The latest medical research on Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about oral & maxillofacial surgery gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Effect of Clear vs Standard Covered Masks on Communication With Patients During Surgical Clinic Encounters: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Surgery

During the COVID-19 pandemic, wearing masks has become necessary, especially within health care. However, to our knowledge, the consequences of mask wearing on communication between surgeons and patients have not been studied.

To evaluate the effects of clear vs standard covered masks on communication during surgical clinic encounters.

This randomized clinical trial examined communication between surgeons and their patients when surgeons wore clear vs covered masks in surgical outpatient clinics at a single academic medical center. New patients were recruited from participating surgeons' clinic schedules.

Surgeons wore either clear masks or covered masks for each clinic visit with a new patient, based on a per-visit randomization plan.

The primary outcome measures included patient perceptions of (1) surgeon communication and (2) trust in surgeons, as well as (3) quantitative assessments and (4) qualitative assessments regarding patient impressions of the surgeon's mask. After the clinic encounter, patients completed a verbal survey including validated Clinician and Group Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems questions. Additional questions involved surgeon empathy, trust, and the patient's impression of the surgeon's mask. Data were analyzed by comparing patient data in the clear vs covered groups using Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests, and comments were analyzed for themes.

Two hundred patients were enrolled from 15 surgeons' clinics spanning 7 subspecialties. When surgeons wore a clear mask, patients rated their surgeons higher for providing understandable explanations (clear, 95 of 100 [95%] vs covered, 78 of 100 [78%]; P < .001), demonstrating empathy (clear, 99 [99%] vs covered, 85 [85%]; P < .001), and building trust (clear, 94 [94%] vs covered, 72 [72%]; P < .001). Patients preferred clear masks (clear, 100 [100%] vs covered, 72 [72%]; P < .001), citing improved surgeon communication and appreciation for visualization of the face. Conversely, 8 of 15 surgeons (53%) were unlikely to choose the clear mask over their standard covered mask.

This randomized clinical trial demonstrates that patients prefer to see their surgeon's face. Surgeons who wore clear masks were perceived by patients to be better communicators, have more empathy, and elicit greater trust. Because masks will remain part of the health care landscape for some time, deliberate attention to preserving communication within the surgeon-patient relationship is warranted. Identifier: NCT04595695.

Stepped Collaborative Care Targeting Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Comorbidity for US Trauma Care Systems: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Surgery

To date, few multisite investigations have evaluated early interventions for injured patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms.

To simultaneously assess the effectiveness and implementation of a brief stepped collaborative care intervention targeting PTSD and comorbidity.

A stepped-wedge cluster randomized clinical trial was conducted at 25 US level I trauma centers. Participants included hospitalized survivors of physical injury who underwent a 2-step evaluation for PTSD symptoms. Patients reporting high levels of distress on the PTSD Checklist (PCL-C) were randomized (N = 635) per the stepped-wedge protocol to enhanced usual care control (n = 370) or intervention (n = 265) conditions. The study was conducted from January 4, 2016, through November 2018. Data analysis was performed from November 4, 2019, to December 8, 2020.

The Trauma Survivors Outcomes and Support collaborative care intervention included proactive injury case management that assisted patients transitioning from hospital inpatient to outpatient and community settings. The intervention also integrated evidence-based pharmacotherapy and psychotherapeutic elements targeting PTSD symptoms and comorbidity.

The primary study outcome was PTSD symptoms assessed with the PCL-C at baseline in the surgical ward and at 3, 6, and 12 months postinjury. Secondary outcomes included depressive symptoms, alcohol use, and physical function. Subgroup analyses examined the effect of baseline risk factors for enduring PTSD and quality of protocol implementation on study outcomes. Primary statistical analyses were conducted using the intent-to-treat sample.

