The latest medical research on Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about oral & maxillofacial surgery gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Optimizing the Implementation of Surgical Coaching Through Feedback From Practicing Surgeons.

JAMA Surgery

Surgical coaching is maturing as a tangible strategy for surgeons' continuing professional development. Resources to spread this innovation are not yet widely available.

To identify surgeon-derived implementation recommendations for surgical coaching programs from participants' exit interviews and ratings of their coaching interactions.

This qualitative analysis of the Surgical Coaching for Operative Performance Enhancement (SCOPE) program, a quality improvement intervention, was conducted at 4 US academic medical centers. Participants included 46 practicing surgeons. The SCOPE program ran from December 7, 2018, to October 31, 2019. Data were analyzed from November 1, 2019, to January 31, 2020.

Surgeons were assigned as either a coach or a coachee, and each coach was paired with 1 coachee by a local champion who knew the surgeons professionally. Coaching pairs underwent training and were instructed to complete 3 coaching sessions-consisting of preoperative goal setting, intraoperative observation, and postoperative debriefing-focused on intraoperative performance.

Themes from the participants' exit interviews covering 3 major domains: (1) describing the experience, (2) coach-coachee relationship, and (3) facilitators and barriers to implementing surgical coaching. Surgeons' responses were stratified by the net promoter score (NPS), a scale ranging from 0 to 10 points, indicating how likely they were to recommend their coaching session to others, with 9 to 10 indicating promoters; 7 to 8, passives; and 0 to 6, detractors.

Among the 46 participants (36 men [78.3%]), 23 were interviewed (50.0%); thematic saturation was reached with 5 coach-coachee pairs (10 interviews). Overall, coaches and coachees agreed on key implementation recommendations for surgical coaching, including how to optimize coach-coachee relationships and facilitate productive coaching sessions. The NPS categories were associated with how participants experienced their own coaching sessions. Specifically, participants who reported excellent first sessions, had a coaching partner in the same clinical specialty, and were transparent about each other's intentions in the program tended to be promoters. Participants who described suboptimal first sessions, less clinical overlap, and unclear goals with their partner were more likely detractors.

These exit interviews with practicing surgeons offer critical insights for addressing cultural barriers and practical challenges for successful implementation of peer coaching programs focused on surgical performance improvement. With empirical evidence on optimizing coach-coachee relationships and facilitating participants' experience, organizations can establish effective coaching programs that enable meaningful continuous professional development for surgeons and ultimately enhance patient care.

Long-term Oncologic Outcomes of Immediate Breast Reconstruction vs Conventional Mastectomy Alone for Breast Cancer in the Setting of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

JAMA Surgery

An increasing number of patients with breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) undergo immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) with nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) or skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) as surgical treatment. However, the oncologic efficacy and safety of this treatment sequencing strategy is unclear.

To compare the long-term oncologic outcomes of IBR with NSM/SSM and conventional mastectomy (CM) alone for breast cancer in the NACT setting.

A retrospective, propensity score-matched case-control study was conducted at Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. A total of 1266 patients with breast cancer who underwent NACT followed by mastectomy with or without breast reconstruction between January 1, 2010, and November 30, 2016, were included. Data analysis was performed from July 1, 2019, to January 24, 2020. After propensity score matching, 323 patients who underwent IBR with NSM/SSM and 323 who underwent CM alone were selected for comparison of long-term oncologic outcomes.

The 5-year local recurrence-free survival, disease-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, and overall survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using log-rank tests. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards regression model.

After matching, the median follow-up periods were 67 (range, 17-125) months for the IBR group and 68 (range, 17-126) months for the CM-alone group. Median age of the women in the IBR group was 42 (range, 23-72) years; median age of those in the CM-alone group was 46 (range, 30-75) years. No significant differences were observed between the IBR and CM-alone groups in local recurrence (3.7% vs 3.4%; P = .83), regional recurrence (7.1% vs 5.3%; P = .33), or distant metastasis (17.3% vs 18.6%; P = .68) rates. There was also no significant difference between the IBR and CM-alone groups in 5-year local recurrence-free survival (95.6% vs 96.7%; HR, 1.124; 95% CI, 0.495-2.549; P = .78), disease-free survival (76.5% vs 79.9%; HR, 1.089; 95% CI, 0.790-1.500; P = .60), distant metastasis-free survival (82.5% vs 82.5%; HR, 0.941; 95% CI, 0.654-1.355; P = .74), or overall survival (92.0% vs 89.3%; HR, 0.847; 95% CI, 0.530-1.353; P = .49) rates.

