The latest medical research on Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about oral & maxillofacial surgery gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Perceptions of Surgery Residents About Parental Leave During Training.

JAMA Surgery

To our knowledge, there has been little research conducted on the attitudes of residents toward their pregnant peers and parental leave.

To examine the perceptions of current surgery residents regarding parental leave.

A 36-item survey was distributed to current US general surgery residents and residents in surgical subspecialties through the Association of Program Directors in Surgery listserv and social media platforms. Questions were associated with general information/demographics, parental leave, having children, and respondents' knowledge regarding the current parental leave policy as set by the American Board of Surgery. The study was conducted from August to September 2018 and the data were analyzed in October 2018.

Main outcomes included the attitudes of residents toward pregnancy and parental leave, parental leave policy, and the association of parental leave with residency programs.

A total of 2188 completed responses were obtained; of these, 1049 (50.2%) were women, 1572 (75.8%) were white, 164 (7.9%) were Hispanic/Latinx, 75 (3.6%) were African American, 2 (0.1%) were American Indian or Alaskan Native, 263 (12.7%) were Asian, and 5 (0.2%) were Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander. From the number of residents who had/were expecting children (581 [28.6%]), 474 (81.6%) had or were going to have a child during the clinical years of residency. Many residents (247 [42.5%]) took fewer than 2 weeks of parental leave. Many residents did not feel supported in taking parental leave (177 [30.4%] did not feel supported by other residents and 190 [32.71%] did not feel supported by the faculty). Only 83 respondents (3.8%%) correctly identified the current American Board of Surgery parental leave policy. Residents who took parental leave identified a lack of a universal leave policy, strain on the residency program, a loss of education/training time, a lack of flexibility of programs, and a perceived or actual lack of support from faculty/peers as the top 5 biggest obstacles to taking leave during the clinical years of residency.

Most of the modifiable factors that inhibit residents from having children during residency are associated with policies (eg, a lack of universal leave policy and lack of flexibility) and personnel (eg, a strain on the residency program and lack of support from peers/faculty). These data suggest that policies at the level of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education or Resident Review Committee (RRC), as well as education and the normalization of pregnancy during training, may be effective interventions.

Association of Residents' Neural Signatures With Stress Resilience During Surgery.

JAMA Surgery

Intraoperative stressors may compound cognitive load, prompting performance decline and threatening patient safety. However, not all surgeons cope equally well with stress, and the disparity between performance stability and decline under high cognitive demand may be characterized by differences in activation within brain areas associated with attention and concentration such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC).

To compare PFC activation between surgeons demonstrating stable performance under temporal stress with those exhibiting stress-related performance decline.

Cohort study conducted from July 2015 to September 2016 at the Imperial College Healthcare National Health Service Trust, England. One hundred two surgical residents (postgraduate year 1 and greater) were invited to participate, of which 33 agreed to partake.

Participants performed a laparoscopic suturing task under 2 conditions: self-paced (SP; without time-per-knot restrictions), and time pressure (TP; 2-minute per knot time restriction).

A composite deterioration score was computed based on between-condition differences in task performance metrics (task progression score [arbitrary units], error score [millimeters], leak volume [milliliters], and knot tensile strength [newtons]). Based on the composite score, quartiles were computed reflecting performance stability (quartile 1 [Q1]) and decline (quartile 4 [Q4]). Changes in PFC oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (HbO2) measured at 24 different locations using functional near-infrared spectroscopy were compared between Q1 and Q4. Secondary outcomes included subjective workload (Surgical Task Load Index) and heart rate.

