The latest medical research on Sleep Medicine

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about sleep medicine gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Effects of a 12-week yoga versus a 12-week educational film intervention on symptoms of restless legs syndrome and related outcomes: an exploratory randomized controlled trial.

J Clin Sleep

To assess the effects of a yoga versus educational film (EF) program on restless legs syndrome (RLS) symptoms and related outcomes in adults with RLS.

Forty-one community-dwelling, ambulatory nonpregnant adults with moderate to severe RLS were randomized to a 12-week yoga (n = 19) or EF program (n = 22). In addition to attending classes, all participants completed practice/treatment logs. Yoga group participants were asked to practice at home 30 minutes per day on nonclass days; EF participants were instructed to record any RLS treatments used on their daily logs. Core outcomes assessed pretreatment and posttreatment were RLS symptoms and symptom severity (International RLS Study Group Scale (IRLS) and RLS ordinal scale), sleep quality, mood, perceived stress, and quality of life (QOL).

Thirty adults (13 yoga, 17 EF), aged 24 to 73 (mean = 50.4 ± 2.4 years), completed the 12-week study (78% female, 80.5% white). Post-intervention, both groups showed significant improvement in RLS symptoms and severity, perceived stress, mood, and QOL-mental health (P ≤ .04). Relative to the EF group, yoga participants demonstrated significantly greater reductions in RLS symptoms and symptom severity (P ≤ .01), and greater improvements in perceived stress and mood (P ≤ .04), as well as sleep quality (P = .09); RLS symptoms decreased to minimal/mild in 77% of yoga group participants, with none scoring in the severe range by week 12, versus 24% and 12%, respectively, in EF participants. In the yoga group, IRLS and RLS severity scores declined with increasing minutes of homework practice (r = .7, P = .009 and r = .6, P = .03, respectively), suggesting a possible dose-response relationship.

Findings of this exploratory RCT suggest that yoga may be effective in reducing RLS symptoms and symptom severity, decreasing perceived stress, and improving mood and sleep in adults with RLS.

Registry:; Title: Yoga vs. Education for Restless Legs: a Feasibility Study; Identifier: NCT03570515; URL:

Simple behavioral criteria for the diagnosis of disorders of arousal.

J Clin Sleep

This case-control study aimed to identify and validate behavioral markers supporting the diagnosis of disorders of arousal (DOA) with video polysomnography.

All behaviors associated with 1,335 episodes of N3 interruptions were compared in 52 adult patients with DOA versus 52 participants without DOA (healthy control patients and patients with insomnia, hypersomnia, or sleep apnea syndrome).

Patients with DOA had more frequent (5.1 ± 2.4 versus 3.4 ± 1.9 interruptions/N3 time) and longer (35.8 ± 33 versus 23.1 ± 21.4 sec) arousals and awakenings from N3 than control patients. In the DOA group, the onset of behaviors was more abrupt, and behaviors including eye opening (69% versus 16%), head raising (41% versus 9%), visually exploring the environment (27% versus 1%), expression of fear/surprise (21% versus zero), speaking (18% versus 0.3%), trunk raising (13% versus 0.3%), and interacting with the environment (13% versus 0.5%), were (unlike quiet, comfort behaviors) more frequent than in control patients. A cutoff of two or more N3 interruptions containing eye opening yielded a sensitivity of 94.2% and a specificity of 76.9% for a DOA diagnosis. This accuracy was confirmed in a second set of data (second night of monitoring). Behaviors including an expression of fear/surprise (67.3%), sitting (32.7%), screaming, and standing up were specific to patients with DOA.

A simple, behavioral video marker of behavioral reactions during N3 interruption (ie, opening the eyes at least two times in the same night) was sensitive, specific, and reproducible for discriminating patients with DOA from sleep laboratory control patients.

This study is a surrogate study of NCT02648568 and NCT03074578 on

The relationship between obesity and sleep timing behavior, television exposure, and dinnertime among elementary school-age children.

J Clin Sleep

The daily lifestyle behaviors of children have been shown to be associated with obesity. There are limited studies on the association of sleep timing behavior and body mass index (BMI), specifically in elementary school-age children. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between obesity and sleep timing patterns, television exposure time, and dinnertime among elementary school-age children.

Children (n = 169) aged 6 to 10 years who were residents of Alabama were recruited for this study. The questionnaires were used to determine the bedtime, wake-up time, television exposure time, and dinnertime of the participants. The participants were categorized into four groups depending on the bedtime and wake-up time behavior habits: early bed/early wake-up (EE); early bed/late wake-up (EL); late bed/early wake-up (LE); and late bed/late wake-up (LL) time. The BMI z-score, television exposure time, and dinnertime of these groups were compared.