A total of 327 men (51.5%) were included in analysis; mean (SD) age was 39.0 (14.2) years. The investigation attained follow-up of 75% to 80% of the participants at 3 to 12 months. The intervention lasted a mean (SD) of 122 (132) minutes. Mixed model regression analyses revealed statistically significant changes in PCL-C scores for intervention patients compared with control patients at 6 months (difference, -2.57; 95% CI, -5.12 to -0.03; effect size, 0.18; P < .05) but not 12 months (difference, -1.27; 95% CI, -4.26 to 1.73; effect size, 0.08; P = .35). Subgroup analyses revealed larger PTSD treatment effects for patients with 3 or more baseline risk factors for enduring PTSD and for patients, including firearm injury survivors, treated at trauma centers with good or excellent protocol implementation. Intervention effects for secondary outcomes did not attain statistical significance.

A brief stepped collaborative care intervention was associated with significant 6-month but not 12-month PTSD symptom reductions. Greater baseline PTSD risk and good or excellent trauma center protocol implementation were associated with larger PTSD treatment effects. Orchestrated efforts targeting policy and funding should systematically incorporate the study findings into national trauma center requirements and verification criteria. Identifier: NCT02655354.

Association of Acute Care Surgeon Experience With Emergency Surgery Patient Outcomes and Mortality.

JAMA Surgery

Previous studies comparing emergency surgery outcomes with surgeon experience have been small or used administrative databases without controlling for patient physiology or operative complexity.

To evaluate the association of acute care surgeon experience with patient morbidity and mortality after emergency surgical procedures.

This cohort study evaluated the association of surgeon experience with emergency surgery outcomes at 5 US academic level 1 trauma centers where the same surgeons provided emergency general surgical care. A total of 772 patients who presented with a traumatic injury and required an emergency surgical procedure or who presented with or developed a condition requiring an emergency general surgical intervention were operated on by 1 of 56 acute care surgeons. Surgeon groups were divided by experience of less than 6 years (early career), 6 to 10 years (early midcareer), 11 to 30 years (late midcareer), and 30 years or more (late career) from the end of training. Surgeons with less than 3 years of experience were also compared with the entire cohort. Hierarchical logistic regression models were constructed controlling for Emergency Surgery Score, case complexity, preoperative transfusion, and trauma or emergency general surgery. Data were collected from May 2015 to July 2017 and analyzed from February to May 2020.

Mortality, complications, length of stay, blood loss, and unplanned return to the operating room.

Of 772 included patients, 469 (60.8%) were male, and the mean (SD) age was 50.1 (20.0) years. Of 772 operations, 618 were by surgeons with less than 10 years of experience. Early- and late-midcareer surgeons generally operated on older patients and patients with more septic shock, acute kidney failure, and higher Emergency Surgery Scores. Patient mortality, complications, postoperative transfusion, organ-space surgical site infection, and length of stay were similar between surgeon groups. Patients operated on by early-career surgeons had higher rates of unplanned return to the operating room compared with those operated on by early-midcareer surgeons (odds ratio [OR], 0.66; 95% CI, 0.40-1.09), late-midcareer surgeons (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.13-0.90), and late-career surgeons (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.45-2.75). Patients operated on by surgeons with less than 3 years of experience had similar mortality compared with the rest of the cohort (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 0.85-4.57) but higher rates of complications (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.05-4.07).

In this study, experienced surgeons generally operated on older patients with more septic shock and kidney failure without affecting risk-adjusted mortality. Increased complications and unplanned return to the operating room may improve with experience. Early-career surgeons' outcomes may be improved if they are supported while experience is garnered.

Safety of Combined Division vs Separate Division of the Splenic Vein in Patients Undergoing Distal Pancreatectomy: A Noninferiority Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Surgery

In distal pancreatectomy (DP), the splenic vein is isolated from the pancreatic parenchyma prior to being ligated and divided to prevent intra-abdominal hemorrhage from the splenic vein stump with pancreatic fistula (PF). Conversely, dissecting the splenic vein with the pancreatic parenchyma is easy and time-saving.

To establish the safety of combined division of the splenic vein compared with separate division of the splenic vein.

This study was designed as a multicenter prospective randomized phase 3 trial. All results were analyzed using the modified intent-to-treat set. Patients undergoing DP for pancreatic body and tail tumors were eligible for inclusion. Patients were randomly assigned between August 10, 2016, and July 30, 2019.