The long-term oncologic outcomes of IBR with NSM/SSM for breast cancer in this study appeared to be comparable to those of CM alone after NACT, suggesting the feasibility of IBR with NSM/SSM in the NACT setting.

Evaluation and Treatment of Patients With Hypercortisolism: A Review.

JAMA Surgery

With the potential for severe adverse effects of hypercortisolism, the need to limit the development and unrecognized persistence of sequelae from cortisol excess is of great importance on individual and population health levels. This review discusses the evaluation and treatment of patients with hypercortisolism. Pathophysiology; pitfalls in the diagnosis of hypercortisolism; and preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative management considerations are discussed. The association of hypercortisolism with population health and the potential role surgeons and surgery can play in the future of patients with hypercortisolism are also discussed. Higher-level considerations are put forth to encourage a long-term view of future work needed to optimally care for these patients.

Although classic signs and symptoms of hypercortisolism are evident in some patients, mild autonomous cortisol secretion is likely more prevalent and more difficult to detect despite having the potential to cause significant adverse effects, such as increased risk of mortality, and overt hypercortisolism. With treatment, some adverse effects of hypercortisolism may resolve, although not in all patients. Thus, the need for early diagnosis and treatment is of great importance.

More attention in the future on early treatment of hypercortisolism, whether subclinical or overt, and prevention of adverse effects is warranted for the sake of the individual and the population.

Patient-Centered Time-at-Home Outcomes in Older Adults After Surgical Cancer Treatment.

JAMA Surgery

Functional outcomes are central to cancer care decision-making by older adults.

To assess the long-term functional outcomes of older adults after a resection for cancer using time at home as the measure.

This population-based cohort study was conducted in Ontario, Canada, using the administrative databases stored at ICES (formerly the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences). The analysis included adults 70 years or older with a new diagnosis of cancer between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2017, who underwent a resection 90 days to 180 days after the diagnosis. Patients were followed up until and censored at the date of death, date of last contact, or December 31, 2018.

The main outcome was time at home, dichotomized as high time at home (defined as ≤14 institution days annually) and low time at home (defined as >14 institution days) during the 5 years after surgical cancer treatment. Time-to-event analyses with Kaplan-Meier methods and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used.

A total of 82 037 patients were included, with a median (interquartile range) follow-up of 46 (23-80) months. Of these patients, 52 119 were women (63.5%) and the mean (SD) age was 77.5 (5.7) years. The median (interquartile range) number of days at home per days alive per patient was high, at 0.98 (0.94-0.99) in postoperative year 1, 0.99 (0.97-1.00) in year 2, 0.99 (0.96-1.00) in year 3, 0.99 (0.96-1.00) in year 4, and 0.99 (0.96-1.00) in year 5. The probability of high time at home was 70.3% (95% CI, 70.0%-70.6%) at postoperative year 1 and 53.2% (95% CI, 52.8%-53.5%) at postoperative year 5. Advancing age (≥85 years: hazard ratio [HR], 2.11; 95% CI, 2.04-2.18); preoperative frailty (HR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.68-1.80); high material deprivation (5th quintile: HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.20-1.29); rural residency (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.10-1.18); high-intensity surgical procedure (HR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.84-2.25); and gastrointestinal (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.18-1.27), gynecologic (HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.18-1.45), and oropharyngeal (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.95-1.16) cancers were associated with low time at home. Inpatient acute care was responsible for 76.0% and long-term care was responsible for 2.0% of institution days in postoperative year 1. Inpatient days decreased to 31.0% by year 3, but days in long-term care increased over time.

