The latest medical research on Optometrist

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Gone Viral: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Contact Lens-Related Videos on TikTok.

Eye Contact Lens

To evaluate the content, sources, and quality of contact lens (CL)-related videos on TikTok, the fastest growing social media platform worldwide.

TikTok was queried on October 25, 2021 for the top 200 posts with the hashtag "#contactlenses." Posts meeting inclusion criteria were characterized and assessed for quality with DISCERN, a validated scoring instrument for the appraisal of consumer health information (score range 1-5 with a higher score indicating a higher quality video).

The included 113 posts showed a mean quality of 1.94±0.44. Content included product displays (42%), patient experiences (23%), educational (22%), and comedy (12%). Most product displays featured decorative lenses (98%). Although videos by eye-care providers (ECPs) accounted for most educational content (52%) and showed significantly higher mean quality compared with posts by non-ECPs (2.57±0.18 vs. 1.85±0.13, P<0.001), they were a minority (12%) and showed poor overall quality. Contact lens representation was greatly skewed toward decorative lenses (74%), whereas only 3.5% of videos promoted seeing an ECP.

Poor quality and skewed representation of posts indicate that CL-related information on TikTok has serious shortcomings. These findings are particularly concerning given that most TikTok users are adolescents and young adults, the same population who tend to be decorative lens wearers and who are at increased risk of CL-related complications. Eye-care providers, professional organizations, and regulatory agencies should be urged to increase their engagement with the platform, especially regarding educational content creation and CL marketing oversight.

Effect of Intense Pulsed Light Therapy in Dry Eye Disease Caused by Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Eye Contact Lens

This study aimed to systematically evaluate the effect of intense pulsed light (IPL) therapy in patients harboring dry eye disease caused by meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) based on qualified studies.

The electronic databases, including PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase, were searched using keywords to identify available publications updated to November 2021. Relative risk or weighted mean difference combined with 95% confidence interval was used to synthesize the outcomes of included studies. The meta-analysis included 15 randomized controlled trials with 1,142 patients (2,284 eyes).

The results revealed that IPL could significantly decrease the ocular surface disease index (OSDI), standard patient evaluation of eye dryness (SPEED), artificial tear usage, tear film lipid layer, meibomian gland quality (MGQ), meibomian gland expression (MGX), and corneal fluorescein staining (CFS) while increase tear break-up time (TBUT) and noninvasive tear break-up time (NIBUT) compared with sham. Compared with MGX, IPL+MGX markedly decreased the SPEED, CFS, and tear meniscus height (TMH), but with increased TBUT. Compared with MGX, IPL showed significant effect in increasing the OSDI and TBUT, but decreasing the TMH and NIBUT. However, no significant differences were seen between IP+MGX and MGX in OSDI, MGQ, and MGX, nor between IPL and MGX in OSDI, SPEED, and TBUT.

We identified that the application of IPL alone or IPL combined with MGX elicited superior clinical effect for improving the eye function and symptoms in the treatment of MGD-related dry eye disease, which is considered available for wide clinical application.

Activation of lesion projection zone in primary visual cortex is dependent on bilateral central vision loss in patients with end-stage glaucoma.

Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics

To investigate activation of the lesion projection zone (LPZ) in the primary visual cortex during end-stage glaucoma using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), as well as the relationship between fMRI responses and clinical data.

Twelve subjects with bilateral end-stage glaucoma (group A), 12 with unilateral end-stage glaucoma (group B) and 12 healthy controls (group C) were enrolled. fMRI was performed under two testing stimuli conditions: passive viewing of a full-field flickering checkerboard and active viewing of a one-back task with scene images. In fMRI analysis, the primary visual cortex was divided into six regions of interest (ROIs). The beta values of the six ROIs were compared across the three groups using one-way analysis of variance under two viewing conditions. Associations between the fMRI beta value and clinical data including multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG), microperimeter-1 and optical coherence tomography were analysed by Spearman correlation.

The beta values for ROIs 1-3 representing the LPZ were significantly different between the three groups under active viewing conditions, whereas no significant changes were detected under passive viewing. In group A, there were significant differences between all six ROIs for the two viewing conditions, while no significant differences were found in groups B and C. In group A, the P-wave amplitudes of the mfERG was significantly correlated with the beta values of ROIs 1 and 2 under active viewing. In addition, the P-wave latencies of the mfERG were significantly correlated with the beta values for ROIs 2-5. No associations were found between fMRI beta values and clinical data in groups B and C.

