The latest medical research on Clinical Pharmacology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about clinical pharmacology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Basolateral amygdala CB1 receptors gate HPA axis activation and context-cocaine memory strength during reconsolidation.

Neuropsychopharmacology

Re-exposure to a cocaine-associated context triggers craving and relapse through the retrieval of salient context-drug memories. Upon retrieval, co...

Long-term alcohol consumption alters dorsal striatal dopamine release and regulation by D2 dopamine receptors in rhesus macaques.

Neuropsychopharmacology

The dorsal striatum (DS) is implicated in behavioral and neural processes including action control and reinforcement. Alcohol alters these processe...

Dopamine release and its control over early Pavlovian learning differs between the NAc core and medial NAc shell.

Neuropsychopharmacology

Dopamine neurons respond to cues to reflect the value of associated outcomes. These cue-evoked dopamine responses can encode the relative rate of r...

Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are associated with opposite brain reward anticipation-associated response.

Neuropsychopharmacology

Blunted and exaggerated neuronal response to rewards are hypothesized to be core features of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SZ) and bipolar diso...

Prediction of short-term antidepressant response using probabilistic graphical models with replication across multiple drugs and treatment settings.

Neuropsychopharmacology

Heterogeneity in the clinical presentation of major depressive disorder and response to antidepressants limits clinicians' ability to accurately pr...

Efficacy and safety of transcranial direct current stimulation as an add-on treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized, sham-controlled trial.

Neuropsychopharmacology

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a frequent, disabling disorder with high rates of treatment resistance. Transcranial direct current stimulat...

Comorbid anxiety-like behavior in a rat model of colitis is mediated by an upregulation of corticolimbic fatty acid amide hydrolase.

Neuropsychopharmacology

Peripheral inflammatory conditions, including those localized to the gastrointestinal tract, are highly comorbid with psychiatric disorders such as...

Beta-adrenergic blockade blunts inflammatory and antiviral/antibody gene expression responses to acute psychosocial stress.

Neuropsychopharmacology

Dysregulation of the immune system is one potential mechanism by which acute stress may contribute to downstream disease etiology and psychopatholo...

Network-based functional connectivity predicts response to exposure therapy in unmedicated adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Neuropsychopharmacology

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with alterations in cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical brain networks, but some resting-state funct...

Detection of Medication Errors Through Medication History Assessment During Admission at General Medical Wards.

Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology

Medication history assessment during hospital admissions is an important element in the medication reconciliation process. It ensures continuity of care and reduces medication errors.

This study aimed to determine the incidence of unintentional discrepancies (medication errors), types of medication errors with its potential severity of patient harm and acceptance rate of pharmaceutical care interventions.

A four-month cross-sectional study was conducted in the general medical wards of a tertiary hospital. All newly admitted patients with at least one prescription medication were recruited via purposive sampling. Medication history assessments were done by clinical pharmacists within 24 hours or as soon as possible after admission. Pharmacist-acquired medication histories were then compared with in-patient medication charts to detect discrepancies. Verification of the discrepancies, interventions, and assessment of the potential severity of patient harm resulting from medication errors were collaboratively carried out with the treating doctors.

There were 990 medication discrepancies detected among 390 patients recruited in this study. One hundred and thirty-five (13.6%) medication errors were detected in 93 (23.8%) patients (1.45 errors per patient). These were mostly contributed by medication omissions (79.3%), followed by dosing errors (9.6%). Among these errors, 88.2% were considered "significant" or "serious" but none were "life-threatening." Most (83%) of the pharmaceutical interventions were accepted by the doctors.

Medication history assessment by pharmacists proved vital in detecting medication errors, mostly medication omissions. Majority of the errors intervened by pharmacists were accepted by the doctors which prevented potential significant or serious patient harm.

The DOOR to Antibiotic Stewardship: Refining Assessments of Interventions With Desirability of Outcome Ranking.

Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology

Limited sample size and disparate outcome measures can hinder the ability of antimicrobial stewardship programs to assess the utility of their quality improvement interventions. Desirability of outcome ranking (DOOR) is a novel methodology that incorporates multiple outcomes into a single value to more comprehensively compare therapeutic strategies. The objective of this study was to apply DOOR to a single center antibiotic stewardship intervention.

A pre- and post-interventional study was conducted evaluating the impact of prospective pharmacist review of rapid molecular diagnostic testing (RDT) of blood cultures on antibiotic optimization. Outcomes included the percentage of patients who were switched to appropriate therapy, the time to appropriate therapy, and the percentage of patients who had missed de-escalation opportunities.

A total of 19 and 29 patients were included in the final analysis. The percentage of patients reaching appropriate therapy was 84% (16/19) and 97% ([28/29], p = 0.16) in the pre-intervention and post-intervention groups respectively. Median time to appropriate therapy was 26 hours and 36 minutes (IQR 13:05-50:45) and 22:40 (IQR 3:42-48:23, p = 0.32), respectively. One missed de-escalation opportunity was identified in the post-intervention group (0% vs 3%, p = 1.00). DOOR analysis indicated that the probability of a better outcome for the post-intervention group than the pre-intervention group was 58% (95% CI 54-62).

In this analysis, DOOR revealed a benefit that would not have been apparent with traditional outcomes assessments. Antimicrobial stewardship programs conducting quality improvement studies should consider incorporating DOOR into their methodology.

Cancer pain management and the roles of pharmacists in China.

International Journal of Epidemiology

Pain management impacts cancer treatment and patients' quality of life. This commentary describes the current state of cancer pain management in Ch...