Of the 33 participants, the median age was 33 years, the range was 29 to 56 years, and 27 were men (82%). The Q1 residents demonstrated task-induced increases in HbO2 across the bilateral ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC) and right dorsolateral PFC in the SP condition and in the VLPFC in the TP condition. In contrast, Q4 residents demonstrated decreases in HbO2 in both conditions. The magnitude of PFC activation (change in HbO2) was significantly greater in Q1 than Q4 across the bilateral VLPFC during both SP (mean [SD] left VLPFC: Q1, 0.44 [1.30] μM; Q4, -0.21 [2.05] μM; P < .001; right VLPFC: Q1, 0.46 [1.12] μM; Q4, -0.15 [2.14] μM; P < .001) and TP (mean [SD] left VLPFC: Q1, 0.44 [1.36] μM; Q4, -0.03 [1.83] μM; P = .001; right VLPFC: Q1, 0.49 [1.70] μM; Q4, -0.32 [2.00] μM; P < .001) conditions. There were no significant between-group differences in Surgical Task Load Index or heart rate in either condition.

Performance stability within TP is associated with sustained prefrontal activation indicative of preserved attention and concentration, whereas performance decline is associated with prefrontal deactivation that may represent task disengagement.

Outcomes After Inguinal Hernia Repair With Mesh Performed by Medical Doctors and Surgeons in Ghana.

JAMA Surgery

Inguinal hernia is the most common general surgical condition in the world. Although task sharing of surgical care with nonsurgeons represents one method to increase access to essential surgery, the safety and outcomes of this strategy are not well described for hernia repair.

To compare outcomes after inguinal hernia repair with mesh performed by medical doctors and surgeons in Ghana.

This prospective cohort study was conducted from February 15, 2017, to September 17, 2018, at the Volta Regional Hospital in Ho, Ghana. Following successful completion of a training course, 3 medical doctors and 2 surgeons performed inguinal hernia repair with mesh according to the Lichtenstein technique on 242 men with primary, reducible inguinal hernia.

The primary end point was hernia recurrence at 1 year. The noninferiority limit was set at 5 percentage points. Secondary end points included postoperative complications at 2 weeks and patient satisfaction, pain, and self-assessed health status at 1 year.

Two-hundred forty-two patients were included; 119 men underwent operations performed by medical doctors and 123 men underwent operations performed by surgeons. Preoperative patient characteristics were similar in both groups. Two-hundred thirty-seven patients (97.9%) were seen at follow-up at 2 weeks, and 223 patients (92.1%) were seen at follow-up at 1 year. The absolute difference in recurrence rate between the medical doctor group (1 [0.9%]) and the surgeon group (3 [2.8%]) was -1.9 (1-tailed 95% CI, -4.8; P < .001), demonstrating noninferiority of the medical doctors. There were no statistically significant differences in postoperative complications (34 [29.1%] vs 29 [24.2%]), patient satisfaction (112 [98.2%] vs 108 [99.1%]), severe chronic pain (1 [0.9%] vs 4 [3.7%]), or self-assessed health (85.9 vs 83.7 of 100) for medical doctors and surgeons.

This study shows that medical doctors can be trained to perform elective inguinal hernia repair with mesh in men with good results and high patient satisfaction in a low-resource setting. This finding supports surgical task sharing to combat the global burden of hernia disease.

Association of Coworker Reports About Unprofessional Behavior by Surgeons With Surgical Complications in Their Patients.

JAMA Surgery

For surgical teams, high reliability and optimal performance depend on effective communication, mutual respect, and continuous situational awareness. Surgeons who model unprofessional behaviors may undermine a culture of safety, threaten teamwork, and thereby increase the risk for medical errors and surgical complications.

To test the hypothesis that patients of surgeons with higher numbers of reports from coworkers about unprofessional behaviors are at greater risk for postoperative complications than patients whose surgeons generate fewer coworker reports.

This retrospective cohort study assessed data from 2 geographically diverse academic medical centers that participated in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) and recorded and acted on electronic reports of safety events from coworkers describing unprofessional behavior by surgeons. Patients included in the NSQIP database who underwent inpatient or outpatient operations at 1 of the 2 participating sites from January 1, 2012, through December 31, 2016, were eligible. Patients were excluded if they were younger than 18 years on the date of the operation or if the attending surgeon had less than 36 months of monitoring for coworker reports preceding the date of the operation. Data were analyzed from August 8, 2018, through April 9, 2019.