This study found that older adults predominantly experienced high time at home after resection for cancer, reflecting the overall favorable functional outcomes in this population. The oldest adults and those with preoperative frailty and material deprivation appeared to be the most vulnerable to low time at home, and efforts to optimize and manage expectations about surgical outcomes can be targeted for this population; this information is important for patient counseling regarding surgical cancer treatment and for preparation for postoperative recovery.

Association of the Implant Surface Texture Used in Reconstruction With Breast Cancer Recurrence.

JAMA Surgery

The potential association between breast implant-related anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) and implant texture has raised concerns about the additional unexpected adverse effects of textured implants, including potentially adverse outcomes for other cancers. In addition to the risk of developing BIA-ALCL, breast cancer survivors may worry about whether the type of implant inserted is associated with recurrence of their original cancer-an issue for which little evidence currently exists.

To evaluate the oncologic outcomes of breast cancer according to the surface type of implants used for reconstruction and to identify the independent factors associated with breast cancer recurrence and survival, including implant surface type.

This cohort study was conducted at Samsung Medical Center, a single tertiary referral center in Seoul, South Korea. Patients with breast cancer who underwent total mastectomy and immediate 2-stage tissue expander/implant reconstruction between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2016, were identified from a prospectively maintained database. Patients were categorized into 2 groups according to the surface type of implant used for their reconstruction (smooth or textured implant). These patients were followed up for at least 2 years after insertion of the implant. Data analysis was performed from February 15, 2020, to March 5, 2020.

Use of smooth implants vs textured implants at the second-stage operation.

The main outcomes of interest were local and regional recurrence-free survival (LRRFS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates. Cumulative incidence of oncologic events in the smooth implant and textured implant groups and their respective hazard ratios (HRs) were collected and updated regularly.

In total, 650 patients (all women, with a mean [SD] age of 43.5 [7.4] years), representing 687 cases, met the inclusion criteria and were followed up for a median (range) duration of 52 (31-106) months. Of the 687 cases, 274 (39.9%) received a smooth implant and 413 (60.1%) received a textured implant. Patients in these 2 surface texture groups had similar characteristics, including tumor staging (stage I: 102 [37.2%] vs 173 [41.9%]; stage II: 93 [33.9%] vs 119 [28.8%]; stage III: 14 [5.1%] vs 20 [4.8%]; P = .50) and rates of adjuvant radiotherapy (42 [15.3%] vs 49 [11.9%]; P = .19) and chemotherapy (113 [41.2%] vs 171 [41.4%]; P = .97). The 5-year LRRFS was 96.7%, and the 5-year DFS was 95.2%. Compared with the use of a smooth implant, textured implant use was statistically significantly associated with lower DFS, and this difference remained significant after adjusting for estrogen receptor (ER) status and tumor stage (HR, 3.054; 95% CI, 1.158-8.051; P = .02). Similar statistically significant associations were observed on multivariable analysis of patients with ER-positive cancer (HR, 3.130; 95% CI, 1.053-9.307; P = .04) and those with invasive cancer (HR, 3.044; 95% CI, 1.152-8.039; P = .03). The association of textured implant use with recurrence (lower DFS) was more prominent in cases with late-stage (stage II or III) tumor (HR, 8.874; 95% CI, 1.146-68.748; P = .04). The LRRFS did not differ statistically significantly according to implant surface texture.

This cohort study found that use of textured implants in reconstruction appears to be associated with recurrence of breast cancer. Further investigation is required to verify these results.

Accuracy of Post-Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Image-Guided Breast Biopsy to Predict Residual Cancer.

JAMA Surgery

Image-guided breast biopsy of a residual imaging abnormality or tumor bed after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) is increasingly used to assess residual cancer, facilitate risk-adaptive surgery, and potentially identify exceptional responders in whom local therapy may be de-escalated.

To further assess the accuracy of post-NACT image-guided biopsy to predict residual cancer in the breast.

This diagnostic study analyzed multicenter patient-level data of patients with breast cancer who were treated with NACT and underwent image-guided biopsy before surgery at Royal Marsden Hospital in London, UK; Seoul National University Hospital in Seoul, South Korea; and MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas. Data were analyzed from June to July 2019.

Diagnostic accuracy of post-NACT image-guided biopsy. Final surgical pathology was used as reference standard.