Patients were centrally randomized (1:1) to either separate division of the splenic vein or combined division of the splenic vein.

The primary end point was the incidence of grade B/C PF, and the incidence of intra-abdominal hemorrhage was included as one of the secondary end points.

A total of 318 patients were randomly assigned, and 2 patients were excluded as ineligible. Of the 316 remaining patients, 150 (50.3%) were male. The modified intent-to-treat population constituted 159 patients (50.3%) in the separate division group and 157 patients (49.7%) in the combined division group. In the modified intent-to-treat set, the proportion of grade B/C PF in the separate division group was 27.1% (42 of 155) vs 28.6% (44 of 154) in the combined division group (adjusted odds ratio, 1.108; 95% CI, 0.847-1.225; P = .047), demonstrating noninferiority of the combined division of the splenic vein against separate division. The incidence of postoperative intra-abdominal hemorrhage in the 2 groups was identical at 1.3%.

This study demonstrated noninferiority of the combined division of the splenic vein compared with separate division of the splenic vein regarding safety. Thus, isolating the splenic vein from the pancreatic parenchyma is deemed unnecessary. Identifier: NCT02871804.

One-Year Medicare Costs Associated With Delirium in Older Patients Undergoing Major Elective Surgery.

JAMA Surgery

Delirium is a common, serious, and potentially preventable problem for older adults, associated with adverse outcomes. Coupled with its preventable nature, these adverse sequelae make delirium a significant public health concern; understanding its economic costs is important for policy makers and health care leaders to prioritize care.

To evaluate current 1-year health care costs attributable to postoperative delirium in older patients undergoing elective surgery.

This prospective cohort study included 497 patients from the Successful Aging after Elective Surgery (SAGES) study, an ongoing cohort study of older adults undergoing major elective surgery. Patients were enrolled from June 18, 2010, to August 8, 2013. Eligible patients were 70 years or older, English-speaking, able to communicate verbally, and scheduled to undergo major surgery at 1 of 2 Harvard-affiliated hospitals with an anticipated length of stay of at least 3 days. Eligible surgical procedures included total hip or knee replacement; lumbar, cervical, or sacral laminectomy; lower extremity arterial bypass surgery; open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair; and open or laparoscopic colectomy. Data were analyzed from October 15, 2019, to September 15, 2020.

Major elective surgery and hospitalization.

Cumulative and period-specific costs (index hospitalization, 30-day, 90-day, and 1-year follow-up) were examined using Medicare claims and extensive clinical data. Total inflation-adjusted health care costs were determined using data from Medicare administrative claims files for the 2010 to 2014 period. Delirium was rated using the Confusion Assessment Method. We also examined whether increasing delirium severity was associated with higher cumulative and period-specific costs. Delirium severity was measured with the Confusion Assessment Method-Severity long form. Regression models were used to determine costs associated with delirium after adjusting for patient demographic and clinical characteristics.

Of the 566 patients who were eligible for the study, a total of 497 patients (mean [SD] age, 76.8 [5.1] years; 281 women [57%]; 461 White participants [93%]) were enrolled after exclusion criteria were applied. During the index hospitalization, 122 patients (25%) developed postoperative delirium, whereas 375 (75%) did not. Patients with delirium had significantly higher unadjusted health care costs than patients without delirium (mean [SD] cost, $146 358 [$140 469] vs $94 609 [$80 648]). After adjusting for relevant confounders, the cumulative health care costs attributable to delirium were $44 291 (95% CI, $34 554-$56 673) per patient per year, with the majority of costs coming from the first 90 days: index hospitalization ($20 327), subsequent rehospitalizations ($27 797), and postacute rehabilitation stays ($2803). Health care costs increased directly and significantly with level of delirium severity (none-mild, $83 534; moderate, $99 756; severe, $140 008), suggesting an exposure-response relationship. The adjusted mean cumulative costs attributable to severe delirium were $56 474 (95% CI, $40 927-$77 440) per patient per year. Extrapolating nationally, the health care costs attributable to postoperative delirium were estimated at $32.9 billion (95% CI, $25.7 billion-$42.2 billion) per year.