The LL group had a significantly higher BMI z-score compared to the EE group. The higher BMI z-score in the LL group may be associated with late bedtime and not late wake-up time. Approximately 71% of children with late bedtime (8:48 pm), 75% of children who watch television for more than 1 hour, and 54% of children who have dinner after 7:00 pm have obesity.

Daily behavior habits such as late bedtime, increased television exposure, and late dinnertime are associated with obesity.

Competency-based sleep medicine fellowships: addressing workforce needs and enhancing educational quality.

J Clin Sleep

The path for physicians to become credentialed sleep medicine specialists has changed in many ways in the last few decades. Currently, sleep medici...

Cataplexy and ataxia: red flags for the diagnosis of DNA methyltransferase 1 mutation.

J Clin Sleep

Mutations in exons 21 and 20 of the DMNT1 gene have been associated with two multisystem neurodegenerative diseases that involve central and periph...

Upper airway surgery to rescue the "untitratable" patient with OSA and obesity.

J Clin Sleep

This is a case report of an 41-year-old male with obesity (body mass index 90 kg/m²), severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and an apnea-hypopnea i...

Images: Facial cataplexy with demonstration of persistent eye movements.

J Clin Sleep

A patient was transferred for management of "medication-refractory seizures" after failure of levetiracetam and valproate dual therapy. She had a l...

Parasympathetic activity is reduced during slow-wave sleep, but not resting wakefulness, in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.

J Clin Sleep

Physiological dearousal characterized by an increase in parasympathetic nervous system activity is important for good-quality sleep. Previous research shows that nocturnal parasympathetic activity (reflected by heart rate variability [HRV]) is diminished in individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), suggesting hypervigilant sleep. This study investigated differences in nocturnal autonomic activity across sleep stages and explored the association of parasympathetic activity with sleep quality and self-reported physical and psychological wellbeing in individuals with CFS.

Twenty-four patients with medically diagnosed CFS, and 24 matched healthy control individuals participated. Electroencephalography and HRV were recorded during sleep in participants' homes using a minimally invasive ambulatory device. Questionnaires were used to measure self-reported wellbeing and sleep quality.

Sleep architecture in patients with CFS differed from that of control participants in slower sleep onset, more awakenings, and a larger proportion of time spent in slow-wave sleep (SWS). Linear mixed-model analyses controlling for age revealed that HRV reflecting parasympathetic activity (normalized high frequency power) was reduced in patients with CFS compared to control participants, particularly during deeper stages of sleep. Poorer self-reported wellbeing and sleep quality was associated with reduced parasympathetic signaling during deeper sleep, but not during wake before sleep, rapid eye movement sleep, or with the proportion of time spent in SWS.

Autonomic hypervigilance during the deeper, recuperative stages of sleep is associated with poor quality sleep and self-reported wellbeing. Causal links need to be confirmed but provide potential intervention opportunities for the core symptom of unrefreshing sleep in CFS.

A pilot randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral treatment for trauma-related nightmares in active duty military personnel.

J Clin Sleep

The aim of this study was to obtain preliminary data on the efficacy, credibility, and acceptability of Exposure, relaxation, and rescripting therapy for military service members and veterans (ERRT-M) in active duty military personnel with trauma-related nightmares.

Forty participants were randomized to either 5 sessions of ERRT-M or 5 weeks of minimal contact control (MCC) followed by ERRT-M. Assessments were completed at baseline, posttreatment/postcontrol, and 1-month follow-up.

Differences between ERRT-M and control were generally medium in size for nightmare frequency (Cohen d = -0.53), nights with nightmares (d = -0.38), nightmare severity (d = -0.60), fear of sleep (d = -0.44), and symptoms of insomnia (d = -0.52), and depression (d = -0.51). In the 38 participants who received ERRT-M, there were statistically significant, medium-sized decreases in nightmare frequency (d = -0.52), nights with nightmares (d = -0.50), nightmare severity (d = -0.55), fear of sleep (d = -0.48), and symptoms of insomnia (d = -0.59), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (d = -0.58) and depression (d = -0.59) from baseline to 1-month follow-up. Participants generally endorsed medium to high ratings of treatment credibility and expectancy. The treatment dropout rate (17.5%) was comparable to rates observed for similar treatments in civilians.

ERRT-M produced medium effect-size reductions in nightmares and several secondary outcomes including PTSD, depression, and insomnia. Participants considered ERRT-M to be credible. An adequately powered randomized clinical trial is needed to confirm findings and to compare ERRT-M to an active treatment control.