Data from 166 women were analyzed. The median (range) age was 49 (25-76) years. The median (range) tumor size on pretreatment and posttreatment imaging was 33.5 (12-100) mm and 10 (0-100) mm, respectively. The overall pathologic complete response rate was 51.2% (n = 85) (16.1% [5 of 31] for hormone receptor-positive/ERBB2 (formerly HER2)-negative; 44.7% [21 of 47] for hormone receptor-positive/ERBB2-positive; 69% [20 of 29] for hormone receptor-negative/ERBB2-positive; and 66.1% [39 of 59] for triple negative). The majority (143 [86.1%]) underwent image-guided vacuum-assisted biopsy (VAB), and 23 had core-cut biopsy. The median (range) needle gauge was 10 (7-14), and the median (range) number of samples was 6 (2-18). When image-guided biopsy (VAB and core-cut biopsy) was representative (159 [95.8%]), the false-negative rate across the whole cohort was 18.7% (95% CI, 10.6%-29.3%). Subgroup analysis of patients with a complete/partial clinical response and residual imaging abnormality of 2 cm or smaller with at least 6 VABs taken (76 [45.8%]) demonstrated a false-negative rate of 3.2% (95% CI, 0.1%-16.7%), a negative predictive value of 97.4% (95% CI, 86.5%-99.9%), and an overall accuracy of 89.5% (95% CI, 80.3%-95.3%).

This large multicenter pooled data analysis suggests that a standardized protocol using image-guided VAB of a tumor bed measuring 2 cm or smaller with 6 or more representative samples allows reliable prediction of residual disease. These results could inform the design of de-escalation trials in NACT exceptional responders testing the safety of eliminating surgery.

Tranexamic Acid During Prehospital Transport in Patients at Risk for Hemorrhage After Injury: A Double-blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Surgery

In-hospital administration of tranexamic acid after injury improves outcomes in patients at risk for hemorrhage. Data demonstrating the benefit and safety of the pragmatic use of tranexamic acid in the prehospital phase of care are lacking for these patients.

To assess the effectiveness and safety of tranexamic acid administered before hospitalization compared with placebo in injured patients at risk for hemorrhage.

This pragmatic, phase 3, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, superiority randomized clinical trial included injured patients with prehospital hypotension (systolic blood pressure ≤90 mm Hg) or tachycardia (heart rate ≥110/min) before arrival at 1 of 4 US level 1 trauma centers, within an estimated 2 hours of injury, from May 1, 2015, through October 31, 2019.

Patients received 1 g of tranexamic acid before hospitalization (447 patients) or placebo (456 patients) infused for 10 minutes in 100 mL of saline. The randomization scheme used prehospital and in-hospital phase assignments, and patients administered tranexamic acid were allocated to abbreviated, standard, and repeat bolus dosing regimens on trauma center arrival.

The primary outcome was 30-day all-cause mortality.

In all, 927 patients (mean [SD] age, 42 [18] years; 686 [74.0%] male) were eligible for prehospital enrollment (460 randomized to tranexamic acid intervention; 467 to placebo intervention). After exclusions, the intention-to-treat study cohort comprised 903 patients: 447 in the tranexamic acid arm and 456 in the placebo arm. Mortality at 30 days was 8.1% in patients receiving tranexamic acid compared with 9.9% in patients receiving placebo (difference, -1.8%; 95% CI, -5.6% to 1.9%; P = .17). Results of Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, accounting for site, verified that randomization to tranexamic acid was not associated with a significant reduction in 30-day mortality (hazard ratio, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.59-1.11, P = .18). Prespecified dosing regimens and post-hoc subgroup analyses found that prehospital tranexamic acid were associated with significantly lower 30-day mortality. When comparing tranexamic acid effect stratified by time to treatment and qualifying shock severity in a post hoc comparison, 30-day mortality was lower when tranexamic acid was administered within 1 hour of injury (4.6% vs 7.6%; difference, -3.0%; 95% CI, -5.7% to -0.3%; P < .002). Patients with severe shock (systolic blood pressure ≤70 mm Hg) who received tranexamic acid demonstrated lower 30-day mortality compared with placebo (18.5% vs 35.5%; difference, -17%; 95% CI, -25.8% to -8.1%; P < .003).