These findings suggest that the economic outcomes of delirium and severe delirium after elective surgery are substantial, rivaling costs associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes. These results highlight the need for policy imperatives to address delirium as a large-scale public health issue.

Association of Cryoprecipitate Use With Survival After Major Trauma in Children Receiving Massive Transfusion.

JAMA Surgery

Although most massive transfusion protocols incorporate cryoprecipitate in the treatment of hemorrhaging injured patients, minimal data exist on its use in children, and whether its addition improves their survival is unclear.

To determine whether cryoprecipitate use for injured children who receive massive transfusion is associated with lower mortality.

This retrospective cohort study included injured patients examined between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2017, at one of multiple centers across the US and Canada participating in the Pediatric Trauma Quality Improvement Program. Patients were aged 18 years or younger and had received massive transfusion, which was defined as at least 40 mL/kg of total blood products in the first 4 hours after emergency department arrival. Exclusion criteria included hospital transfer, arrival without signs of life, time of death or hospital discharge not recorded, and isolated head injuries. To adjust for potential confounding, a propensity score for treatment was created and inverse probability weighting was applied. The propensity score accounted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, injury type, payment type, Glasgow Coma Scale score, hypoxia, hypotension, assisted respirations, chest tube status, Injury Severity Score, total volume of blood products received, hemorrhage control procedure, hospital size, academic status, and trauma center designation. Data were analyzed from December 11, 2019, to August 31, 2020.

Cryoprecipitate use within the first 4 hours of emergency department arrival.

In-hospital 24-hour and 7-day mortality.

Of the 2387 injured patients who received massive transfusion, 1948 patients were eligible for analysis. The median age was 16 years (interquartile range, 9-17 years), 1382 patients (70.9%) were male, and 807 (41.4%) were White. A total of 541 patients (27.8%) received cryoprecipitate. After propensity score weighting, patients who received cryoprecipitate had a significantly lower 24-hour mortality when compared with those who did not (adjusted difference, -6.9%; 95% CI, -10.6% to -3.2%). Moreover, cryoprecipitate use was associated with a significantly lower 7-day mortality but only in children with penetrating trauma (adjusted difference, -9.2%; 95% CI, -15.4% to -3.0%) and those transfused at least 100 mL/kg of total blood products (adjusted difference, -7.7%; 95% CI, -15.0% to -0.5%).

In this cohort study, early use of cryoprecipitate was associated with lower 24-hour mortality among injured children who required massive transfusion. The benefit of cryoprecipitate appeared to persist for 7 days only in those with penetrating trauma and in those who received extremely large-volume transfusion.

Evaluating Growth Patterns of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Diameter With Serial Computed Tomography Surveillance.

JAMA Surgery

Small abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are common in the elderly population. Their growth rates and patterns, which drive clinical surveillance, are widely disputed.

To assess the growth patterns and rates of AAAs as documented on serial computed tomography (CT) scans.

Cohort study and secondary analysis of the Non-Invasive Treatment of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Clinical Trial (N-TA3CT), a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted from 2013 to 2018, with CT imaging every 6 months for 2 years. The trial was a multicenter, observational secondary analysis, not related to treatment hypotheses of data collected in the N-TA3CT. Participants included 254 patients with baseline AAA diameter between 3.5 and 5.0 cm.

Patients received serial CT scan measurements, analyzed for maximum transverse diameter, at 6-month intervals.

The primary study outcome was AAA annual growth rate. Secondary analyses included characterizing AAA growth patterns, assessing likelihood of AAA diameter to exceed sex-specific intervention thresholds over 2 years.