Coworker reports about unprofessional behavior by the surgeon in the 36 months preceding the date of the operation.

Postoperative surgical or medical complications, as defined by the NSQIP, within 30 days of the operation.

Among 13 653 patients in the cohort (54.0% [7368 ] female; mean [SD] age, 57 [16] years) who underwent operations performed by 202 surgeons (70.8% [143] male), 1583 (11.6%) experienced a complication, including 825 surgical (6.0%) and 1070 medical (7.8%) complications. Patients whose surgeons had more coworker reports were significantly more likely to experience any complication (0 reports, 954 of 8916 [10.7%]; ≥4 reports, 294 of 2087 [14.1%]; P < .001), any surgical complication (0 reports, 516 of 8916 [5.8%]; ≥4 reports, 159 of 2087 [7.6%]; P < .01), or any medical complication (0 reports, 634 of 8916 [7.1%]; ≥4 reports, 196 of 2087 [9.4%]; P < .001). The adjusted complication rate was 14.3% higher for patients whose surgeons had 1 to 3 reports and 11.9% higher for patients whose surgeons had 4 or more reports compared with patients whose surgeons had no coworker reports (P = .05).

Patients whose surgeons had higher numbers of coworker reports about unprofessional behavior in the 36 months before the patient's operation appeared to be at increased risk of surgical and medical complications. These findings suggest that organizations interested in ensuring optimal patient outcomes should focus on addressing surgeons whose behavior toward other medical professionals may increase patients' risk for adverse outcomes.

Association Between Preoperative Opioid and Benzodiazepine Prescription Patterns and Mortality After Noncardiac Surgery.

JAMA Surgery

The number of patients prescribed long-term opioids and benzodiazepines and complications from their long-term use have increased. Information regarding the perioperative outcomes of patients prescribed these medications before surgery is limited.

To determine whether patients prescribed opioids and/or benzodiazepines within 6 months preoperatively would have greater short- and long-term mortality and increased opioid consumption postoperatively.

This retrospective, single-center, population-based cohort study included all patients 18 years or older, undergoing noncardiac surgical procedures at a national hospital in Iceland from December 12, 2005, to December 31, 2015, with follow-up through May 20, 2016. A propensity score-matched control cohort was generated using individuals from the group that received prescriptions for neither medication class within 6 months preoperatively. Data analysis was performed from April 10, 2018, to March 9, 2019.

Patients who filled prescriptions for opioids only, benzodiazepines only, both opioids and benzodiazepines, or neither medication within 6 months preoperatively.

Long-term survival compared with propensity score-matched controls. Secondary outcomes were 30-day survival and persistent postoperative opioid consumption, defined as a prescription filled more than 3 months postoperatively.

Among 41 170 noncardiac surgical cases in 27 787 individuals (16 004 women [57.6%]; mean [SD] age, 56.3 [18.8] years), a preoperative prescription for opioids only was filled for 7460 cases (17.7%), benzodiazepines only for 3121 (7.4%), and both for 2633 (6.2%). Patients who filled preoperative prescriptions for either medication class had a greater comorbidity burden compared with patients receiving neither medication class (Elixhauser comorbidity index >0 for 16% of patients filling prescriptions for opioids only, 22% for benzodiazepines only, and 21% for both medications compared with 14% for patients filling neither). There was no difference in 30-day (opioids only: 1.3% vs 1.0%; P = .23; benzodiazepines only: 1.9% vs 1.5%; P = .32) or long-term (opioids only: hazard ratio [HR], 1.12 [95% CI, 1.01-1.24]; P = .03; benzodiazepines only: HR, 1.11 [95% CI, 0.98-1.26]; P = .11) survival among the patients receiving opioids or benzodiazepines only compared with controls. However, patients prescribed both opioids and benzodiazepines had greater 30-day mortality (3.2% vs 1.8%; P = .004) and a greater hazard of long-term mortality (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.22-1.64; P < .001). The rate of persistent postoperative opioid consumption was higher for patients filling prescriptions for opioids only (43%), benzodiazepines only (23%), or both (66%) compared with patients filling neither (12%) (P < .001 for all).