In injured patients at risk for hemorrhage, tranexamic acid administered before hospitalization did not result in significantly lower 30-day mortality. The prehospital administration of tranexamic acid after injury did not result in a higher incidence of thrombotic complications or adverse events. Tranexamic acid given to injured patients at risk for hemorrhage in the prehospital setting is safe and associated with survival benefit in specific subgroups of patients.

ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02086500.

Indications for Total Gastrectomy in CDH1 Mutation Carriers and Outcomes of Risk-Reducing Minimally Invasive and Open Gastrectomies.

JAMA Surgery

CDH1 variants are increasingly identified on commercially available multigene panel tests, calling for data to inform counseling of individuals without a family history of gastric cancer.

To assess association between CDH1 variant pathogenicity or family history of gastric or lobular breast cancer and identification of signet ring cell cancer and to describe outcomes of risk-reducing minimally invasive and open total gastrectomy.

This cohort study was performed from January 1, 2006, to January 1, 2020, in 181 patients with CDH1 germline variants from a single institution.

Genetic counseling, esophagogastroduodenoscopy, and possible total gastrectomy.

CDH1 variant classification, family cancer history, findings of signet ring cell carcinoma at esophagogastroduodenoscopy and surgery, postoperative events and weight changes, and follow-up.

Of 181 individuals with CDH1 germline variants (mean [SD] age at time of testing, 44 [15] years; 126 [70%] female), 165 harbored a pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant. Of these patients, 101 underwent open (n = 58) or minimally invasive (n = 43) total gastrectomy. Anastomotic leaks that required drainage were infrequent (n = 3), and median long-term weight loss was 20% (interquartile range [IQR], 10%-23%). In those undergoing minimally invasive operations, more lymph nodes were retrieved (median, 28 [IQR, 20-34] vs 15 [IQR, 9-19]; P < .001) and the hospital stay was 1 day shorter (median, 6 [IQR, 5-7] vs 7 [IQR, 6-7] days; P = .04). Signet ring cell cancer was identified in the surgical specimens of 85 of 95 patients (89%) with a family history of gastric cancer and 4 of 6 patients (67%) who lacked a family history. Among the latter 6 patients, 4 had a personal or family history of lobular breast cancer, including 2 with signet ring cell cancer. Of the 16 patients with pathogenic or likely pathogenic CDH1 variants who presented with locally advanced or metastatic gastric cancer, 3 (19%) had no family history of gastric cancer or personal or family history of lobular breast cancer.

Total gastrectomy may be warranted for patients with pathogenic or likely pathogenic CDH1 variants and a family history of gastric or lobular breast cancer and may be appropriate for those without a family history. A minimally invasive approach is feasible and may be preferred for selected patients.

Association of Sarcopenia and Body Composition With Short-term Outcomes After Liver Resection for Malignant Tumors.

JAMA Surgery

Previous retrospective studies have shown that sarcopenia substantially alters the postoperative and oncological outcomes after liver resection for malignant tumors. However, the evidence is limited to small retrospective studies with heterogeneous results and the lack of standardized measurements of sarcopenia.

To investigate the role of sarcopenia as a risk factor associated with 90-day morbidity after liver resection for malignant tumors.

This cohort study included 234 consecutive patients undergoing liver resection for malignant tumors at San Camillo Forlanini Hospital, Rome, Italy, between June 1, 2018, and December 15, 2019. Muscle mass and strength were assessed using the skeletal muscle index (SMI) on preoperative computed tomographic scans and the handgrip strength test, respectively. Patients were then divided into the following 4 groups: group A (normal muscle mass and strength), group B (reduced muscle strength), group C (reduced muscle mass), and group D (reduced muscle mass and strength).

The primary outcome of the study was 90-day morbidity. The following secondary outcomes were investigated: 90-day mortality, hospital stay, and readmission rate.

