observed across all thickness groups (P=0.20). Theoretical modeling of overnight scleral lens wear seemed to overestimate the relative increase in central corneal edema as a function of decreasing lens Dk/t for values lower than 25.

The magnitude of scleral lens-induced central corneal edema during short-term closed eye lens wear did not vary significantly with increasing central lens thickness. Theoretical modeling of overnight closed eye scleral lens wear seems to overestimate the effect of increasing lens thickness.

Visual Outcomes of Patients With Peripheral Ulcerative Keratitis and the Effect of Immunosuppression-A 6-Year Experience in Queensland, Australia.

Eye Contact Lens

Peripheral ulcerative keratitis (PUK) can cause significant ocular morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to review the effects of systemic immunosuppression on visual outcomes.

A state-wide, retrospective case series based in Queensland, Australia, was performed. A review of patients who presented with PUK to the major tertiary ophthalmology referral centers between January 2015 and January 2021 was undertaken. Parameters recorded included clinical features at presentation, investigations undertaken, treatment provided, visual outcomes, and mortality outcomes. The effect of immunomodulatory therapy on the change in vision from presentation to the most recent review was analyzed.

Twenty-two eyes of 26 patients with PUK (average age 69.81±14.54 years) were included and had a mean follow-up period of 577.73 days. Twelve patients (54.5%) had systemic autoimmune disease, one patient (4.5%) had positive syphilis serology, and nine patients (40.9%) had idiopathic PUK. Eighteen patients (81.8%) were treated with systemic steroids and 10 patients (45.5%) were treated with steroid-sparing immunomodulatory therapy. Average logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at presentation and final follow-up were 0.63±0.65 and 0.64±0.82, respectively. Those who were treated with immunomodulatory therapy had a nonstatistically significant improvement in BCVA (-0.10±0.29 with vs. +0.10±0.35 without), and a similar trend was seen for doxycycline (-0.08±0.09 with vs. +0.22±0.49 without). Four of five perforations (80%) were surgically managed. Four patients (18.2%) were deceased.

Peripheral ulcerative keratitis poses significant clinical challenges and requires intensive medical treatment, frequently involving systemic immunomodulatory therapy. Surgical treatment is required in a significant minority of cases. Ocular management alongside the use of doxycycline and immunomodulatory therapy in consultation with specialist physicians can optimize visual and systemic outcomes.

Conjunctival Histopathological Changes in Children With Vitamin D Deficiency.

Eye Contact Lens

The aim of this study was to investigate tear function-associated clinical findings and conjunctival histopathological changes in children with vitamin D (Vit-D) deficiency.

This study used a prospective case-control design. Group 1 (n=38) comprised pediatric patients with Vit-D deficiency, and group 2 (n=45) was the control group. Tear break-up times (TBUTs), Schirmer-1 test measurements, ocular surface disease index (OSDI) scores, and conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) results of the groups were compared.

The participant demographic characteristics, including the mean age and the male-to-female ratio, were similar (P>0.05). The median TBUT and Schirmer-1 test measurement were 10 s (5-15) and 12 mm (6-19) in group 1 and 11 s (6-16) and 15 mm (8-21) in group 2 (P=0.004 and P=0.013, respectively). The median OSDI scores were 16 (10-20) in group 1 and 17 (10-21) in group 2 (P=0.092). According to the CIC, 25 samples in group 1 and 40 samples in group 2 were categorized as grade 0, 11 samples in group 1 and 5 samples in group 2 were categorized as grade 1, and 2 samples in group 1 and no sample in group 2 were categorized as grade 2 (P=0.027).

Significant conjunctival histopathological changes occur in children with Vit-D deficiency, and these changes have effects on some tear function-associated clinical findings including the Schirmer-1 test and TBUT measurements.

Gut Microbiome and Its Influence On Ocular Surface and Ocular Surface Diseases.

Eye Contact Lens

The gut microbiome plays a substantial immunologic and pathophysiologic role in maintaining the health of the host, and dysregulation of this dynam...

Change in Risk Score and Behaviors of Soft Contact Lens Wearers After Targeted Patient Education.

Eye Contact Lens

To determine if targeted education can influence the behaviors and scores of soft contact lens (SCL) wearers via the Contact Lens Risk Survey (CLRS).

This was a multicenter, prospective, case-control study. Cases were symptomatic red eye SCL wearers (age, 18-39 years), and controls were age , sex, and site matched. Participants completed the CLRS and were provided targeted patient education at three time points: baseline, one, and six months. Change in scores and behaviors were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed rank test.

Forty-one cases and 71 controls were analyzed. The mean risk score (mean±SE) from baseline to follow-up improved (reduced) for all participants (-1.96±0.73; P=0.01), mostly driven by the improvement among cases (-2.55±1.32; P=0.05). Case subjects reported a decrease in frequency of wearing lenses while showering (-0.32±0.07; P<0.0001), discarding lens solution (-0.13±0.06; P=0.03), and rinsing lenses with tap water (-0.19±0.08; P=0.02) after targeted education.

Targeted patient education can influence some behaviors of SCL wearers, especially those who experienced a red eye event. Further study is needed to determine how to improve other risk behaviors and whether these changes are sustained long term.