The findings suggest that opioid and benzodiazepine prescription fills in the 6 months before surgery are associated with increased short-and long-term mortality and an increased rate of persistent postoperative opioid consumption. These patients should be considered for early referral to preoperative clinic and medication optimization to improve surgical outcomes.

Assessment of Use of Arteriovenous Graft vs Arteriovenous Fistula for First-time Permanent Hemodialysis Access.

JAMA Surgery

Initial hemodialysis access with arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is associated with superior clinical outcomes compared with arteriovenous graft (AVG) and should be the procedure of choice whenever possible. To address the national underuse of AVF in the United States, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid has established an AVF goal of 66% or greater in 2009.

To explore contemporary practice patterns and physician characteristics associated with high AVG use compared with AVF use.

This review of 100% Medicare Carrier claims between January 1, 2016, and December 31, 2017, includes both inpatient and outpatient Medicare claims data. All patients undergoing initial permanent hemodialysis access placement with an AVF or AVG were included. All surgeons performing more than 10 hemodialysis access procedures during the study period were analyzed.

Placement of an AVF or AVG for initial permanent hemodialysis access.

A surgeon-level AVG (vs AVF) use rate was calculated for all included surgeons. Hierarchical logistic regression modeling was used to identify patient-level and surgeon-level factors associated with AVG use.

A total of 85 320 patients (median age, 70 [range, 18-103] years; 47 370 men [55.5%]) underwent first-time hemodialysis access placement, of whom 66 489 (77.9%) had an AVF and 18 831 (22.1%) had an AVG. Among the 2397 surgeons who performed more than 10 procedures per year, the median surgeon level AVG use rate was 18.2% (range, 0.0%-96.4%). However, 498 surgeons (20.8%) had an AVG use rate greater than 34%. After accounting for patient characteristics, surgeon factors that were independently associated with AVG use included more than 30 years of clinical practice (vs 21-30 years; odds ratio, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.75-0.96]), metropolitan setting (odds ratio, 1.25 [95% CI, 1.02-1.54]), and vascular surgery specialty (vs general surgery; odds ratio, 0.77 [95% CI, 0.69-0.86]). Surgeons in the Northeast region had the lowest rate of AVG use (vs the South; odds ratio, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.73-0.96]). First-time hemodialysis access benchmarking reports for individual surgeons were created for potential distribution.

In this study, one-fifth of surgeons had an AVG use rate above the recommended best practices guideline of 34%. Although some of these differences may be explained by patient referral practices, sharing benchmarked performance data with surgeons could be an actionable step in achieving more high-value care in hemodialysis access surgery.

Comparison of Targeted vs Systematic Prostate Biopsy in Men Who Are Biopsy Naive: The Prospective Assessment of Image Registration in the Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer (PAIREDCAP) Study.

JAMA Surgery

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance improves the accuracy of prostate biopsy for the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer, but the optimal use of such guidance is not yet clear.

To determine the cancer detection rate (CDR) of targeting MRI-visible lesions vs systematic prostate sampling in the diagnosis of clinically significant prostate cancer in men who were biopsy naive.

This paired cohort trial, known as the Prospective Assessment of Image Registration in the Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer (PAIREDCAP) study, was conducted in an academic medical center from January 2015 to April 2018. Men undergoing first-time prostate biopsy were enrolled. Paired-cohort participants were a consecutive series of men with MRI-visible lesions (defined by a Prostate Imaging Reporting & Data System version 2 score  ≥ 3), who each underwent 3 biopsy methods at the same sitting: first, a systematic biopsy; second, an MRI-lesion biopsy targeted by cognitive fusion; and third, an MRI-lesion targeted by software fusion. Another consecutive series of men without MRI-visible lesions underwent systematic biopsies to help determine the false-negative rate of MRI during the trial period.