Activation of the LPZ in the primary visual cortex was observed in patients with bilateral end-stage glaucoma under active viewing conditions. These changes were correlated with residual retinal function.

Corneal and lenticular biometry in Chinese children with myopia.

Clinical & Exp Optometry

The measurement and simulation of corneal and lenticular curvature radii using a single swept-source biometry device enables a more thorough evaluation of the shape and refractive power of the cornea and lens during emmetropization or myopia progression in children.

This study aimed to evaluate the distribution characteristics of corneal and lenticular parameters in Chinese children with myopia and explored their association with other ocular components.

In this cross-sectional study, all ocular biometric parameters were measured using a Zeiss IOLMaster 700 Biometry. Simulations of the corneal and lenticular curvature radii were implemented using a customised MATLAB program based on cross-sectional swept-source optical coherence tomography images obtained from the same device. The associations of the calculated and simulated refractive powers of the cornea and lens with other ocular parameters were evaluated.

In total, 119 children with myopia were recruited. Boys had a deeper anterior chamber and longer axial length (AL) than girls, while girls had steeper anterior corneal and lenticular curvatures and greater corneal and lenticular power. Children aged 10 years and older showed a larger anterior lenticular radius of curvature (sRal) and less lenticular power (PL,OCT) than younger participants. There was a significant positive correlation between AL and the anterior corneal radius of curvature, regardless of sex or age. The sRal exhibited a significant increasing trend, and PL,OCT exhibited a declining trend with a longer AL only in children younger than 10 years.

AL is the most influential factor in the determination of spherical equivalent refractive error, while decreases in both corneal and crystalline lens power are significantly inversely correlated with axial elongation.

Vision screening outcomes of 4-5 year-olds reflect the social gradient.

Clinical & Exp Optometry

Children in socioeconomically disadvantaged communities often do not access follow-up eye care services when referred from vision screenings; whether this is due to lack of availability is not known. This paper highlights the need for vision and eye care for vulnerable children with practicing clinical optometrists well placed to provide vision care.

Vision impairments develop from a young age and may inhibit learning experiences and impact life outcomes. Vision screening to detect and refer vision abnormalities supports children in their education and prevents minor vision impairments from worsening. This research describes outcomes from a vision screening programme for 4- to 5-year-olds delivered in Queensland, Australia.

The programme involved all prep children from participating schools in Queensland. Vision screening was conducted with the Parr 4 m Visual Acuity Test and Welch Allyn Spot Vision Screener. A cross-sectional study design was adopted. Descriptive data analyses explored the frequency of vision screening and referral outcomes. Inferential analyses examined associations between vision screening and referral outcomes with socio-economic indexes for areas (SEIFA) scores  .

Of 71,003 prep students screened, 4,855 (6.8%) received a referral recommendation. A higher proportion of children who received a referral recommendation was from more disadvantaged locations (?2 = 109.16, p < 0.001). Of the students referred, 3,017 were seen by an eye health professional. Further vision assessment of students by an eye health professional revealed that 43.3% of the referred children were diagnosed with a vision abnormality, 18.9% had no vision abnormality and 37.7% had an 'undetermined' diagnosis. A higher proportion of children confirmed with a vision abnormality were from more disadvantaged locations (?2 = 52.27, p < 0.001).

It is important that vision screening programmes target disadvantaged populations and support families of children who require further health assessment to access health services.

Measures and variability with age of low contrast acuity and near stereoacuity in children.

Clinical & Exp Optometry

Low contrast acuity (LCA) and near stereoacuity (NS) testing are integral to the comprehensive assessment of sensory visual function in children. However, routine ophthalmological evaluations seldom take these measures into consideration. Additionally, there is limited literature regarding the normative values of these parameters in children.

This study investigated LCA and NS measures and their variability in children with normal visual acuity. The aim was to provide a benchmark for distinguishing normal measures from abnormal ones.

A prospective observational study was conducted in primary and secondary schools across North India. The participants numbered 240 children, aged between 3 and 15 years. They were split into 12 smaller groups of 20 participants in each age group. Only participants with normal monocular uncorrected visual acuity, no refractive error, normal birth history, and no systemic ailments, were recruited. All the participants underwent a complete ophthalmic examination and non-cycloplegic retinoscopy. LCA was measured, using the low contrast Lea number chart at three metres. NS was measured using the Randot® stereo test at 40 cm.