Sixty-four major and 170 minor hepatectomies were performed in 234 patients (median age, 66.50 [interquartile range, 58.00-74.25] years; 158 men [67.5%]). The median SMI of the entire population was 46.22 (interquartile range, 38.60-58.20) cm/m2. The median handgrip strength was 30.80 (interquartile range, 22.30-36.90) kg. Patients in group D had a statistically significantly higher rate of 90-day morbidity than patients in the other groups (51.5% [35 of 68] vs 38.7% [29 of 75] in group C, 23.1% [3 of 13] in group B, and 6.4% [5 of 78] in group A; P < .001). Compared with patients in the other groups, those in group D had a longer hospital stay (10 days vs 8 days in group C, 9 days in group B, and 6 days in group A; P < .001), and more patients in this group were readmitted to the hospital (8.8% [6 of 68] vs 5.3% [4 of 75] in group C, 7.7% [1 of 13] in group B, and 0% [0 of 78] in group A; P = .02). Sarcopenia, portal hypertension, liver cirrhosis, and biliary reconstruction were independent risk factors associated with 90-day morbidity.

Sarcopenia appears to be associated with adverse outcomes after liver resection for malignant tumors. Both muscle mass measurements on computed tomographic scans and muscle strength assessments with the handgrip strength test should be performed at the first clinical encounter to better classify patients and to minimize the risk of morbidity.

Long-term Clinical and Cost-effectiveness of Early Endovenous Ablation in Venous Ulceration: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Surgery

One-year outcomes from the Early Venous Reflux Ablation (EVRA) randomized trial showed accelerated venous leg ulcer healing and greater ulcer-free time for participants who are treated with early endovenous ablation of lower extremity superficial reflux.

To evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of early endovenous ablation of superficial venous reflux in patients with venous leg ulceration.

Between October 24, 2013, and September 27, 2016, the EVRA randomized clinical trial enrolled 450 participants (450 legs) with venous leg ulceration of less than 6 months' duration and superficial venous reflux. Initially, 6555 patients were assessed for eligibility, and 6105 were excluded for reasons including ulcer duration greater than 6 months, healed ulcer by the time of randomization, deep venous occlusive disease, and insufficient superficial venous reflux to warrant ablation therapy, among others. A total of 426 of 450 participants (94.7%) from the vascular surgery departments of 20 hospitals in the United Kingdom were included in the analysis for ulcer recurrence. Surgeons, participants, and follow-up assessors were not blinded to the treatment group. Data were analyzed from August 11 to November 4, 2019.

Patients were randomly assigned to receive compression therapy with early endovenous ablation within 2 weeks of randomization (early intervention, n = 224) or compression with deferred endovenous treatment of superficial venous reflux (deferred intervention, n = 226). Endovenous modality and strategy were left to the preference of the treating clinical team.

The primary outcome for the extended phase was time to first ulcer recurrence. Secondary outcomes included ulcer recurrence rate and cost-effectiveness.

The early-intervention group consisted of 224 participants (mean [SD] age, 67.0 [15.5] years; 127 men [56.7%]; 206 White participants [92%]). The deferred-intervention group consisted of 226 participants (mean [SD] age, 68.9 [14.0] years; 120 men [53.1%]; 208 White participants [92%]). Of the 426 participants whose leg ulcer had healed, 121 (28.4%) experienced at least 1 recurrence during follow-up. There was no clear difference in time to first ulcer recurrence between the 2 groups (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.57-1.17; P = .28). Ulcers recurred at a lower rate of 0.11 per person-year in the early-intervention group compared with 0.16 per person-year in the deferred-intervention group (incidence rate ratio, 0.658; 95% CI, 0.480-0.898; P = .003). Time to ulcer healing was shorter in the early-intervention group for primary ulcers (hazard ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.12-1.64; P = .002). At 3 years, early intervention was 91.6% likely to be cost-effective at a willingness to pay of £20 000 ($26 283) per quality-adjusted life year and 90.8% likely at a threshold of £35 000 ($45 995) per quality-adjusted life year.

Early endovenous ablation of superficial venous reflux was highly likely to be cost-effective over a 3-year horizon compared with deferred intervention. Early intervention accelerated the healing of venous leg ulcers and reduced the overall incidence of ulcer recurrence.

ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: ISRCTN02335796.

Association of Breast Cancer Surgery With Quality of Life and Psychosocial Well-being in Young Breast Cancer Survivors.