The primary end point was the detection rate of clinically significant prostate cancer (Gleason grade group ≥2) overall and by each biopsy method separately. The secondary end points were the effects of the Prostate Imaging Reporting & Data System version 2 grade, prostate-specific antigen density, and prostate volume on the primary end point. Tertiary end points were the false-negative rate of MRI and concordance of biopsy-method results by location of detected cancers within the prostate.

A total of 300 men participated; 248 had MRI-visible lesions (mean [SD] age, 65.5 [7.7] years; 197 were white [79.4%]), and 52 were control participants (mean [SD] age, 63.6 [5.9] years; 39 were white [75%]). The overall CDR was 70% in the paired cohort group, achieved by combining systematic and targeted biopsy results. The CDR by systematic sampling was 15% in the group without MRI-visible lesions. In the paired-cohort group, CDRs varied from 47% (116 of 248 men) when using cognitive fusion biopsy alone, to approximately 60% when using systematic biopsy (149 of 248 men) or either fusion method alone (154 of 248 men), to 70% (174 of 248 men) when combining systematic and targeted biopsy. Discordance of tumor locations suggests that the different biopsy methods detect different tumors. Thus, combining targeting and systematic sampling provide greatest sensitivity for detection of clinically significant prostate cancer. For all biopsy methods, the Prostate Imaging Reporting & Data System version 2 grade and prostate-specific antigen density were directly associated with CDRs, and prostate volume was inversely associated.

An MRI-visible lesion in men undergoing first-time prostate biopsy identifies those with a heightened risk of clinically significant prostate cancer. Combining targeted and systematic biopsy offers the best chances of detecting the cancer.

Role of Hepatic Artery Infusion Chemotherapy in Treatment of Initially Unresectable Colorectal Liver Metastases: A Review.

JAMA Surgery

Although liver metastasis develops in more than half of patients with colorectal cancer, only 15% to 20% of these patients have resectable liver metastasis at presentation. Moreover, patients with initially unresectable colorectal liver metastasis (IU-CRLM) who progress on first-line systemic chemotherapy have limited treatment options. Hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC), in combination with systemic chemotherapy, leverages a multimodality approach to achieving control of hepatic disease and/or expanding resectability in patients with liver-only disease or liver-dominant disease.

Intra-arterial delivery of agents with high first-pass hepatic extraction (eg, floxuridine) limits systemic toxic effects and allows for administration of systemic chemotherapy at near-full doses. Hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy in conjunction with systemic chemotherapy augments response rates up to 92% in patients who are chemotherapy naive, and up to 85% in pretreated patients with IU-CRLM. In turn, these responses translate into encouraging rates of conversion to resectability (CTR). Prospective trials have reported CTR rates as high as 52% in heavily pretreated patients with IU-CRLM who have an extensive hepatic disease burden. As such, CTR remains a compelling indication for liver-directed chemotherapy in this subset of patients. This review discusses the biological rationale for HAIC, evolution of rational combinations with systemic chemotherapy, contemporary evidence for CTR using HAIC and systemic chemotherapy, juxtaposition with rates of CTR using systemic chemotherapy alone, and morbidity and toxic effect profiles of HAIC.

The argument is made for consideration of earlier initiation of HAIC in patients with IU-CRLM who are chemotherapy naive and for adoption of HAIC strategies to augment rates of resectability in patients who have failed first-line systemic chemotherapy before proceeding to second-line or third-line regimens.

Comparison of Costs of Radical Cystectomy vs Trimodal Therapy for Patients With Localized Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer.

JAMA Surgery

Earlier studies on the cost of muscle-invasive bladder cancer treatments lack granularity and are limited to 180 days.

To compare the 1-year costs associated with trimodal therapy vs radical cystectomy, accounting for survival and intensity effects on total costs.

This population-based cohort study used the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database and included 2963 patients aged 66 to 85 years who had received a diagnosis of clinical stage T2 to T4a muscle-invasive bladder cancer from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2011. The data analysis was performed from March 5, 2018, through December 4, 2018.