A total of 254 patients, 35 women with baseline AAA diameter 3.5 to 4.5 cm and 219 men with baseline diameter 3.5 to 5.0 cm, were included. Yearly growth rates of AAA diameters were a median of 0.17 cm/y (interquartile range [IQR], 0.16) and a mean (SD), 0.19 (0.14) cm/y. Ten percent of AAAs displayed minimal to no growth (<0.05 cm/y), 62% displayed low growth (0.05-0.25 cm/y), and 28% displayed high growth (>0.25 cm/y). Baseline AAA diameter accounted for 5.4% of variance of growth rate (P < .001; R2, 0.054). Most AAAs displayed linear growth (70%); large variations in interval growth rates occurred infrequently (3% staccato growth and 4% exponential growth); and some patients' growth patterns were not clearly classifiable (23% indeterminate). No patients with a maximum transverse diameter less than 4.25 cm exceeded sex-specific repair thresholds at 2 years (men, 0 of 92; 95% CI, 0.00-0.055; women, 0 of 25 ; 95% CI, 0.00-0.247). Twenty-six percent of patients with a maximum transverse diameter of at least 4.25 cm exceeded sex-specific repair thresholds at 2 years (n = 12 of 83 men with diameter ranging from 4.25 to <4.75 cm; 95% CI, 0.091-0.264; n = 21 of 44 men with diameter ranging from 4.75-5.0 cm; 95% CI, 0.362-0.669; n = 3 of 10 women with diameter ≥4.25 cm; 95% CI, 0.093-0.726).

Most small AAAs showed linear growth; large intrapatient variations in interval growth rates were infrequently observed over 2 years. Linear growth modeling of AAAs in individual patients suggests smaller AAAs (<4.25 cm) can be followed up with a CT scan in at least 2 years with little chance of exceeding interventional thresholds. Identifier: NCT01756833.

Five-Year Survival Outcomes of Hybrid Minimally Invasive Esophagectomy in Esophageal Cancer: Results of the MIRO Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Surgery

Available data comparing the long-term results of hybrid minimally invasive esophagectomy (HMIE) with that of open esophagectomy are conflicting, with similar or even better results reported for the minimally invasive esophagectomy group.

To evaluate the long-term, 5-year outcomes of HMIE vs open esophagectomy, including overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and pattern of disease recurrence, and the potential risk factors associated with these outcomes.

This randomized clinical trial is a post hoc follow-up study that analyzes the results of the open-label Multicentre Randomized Controlled Phase III Trial, which enrolled patients from 13 different centers in France and was conducted from October 26, 2009, to April 4, 2012. Eligible patients were 18 to 75 years of age and were diagnosed with resectable cancer of the middle or lower third of the esophagus. After exclusions, patients were randomized to either the HMIE group or the open esophagectomy group. Data analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat basis from November 19, 2019, to December 4, 2020.

Hybrid minimally invasive esophagectomy (laparoscopic gastric mobilization with open right thoracotomy) was compared with open esophagectomy.

The primary end points of this follow-up study were 5-year OS and DFS. The secondary end points were the site of disease recurrence and potential risk factors associated with DFS and OS.

A total of 207 patients were randomized, of whom 175 were men (85%), and the median (range) age was 61 (23-78) years. The median follow-up duration was 58.2 (95% CI, 56.5-63.8) months. The 5-year OS was 59% (95% CI, 48%-68%) in the HMIE group and 47% (95% CI, 37%-57%) in the open esophagectomy group (hazard ratio [HR], 0.71; 95% CI, 0.48-1.06). The 5-year DFS was 52% (95% CI, 42%-61%) in the HMIE group vs 44% (95% CI, 34%-53%) in the open esophagectomy group (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.55-1.17). No statistically significant difference in recurrence rate or location was found between groups. In a multivariable analysis, major intraoperative and postoperative complications (HR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.41-3.45; P < .001) and major pulmonary complications (HR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.21-3.10; P = .005) were identified as risk factors associated with decreased OS. Similarly, multivariable analysis of DFS identified overall intraoperative and postoperative complications (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.28-2.90; P = .002) and major pulmonary complications (HR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.19-2.86; P = .006) as risk factors.

This study found no difference in long-term survival between the HMIE and open esophagectomy groups. Major postoperative overall complications and pulmonary complications appeared to be independent risk factors in decreased OS and DFS, providing additional evidence that HMIE may be associated with improved oncological results compared with open esophagectomy primarily because of a reduction in postoperative complications. Identifier: NCT00937456.

Bilateral Mastectomy in Women With Unilateral Breast Cancer: A Review.