Registry:; Title: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of Treatment for Trauma-Related Nightmares In Active Duty Military Personnel; Identifier: NCT02506595; URL:

Predictors of postoperative respiratory complications in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy.

J Clin Sleep

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is commonly treated with adenotonsillectomy (AT), bringing risk of perioperative respiratory adverse events (PRAEs). We aimed to concurrently identify clinical and polysomnographic predictors of PRAEs in children undergoing AT.

Retrospective study of children undergoing AT at a tertiary-care pediatric hospital, with prior in-hospital polysomnography, January 2010 to December 2016. PRAEs included those requiring oxygen, jaw thrust, positive airway pressure, or mechanical ventilation. Relationships of PRAEs to preoperative comorbidities or polysomnography results were examined with univariable logistic regression. Variables with P < .1 and age were included in backward stepwise multivariable logistic regression. Predictive performance (area under the curve, AUC) was validated with bootstrap resampling.

Analysis included 374 children, median age 6.1 years; 286 (76.5%) had ≥ 1 comorbidity. 344 (92.0%) had sleep-disordered breathing; 232 (62.0%) moderate-severe; 66 (17.6%) had ≥ 1 PRAE. PRAEs were more frequent in children with craniofacial, genetic, cardiac, airway anomaly, or neurological conditions, AHI ≥ 5 events/h and oxygen saturation nadir ≤ 80% on preoperative polysomnography. Prediction modeling identified cardiac comorbidity (odds ratio [OR] 2.09 [1.11, 3.89]), airway anomaly (OR 3.19 [1.33, 7.49]), and younger age (OR < 3 years: 4.10 (1.79, 9.26; 3 to 6 years: 2.21 [1.18, 4.15]) were associated with PRAEs (AUC 0.74; corrected AUC 0.68).

Prediction modeling concurrently evaluating comorbidities and polysomnography metrics identified cardiac disease, airway anomaly, and young age as independent predictors of PRAEs. These findings suggest that medical comorbidity and age are more important factors in predicting PRAEs than PSG metrics in a medically complex population.

Limb movements during sleep in children: effects of age, sex, and iron status in more than 1,000 patients referred to a pediatric sleep center.

J Clin Sleep

Limb movements during sleep (LMS) and periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) have been shown to vary by age in children. In the current study, we examined this relationship in more detail in a large clinically referred sample adjusting for iron status and sex.

Retrospective data analysis was done on a large pediatric population who underwent an overnight sleep study and had ferritin levels measured within 30 days of sleep study between May 2013 and October 2017 at pediatric sleep center. Patients with obstructive or central sleep apneas were excluded.

A total of 1,070 patients were included in the study, with 60% males. Younger age and male sex were associated with increased PLMS and LMS. In addition, there was an increase in PLMS and LMS during adolescence that subsided at a later age, independent of sex. These associations remained significant in models controlling for ferritin level. Ferritin level, in contrast, was not a significant predictor of PLMS or LMS when controlling for sex and age.

Age and sex may need to be considered when interpreting limb movement indices in pediatric sleep patients regardless of ferritin level.

Sleep-related symptoms in patients with mild stroke.

J Clin Sleep

Treatable sleep-related conditions are frequent in stroke patients, although their prevalence across stroke types and ideal method for screening is not clear. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of sleep disturbance across different stroke types and identify approaches to the collection of sleep-related measures in clinical practice.

We performed an observational cohort study of 2,213 patients with ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), or transient ischemic attack seen in a cerebrovascular clinic February 17, 2015 through July 5, 2017 who completed at least one of the following sleep-related questionnaires: Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) sleep disturbance, Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Sleep Apnea Probability Scale (SAPS), and sleep duration. Prevalence of abnormal scores were calculated using the following thresholds: PROMIS sleep disturbance ≥ 55, ISI ≥ 15, SAPS score ≥ 0.50, and sleep duration fewer than 6 or more than 9 hours. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of PROMIS sleep disturbance T-score ≥ 55 to identify patients with moderate-severe insomnia (ISI ≥ 15) were computed.

In the cohort, 28.6% patients (624/2183) had PROMIS sleep disturbance score ≥ 55, 17.6% (142/808) had ISI ≥ 15, and 61.3% (761/1241) had a positive SAPS screen. The frequency of abnormal sleep scale scores was similar across time periods and stroke types. The sensitivity and specificity of PROMIS sleep disturbance T-score ≥ 55 to identify patients with ISI ≥ 15 were 0.89 (95% confidence interval 0.83-0.94) and 0.81 (95% confidence interval 0.78-0.84), respectively.

The prevalence of sleep-related symptoms in patients with mild stroke are similar across stroke types and time periods after stroke. Potential approaches to screening for sleep disturbance in stroke patients are provided.