Total Medicare costs within 1 year of diagnosis following radical cystectomy vs trimodal therapy were compared using inverse probability of treatment-weighted propensity score models that included a 2-part estimator to account for intrinsic selection bias.

Of 2963 participants, 1030 (34.8%) were women, 2591 (87.4%) were white, 129 (4.4%) were African American, and 98 (3.3%) were Hispanic. Median costs were significantly higher for trimodal therapy than radical cystectomy in 90 days ($83 754 vs $68 692; median difference, $11 805; 95% CI, $7745-$15 864), 180 days ($187 162 vs $109 078; median difference, $62 370; 95% CI, $55 581-$69 160), and 365 days ($289 142 vs $148 757; median difference, $109 027; 95% CI, $98 692-$119 363), respectively. Outpatient care, radiology, medication expenses, and pathology/laboratory costs contributed largely to the higher costs associated with trimodal therapy. On inverse probability of treatment-weighted adjusted analyses, patients undergoing trimodal therapy had $136 935 (95% CI, $122 131-$152 115) higher mean costs compared with radical cystectomy 1 year after diagnosis.

Compared with radical cystectomy, trimodal therapy was associated with higher costs among patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The differences in costs were largely attributed to medication and radiology expenses associated with trimodal therapy. Extrapolating cost figures resulted in a nationwide excess spending of $468 million for trimodal therapy compared with radical cystectomy for patients who received a diagnosis of bladder cancer in 2017.

Contributors to Postinjury Mental Health in Urban Black Men With Serious Injuries.

JAMA Surgery

Physical injury is associated with postinjury mental health problems, which typically increase disability, cost, recidivism, and self-medication for symptoms.

To determine risk and protective factors across the life span that contribute to depression and posttraumatic stress symptom severity at 3 months after hospital discharge.

This prospective cohort study used a 3-month postdischarge follow-up of patients who had been treated at an urban, level 1 trauma center in the Northeastern United States. Men with injuries who were hospitalized, self-identified as black, were 18 years or older, and resided in the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, region were eligible and consecutively enrolled. Those who were experiencing a cognitive dysfunction or psychotic disorder, hospitalized because of attempted suicide, or receiving current treatment for depression or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were excluded. Data were collected from January 2013 to October 2017. Data analysis took place from January 2018 to August 2018.

A serious injury requiring hospitalization; adverse childhood experiences, childhood neighborhood disadvantage, and preinjury physical and mental health; and emotional resources, injury intent, and acute stress responses.

Depression and PTSD symptom severity were assessed with the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms-Self-report and the PTSD Check List-5. The a priori hypothesis was that risk and protective factors are associated with depression and PTSD symptom severity. The analytic approach was structural equation modeling.

A total of 623 black men were enrolled. Of these, 502 participants (80.6%) were retained at 3-month follow-up. Their mean (SD) age was 35.6 (14.9) years; 346 (55.5%) had experienced intentional injuries, and the median (range) Injury Severity Score was 9 (1-45). Of the 500 participants with complete primary outcome data, 225 (45.0%) met the cut point criteria for mental health diagnoses at 3 months. For both mental health outcomes, the models fit the data well (depression: root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA], 0.044; comparative fit index [CFI], 0.93; PTSD: RMSEA = 0.045; CFI = 0.93), and all hypothesized paths were significant and in the hypothesized direction. Outcomes were associated with poor preinjury health (standardized weights: depression, 0.28; P < .001; PTSD, 0.17; P = .02), acute psychological reactions (depression, 0.34; PTSD, 0.38; both P < .001), and intentional injury (depression, 0.16; PTSD, 0.24; both P < .001). Acute psychological reactions were associated with childhood adversity (depression, 0.33; PTSD, 0.36; both P < .001). A history of prior mental health challenges (depression, 0.70; PTSD, 0.70; both P < .001) and psychological or emotional health resources (depression, -0.22; PTSD, -0.23; both P = .003) affected poor preinjury health, which was in turn associated with acute psychological reaction (depression, 0.44; PTSD, 0.42; both P < .001).