JAMA Surgery

Young women with breast cancer are increasingly choosing bilateral mastectomy (BM), yet little is known about short-term and long-term physical and psychosocial well-being following surgery in this population.

To evaluate the differential associations of surgery with quality of life (QOL) and psychosocial outcomes from 1 to 5 years following diagnosis.

Cohort study.

Multicenter, including academic and community hospitals in North America.

Women age ≤40 when diagnosed with Stage 0-3 with unilateral breast cancer between 2006 and 2016 who had surgery and completed QOL and psychosocial assessments.

Primary breast surgery including breast-conserving surgery (BCS), unilateral mastectomy (UM), and BM.

Physical functioning, body image, sexual health, anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed in follow-up.

Of 826 women, mean age at diagnosis was 36.1 years; most women were White non-Hispanic (86.7%). Regarding surgery, 45% had BM, 31% BCS, and 24% UM. Of women who had BM/UM, 84% had reconstruction. While physical functioning, sexuality, and body image improved over time, sexuality and body image were consistently worse (higher adjusted mean scores) among women who had BM vs BCS (body image: year 1, 1.32 vs 0.64; P < .001; year 5, 1.19 vs 0.48; P < .001; sexuality: year 1, 1.66 vs 1.20, P < .001; year 5, 1.43 vs 0.96; P < .001) or UM (body image: year 1, 1.32 vs 1.15; P = .06; year 5, 1.19 vs 0.96; P = .02; sexuality: year 1, 1.66 vs 1.41; P = .02; year 5, 1.43 vs 1.09; P = .002). Anxiety improved across groups, but adjusted mean scores remained higher among women who had BM vs BCS/UM at 1 year (BM, 7.75 vs BCS, 6.94; P = .005; BM, 7.75 vs UM, 6.58; P = .005), 2 years (BM, 7.47 vs BCS, 6.18; P < .001; BM, 7.47 vs UM, 6.07; P < .001) and 5 years (BM, 6.67 vs BCS, 5.91; P = .05; BM, 6.67 vs UM, 5.79; P = .05). There were minimal between-group differences in depression levels in follow-up.

While QOL improves over time, young breast cancer survivors who undergo more extensive surgery have worse body image, sexual health, and anxiety compared with women undergoing less extensive surgery. Ensuring young women are aware of the short-term and long-term effects of surgery and receive support when making surgical decisions is warranted.

Perioperative Immunization for Splenectomy and the Surgeon's Responsibility: A Review.

JAMA Surgery

Patients who have had splenectomy have a lifelong risk of overwhelming postsplenectomy infection (OPSI), a condition associated with high mortality rates. Surgeons must be aware of the rationale of vaccination in the case of splenectomy, to provide appropriate immunization in the perioperative time.

English-language articles published from January 1, 1990, to December 31, 2019, were retrieved from MEDLINE/PubMed, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases. Randomized clinical trials as well as systematic reviews and observational studies were considered. Asplenia yields an impairment of both innate and adaptive immunity, thus increasing the risk of severe encapsulated bacterial infections. Current epidemiology of OPSI ranges from 0.1% to 8.5% but is hard to ascertain because of ongoing shifts in patients' baseline conditions and vaccine penetration. Despite the lack of randomized clinical trials, immunization appears to be effective in reducing OPSI incidence. Unfortunately, vaccination coverage is still suboptimal, with a great variability in vaccination rates being reported across institutions and time frames. Notably, current guidelines do not advocate any particular health care qualification responsible for vaccine prescription or administration. Given the dearth of high-level basic science or clinical evidence, the optimal vaccination timing and the need for booster doses are not yet well established. Although almost all guidelines indicate to not administer vaccines within 14 days before and after surgery, most data suggest that immunization might be effective even in the immediate perioperative time, thus placing the surgeon in a primary position for vaccine delivery. Furthermore, revaccination schedules are the target of ongoing debates, since a vaccine-driven hyporesponsiveness has been postulated.

In patients who have undergone splenectomy, OPSI might be effectively prevented by proper immunization. Surgeons have the primary responsibility for achieving adequate, initial immunization in the setting of both planned and urgent splenectomy.