The percentages of males and females, were found to be 55%, and 45%, respectively (p = 0.093). The mean NS was found to be 38.7 ± 11.5 arcsecs in the 3-9-year age group, and 26.7 ± 5.6 arcsecs in the 9-15-year age group (p-value <0.001). The mean NS showed an increasing trend up to 9 years of age. The mean LCA was 64.4 ± 20.1 in the age group of 3-8 years, and 76.38 ± 11.39 in the age group of 8-15 years (p-value <0.001). Considerable variability was noted in the LCA in the younger age group (p-value = 0.000).

LCA and NS mature gradually during childhood. LCA stabilises after the age of 8, while NS stabilises after the age of 9.

Differentiating primary dry eye disease from ocular neuropathic pain: implications for symptom management.

Clinical & Exp Optometry

Eyecare practitioners' management of ocular surface disease is essential in managing increasing dry eye disease (DED) presentations including ocular neuropathic pain (ONP). Topical Proxymetacaine offers a simple, readily available and practical method of detecting ONP in practice and can be used to differentiate ONP from DED by eyecare practitioners, when accompanied with an anterior segment examination.

Differentiating DED from ONP presents a significant opportunity to eyecare providers, allowing appropriate treatment choices for more adequate symptom control, greater patient satisfaction, and reduced emergent re-presentations. This study aims to differentiate patients presenting with DED symptoms into DED or ONP using a simple diagnostic tool, which can be used in practice to allocate appropriate treatment options for the patient's respective condition. A comparison of the prevalence of presentations of ONP presenting with DED symptoms in hospital ophthalmology settings and in optometric primary care settings will also be made.

Patients with symptoms of DED were opportunistically recruited as they presented to ophthalmology outpatient clinics and primary care optometric services. Patients were then categorised as DED, ONP, or mixed DED/ONP based on their subjective response 30 seconds post-Proxymetacaine Hydrochloride 2% instillation.

Twenty-one patients were recruited, including 12 patients from ophthalmologic outpatient clinics and nine patients from primary care optometric services. Twelve patients were identified to have primary DED, while nine patients were identified to have ONP. 43% of patients presenting with DED symptoms had features of neuropathic pain in ophthalmologic outpatient presentations compared to 44% of patients in primary care optometric services.

Categorising DED and ONP patients by their response to Proxymetacaine can be used as a simple diagnostic tool in guiding future patient management and can be indicative of their potential response to topical therapies. The use of topical Proxymetacaine and the resultant change in ocular pain score can facilitate selection of patients who may benefit from centrally acting neuropathic pain agents over topical ocular therapy.

Multipurpose Lens Care Systems and Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lens Wettability: A Systematic Review.

Eye Contact Lens

To provide a relationship between materials developed for silicone hydrogel contact lenses and multipurpose care solutions to identify improvements in wettability, for prelens noninvasive break-up time and subjective score.

This systematic review was completed according to the updated PRISMA 2020 statement recommendations and followed the explanation and elaboration guidelines. The PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus scientific literature databases were searched from January 2000 to November 2021.

A total of four clinical trials published between 2011 and 2017 were included in this investigation. All included studies were randomized clinical trials. The success of contact lenses is related to the comfort of their use and therefore to the stability of the tear film and the wettability of its surface. The relationship between these parameters and changes in the ocular surface and inflammatory and infectious processes has been demonstrated.

Hyaluronan and propylene glycol multipurpose solution (MPS) wetting agents achieved slightly higher prelens noninvasive break-up times than poloxamine. Polyquaternium-1 achieved better wettability and patient comfort than polyhexamethylene biguanide in medium-term studies. Short-term studies did not demonstrate differences between MPSs in their effect on contact lens wettability.

Comparison of Ocular Biometric Parameters Between Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Ethnicities in White Adults Undergoing Cataract Surgery.

Eye Contact Lens

To compare ocular biometric parameters between Hispanic and non-Hispanic White adult patients undergoing cataract surgery.

We included 433 adult patients undergoing surgery for senile cataract. Only patients with race and ethnicities of Hispanic and non-Hispanic White were included. The following parameters measured by the IOLMaster 700 were compared between Hispanic and non-Hispanic patients: mean keratometry, corneal astigmatism, anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness, vitreous length, axial length, white-to-white diameter, and emmetropic intraocular lens power.

There were 219 Hispanic patients and 214 non-Hispanic patients with a mean age of 70.1±7.7 years (range, 50-88 years), and 66.7% were women. Although sex distribution was similar between the two groups, Hispanic patients had a lower age compared with non-Hispanic patients (69.3±8.3 vs. 70.9±6.9 years, P=0.02). In biometric values, ACD was significantly lower in Hispanic patients (3.07±0.40 mm) than in non-Hispanic patients (3.16±0.37 mm, P=0.01). Such statistically significant difference persisted after adjustment for age and sex (P=0.01). No other significant differences were found in other ocular parameters measured.