The intersection of prior trauma and adversity, prior exposure to neighborhood disadvantage, and poorer preinjury health and functioning are important, even in the midst of acute medical care for traumatic injury. These results support the importance of trauma-informed health care and focused assessment to identified patients with injuries who are at highest risk for poor postinjury mental health outcomes.

Transition Planning for the Senior Surgeon: Guidance and Recommendations From the Society of Surgical Chairs.

JAMA Surgery

Aging is well documented to be associated with declines in cognitive function and psychomotor performance, but only limited guidance is currently available from medical professional societies or regulatory agencies on how to translate these observations into the appropriate monitoring of physician performance.

The Society of Surgical Chairs conducted a panel discussion at its 2017 annual meeting and a subsequent survey of its membership in 2018 to develop recommendations for the transitioning of the senior surgeon.

Recommendations include mandatory cognitive and psychomotor testing of surgeons by at least age 65 years, potentially as a component of ongoing professional practice evaluation; career transition discussions with surgeons beginning early in their careers; respectful consideration of the potential financial needs, long-standing work commitments, and work-life concerns of retiring surgeons; and creation of teaching, mentoring or coaching, and/or administrative opportunities for senior surgeons in modified clinical or nonclinical roles. Ideally, these initiatives will catalyze a thoughtful and comprehensive new vista in supporting an aging workforce while ensuring the safety of patients, the efficient management of health care organizations, and the avoidance of unnecessary depletions to a sufficiently sized cadre of physicians with case-specific competencies.

Fracture Risk After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass vs Adjustable Gastric Banding Among Medicare Beneficiaries.

JAMA Surgery

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is associated with significant bone loss and may increase fracture risk, whereas substantial bone loss and increased fracture risk have not been reported after adjustable gastric banding (AGB). Previous studies have had little representation of patients aged 65 years or older, and it is currently unknown how age modifies fracture risk.

To compare fracture risk after RYGB and AGB procedures in a large, nationally representative cohort enriched for older adults.

This population-based retrospective cohort analysis used Medicare claims data from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2014, from 42 345 severely obese adults, of whom 29 624 received RYGB and 12 721 received AGB. Data analysis was performed from April 2017 to November 2018.

The primary outcome was incident nonvertebral (ie, wrist, humerus, pelvis, and hip) fractures after RYGB and AGB surgery defined using a combination of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition and Current Procedural Terminology 4 codes.

Of 42 345 participants, 33 254 (78.5%) were women. With a mean (SD) age of 51 (12) years, recipients of RYGB were younger than AGB recipients (55 [12] years). Both groups had similar comorbidities, medication use, and health care utilization in the 365 days before surgery. Over a mean (SD) follow-up of 3.5 (2.1) years, 658 nonvertebral fractures were documented. The fracture incidence rate was 6.6 (95% CI, 6.0-7.2) after RYGB and 4.6 (95% CI, 3.9-5.3) after AGB, which translated to a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.73 (95% CI, 1.45-2.08) after multivariable adjustment. Site-specific analyses demonstrated an increased fracture risk at the hip (HR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.82-4.49), wrist (HR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.33-2.14), and pelvis (HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.08-2.07) among RYGB recipients. No significant interactions of fracture risk with age, sex, diabetes status, or race were found. In particular, adults 65 years and older showed similar patterns of fracture risk to younger adults. Sensitivity analyses using propensity score matching showed similar results (nonvertebral fracture: HR 1.75; 95% CI, 1.22-2.52).

This study of a large, US population-based cohort including a substantial population of older adults found a 73% increased risk of nonvertebral fracture after RYGB compared with AGB, including increased risk of hip, wrist, and pelvis fractures. Fracture risk was consistently increased among RYGB patients vs AGB across different subgroups, and to a similar degree among older and younger adults. Increased fracture risk appears to be an important unintended consequence of RYGB.