JAMA Surgery

Rates of bilateral mastectomy continue to increase in average-risk women with unilateral in situ and invasive breast cancer. Contralateral prophylactic mastectomy rates increased from 5% to 12% of all operations for breast cancer in the US from 2004 to 2012. Among women having mastectomy, rates of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy have increased from less than 2% in 1998 to 30% in 2012.

The increased use of breast magnetic resonance imaging and genetic testing has marginally increased the number of candidates for bilateral mastectomy. Most bilateral mastectomies are performed on women who are at no special risk for contralateral cancer. The true risk of contralateral breast cancer is not associated with the decision for contralateral prophylactic mastectomy; rather, the clinical factors associated with the probability of distant recurrence are associated with bilateral mastectomy. Several changes in society and health care delivery appear to act concurrently and synergistically. First, the anxiety engendered by a fear of cancer recurrence is focused on the contralateral cancer because this is most easily conceptualized and provides a ready target that can be acted upon. Second, the modern woman with breast cancer is supported by the surgeon and the social community of breast cancer survivors. Surgeons want to respect patient autonomy, despite guidelines discouraging bilateral mastectomy, and most women have their expenses covered by a third-party payer. Satisfaction with the results is high, but the association with improved psychosocial well-being remains to be fully understood.

Reducing the use of medically unnecessary contralateral prophylactic mastectomy in women with nonhereditary, unilateral breast cancer requires a social change that addresses patient-, physician-, cultural-, and systems-level enabling factors. Such a transformation begins with educating clinicians and patients. The concerns of women who want preventive contralateral mastectomy must be explored, and women need to be informed of the anticipated benefits (or lack thereof) and risks. Areas requiring further study are considered.

Examination of Racial and Ethnic Differences in Deceased Organ Donation Ratio Over Time in the US.

JAMA Surgery

Historically, deceased organ donation was lower among Black compared with White populations, motivating efforts to reduce racial disparities. The overarching effect of these efforts in Black and other racial/ethnic groups remains unclear.

To examine changes in deceased organ donation over time.

This population-based cohort study used data from January 1, 1999, through December 31, 2017, from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients to quantify the number of actual deceased organ donors, and from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research Detailed Mortality File to quantify the number of potential donors (individuals who died under conditions consistent with organ donation). Data were analyzed from December 2, 2019, to May 14, 2020.

Race and ethnicity of deceased and potential donors.

For each racial/ethnic group and year, a donation ratio was calculated as the number of actual deceased donors divided by the number of potential donors. Direct age and sex standardization was used to allow for group comparisons, and Poisson regression was used to quantify changes in donation ratio over time.

A total of 141 534 deceased donors and 5 268 200 potential donors were included in the analysis. Among Black individuals, the donation ratio increased 2.58-fold from 1999 to 2017 (yearly change in adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR], 1.05; 95% CI, 1.05-1.05; P < .001). This increase was significantly greater than the 1.60-fold increase seen in White individuals. Nevertheless, substantial racial differences remained, with Black individuals still donating at only 69% the rate of White individuals in 2017 (P < .001). Among other racial minority populations, changes were less drastic. Deceased organ donation increased 1.80-fold among American Indian/Alaska Native and 1.40-fold among Asian or Pacific Islander populations, with substantial racial differences remaining in 2017 (American Indian/Alaska Native population donation at 28% and Asian/Pacific Islander population donation at 85% the rate of the White population). Deceased organ donation differences between Hispanic/Latino and non-Hispanic/Latino populations increased over time (4% lower in 2017).

The findings of this cohort study suggest that differences in deceased organ donation between White and some racial minority populations have attenuated over time. The greatest gains were observed among Black individuals, who have been the primary targets of study and intervention. Despite improvements, substantial differences remain, suggesting that novel approaches are needed to understand and address relatively lower rates of deceased organ donation among all racial minorities.

Variations in Persistent Use of Low-Value Breast Cancer Surgery.

JAMA Surgery

Through the Choosing Wisely campaign, surgical specialties identified 4 low-value breast cancer operations. Preliminary data suggest varying rates of deimplementation and have identified patient-level and clinician-level determinants of continued overuse. However, little information exists about facility-level variation or determinants of differential deimplementation.