Anterior chamber depth is significantly shorter in Hispanic patients compared with non-Hispanic patients. Such ethnic difference should be considered when performing cataract and corneal surgeries because this ethnic difference may be associated with a higher risk of corneal endothelial injury.

Efficacy of contact lenses for myopia control: Insights from a randomised, contralateral study design.

Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics

To determine the efficacy of two myopia control contact lenses (CL) compared with a single-vision (SV) CL.

Ninety-five Chinese children with myopia, aged 7-13 years in a 1-year prospective, randomised, contralateral, cross-over clinical trial with 3 groups; bilateral SVCL (Group I); randomised, contralateral wear of an extended depth of focus (EDOF) CL and SVCL (Group II) and MiSight® CL and SVCL (Group III). In Groups II and III, CL were crossed over at the 6-month point (Stage 1) and worn for a further 6 months (Stage 2). Group I wore SVCL during both stages. At baseline and the end of each stage, cycloplegic spherical equivalent refractive error (SE) and axial length (AL) were measured. Six-monthly ΔSE/ΔAL across groups was analysed using a linear mixed model (CL type, stage, eye and eye* stage included as factors). Intra-group paired differences between eyes were determined.

In Group I, mean (SD) ΔSE/ΔAL with SVCL was -0.41 (0.28) D/0.13 (0.09) mm and -0.25 (0.27) D/0.16 (0.09) mm for stages 1 and 2, with a mean paired difference between eyes of 0.01 D/0.01 mm and 0.05 D/-0.01 mm, respectively. ΔSE/ΔAL with SVCL was similar across Groups I to III (Stage 1: p = 0.89/0.44, Stage 2: p = 0.70/ 0.64). In Groups II and III, ΔSE/ΔAL was lower with the EDOF and MiSight® CL than the contralateral SVCL in 68% to 94% of participants, and adjusted 6-month ΔSE/ΔAL with EDOF was similar to MiSight® (p = 0.49/0.56 for ΔSE/ΔAL, respectively). Discontinuations across the three groups were high, but not different between the groups (33.3%, 48.4% and 50% for Groups I to III, respectively [p = 0.19]) and most discontinuations occurred immediately after baseline.

Extended depth of focus and MiSight® CL demonstrated similar efficacy in slowing myopia. When switched from a myopia control CL to SVCL, myopia progression was similar to that observed with age-matched wearers in SVCL and not suggestive of rebound.

The role of preterm birth, retinopathy of prematurity and perinatal factors on corneal aberrations in adulthood: Results from the Gutenberg prematurity eye study.

Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics

Prematurity and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) are associated with altered corneal shape and reduced visual acuity in childhood, but their long-term effects on corneal shape in later life are still unclear. This study evaluated whether prematurity and related perinatal factors are associated with corneal aberrations in adulthood.

The Gutenberg Prematurity Eye Study (GPES) is a cohort study using Scheimpflug imaging of the cornea. Associations were assessed between corneal Zernike aberrations and gestational age (GA), birth weight (BW), BW percentile, ROP occurrence, ROP treatment and other perinatal factors using univariate and multivariable linear regression analyses.

This study involved 444 eyes of 256 individuals born preterm (aged 28.1 ± 8.4 years, 146 females) and 231 eyes of 132 individuals born full-term (aged 29.8 ± 8.9 years, 77 females). Multivariable analyses revealed an association between corneal higher-order aberrations and lower birth weight percentile (B = -0.001, p < 0.001) as well as ROP treatment (B = 0.120, p = 0.03). Corneal lower-order aberrations were also associated with lower birth weight percentile (B = -0.004; p = 0.001) and ROP treatment (B = 0.838, p = 0.01) but not with ROP occurrence. Increased corneal aberrations were correlated with lower visual acuity and the spherical equivalent refractive error.

Perinatal factors, particularly low birth weight percentile and ROP treatment lead to a more irregular corneal shape in adulthood, thereby reducing optical image quality and potentially contributing to reduced visual acuity and altered refractive error.

Deep learning: applications in retinal and optic nerve diseases.

Clinical & Exp Optometry

Deep learning (DL) represents a paradigm-shifting, burgeoning field of research with emerging clinical applications in optometry. Unlike traditiona...