To identify variation and determinants of persistent use of low-value breast cancer surgical care.

Retrospective cohort study in which reliability-adjusted facility rates of each procedure were calculated using random-intercept hierarchical logistic regression before and after evidence demonstrated that each procedure was unnecessary. The National Cancer Database is a prospective cancer registry of patients encompassing approximately 70% of all new cancer diagnoses from more than 1500 facilities in the United States. Data were analyzed from November 2019 to August 2020. The registry included women 18 years and older diagnosed as having breast cancer between 2004 and 2016 and meeting inclusion criteria for each Choosing Wisely recommendation.

Rate of each low-value breast cancer procedure based on facility type and breast cancer volume categories before and after the release of data supporting each procedure's omission.

The total cohort included 920 256 women with a median age of 63 years. Overall, 86% self-identified as White, 10% as Black, 3% as Asian, and 4.5% as Hispanic. Most women in this cohort were insured (51% private and 47% public), were living in a metropolitan or urban area (88% and 11%, respectively), and originated from the top half of income-earning households (65.5%). While there was significant deimplementation of axillary lymph node dissection and lumpectomy reoperation in response to guidelines supporting omission of these procedures, rates of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy and sentinel lymph node biopsy in older women increased during the study period. Academic research programs and high-volume facilities overall demonstrated the greatest reduction in use of these low-value procedures. There was significant interfacility variation for each low-value procedure. Facility-level axillary lymph node dissection rates ranged from 7% to 47%, lumpectomy reoperation rates ranged from 3% to 62%, contralateral prophylactic mastectomy rates ranged from 9% to 67%, and sentinel lymph node biopsy rates ranged from 25% to 97%. Pearson correlation coefficient for each combination of 2 of the 4 procedures was less than 0.11, suggesting that hospitals were not consistent in their deimplementation performance across all 4 procedures. Many were high outliers in one procedure but low outliers in another.

Interfacility variation demonstrates a performance gap and an opportunity for formal deimplementation efforts targeting each procedure. Several facility-level characteristics were associated with differential deimplementation and performance.

Contemporary Reappraisal of Intraoperative Neck Margin Assessment During Pancreaticoduodenectomy for Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: A Review.

JAMA Surgery

Although margin-negative (R0) resection is the gold standard for surgical management of localized pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the question of how to manage the patient with a microscopically positive intraoperative neck margin (IONM) during pancreaticoduodenectomy remains controversial.

In the absence of randomized clinical trials, we critically evaluated high-quality retrospective studies examining the oncologic utility of re-resecting positive IONMs during pancreaticoduodenectomy for PDAC (2000-2019). Several studies have concluded that additional pancreatic resection to achieve an R0 margin in IONM-positive cases does not influence survival. The largest is a multi-institutional study of 1399 patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy, which demonstrated that in comparison with patients undergoing R0 resection (n = 1196; median survival, 21 months), those with either final R1 resections (n = 131) or undergoing margin conversion from IONM-positive to R0 resection on permanent section (n = 72) demonstrated similar median survival times (13.7 and 11.9 months, respectively). Conversely, recent reports suggest that the conversion of IONM to R0 resection with additional resection or even total pancreatectomy may be associated with improved survival. The discordance between these conflicting studies could be explained in part by the influence of biologic and physiologic selection on the association of IONM re-resection and survival. Since most studies did not include patients receiving modern combination chemotherapy regimens, the intersection between margin status, tumor biology, and chemoresponsiveness remains unclear. Furthermore, there are no dedicated data to guide surgical management in IONM-positive pancreaticoduodenectomy for patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

Although data regarding the oncologic utility of additional resection to achieve a tumor-free margin following initial IONM positivity during pancreaticoduodenectomy for PDAC are conflicting, they suggest that IONM positivity may be a surrogate for biologic aggressiveness that is unlikely to be mitigated by the extent of surgical resection. The complex relationship between margin status and chemoresponsiveness warrants exploration in studies including patients receiving increasingly effective neoadjuvant chemotherapy.