The latest medical research on Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery

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Identification and Validation of a Biomarker Signature in Patients With Resectable Pancreatic Cancer via Genome-Wide Screening for Functional Genetic Variants.

JAMA Surgery

Surgery currently offers the only chance for a cure in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but it carries a significant morbidity and mortality risk and results in varying oncologic outcomes. At present, to our knowledge, there are no tests available before surgical resection to identify tumors with an aggressive biological phenotype that could guide personalized treatment strategies.

Identification of noninvasive genetic biomarkers that could direct therapy in patients whose cases are amenable to pancreatic cancer resection.

This multicenter study combined a prospective European cohort of patients with PDAC who underwent pancreatic resection (from University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; Cantonal Hospital of Winterthur, Winterthur, Switzerland; and University Clinic of Ulm, Ulm, Germany) with data from the Cancer Genome Atlas database in the United States, which includes prospectively registered patients with PDAC. A genome-wide screening for functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that affect PDAC survival was conducted using the European cohort for identification and the Cancer Genome Atlas cohort for validation. We used Cox proportional hazards models to screen for high-frequency polymorphic variants that are associated with allelic differences in tumor-associated survival and either result in an altered protein structure and function or reside in known regulatory noncoding genomic regions. The false-discovery rate method was applied for multiple hypothesis-testing corrections. Data analysis occurred from November 2017 to May 2018.

Pancreatic resection.

Tumor-associated survival.

A total of 195 patients in the European cohort were included, as well as 136 patients in the Cancer Genome Atlas cohort (overall median [range] age, 66 [19-87] years; 156 [47.1%] were women, and 175 [52.9%] were men). Two SNPs in noncoding, functional regions of genes that regulate cancer progression, invasion, and metastasis were identified (CHI3L2 SNP rs684559 and CD44 SNP rs353630). These were associated with survival after PDAC resection; patients who carry the risk alleles at 1 of both SNP loci had a 2.63-fold increased risk for tumor-associated death compared with those with protective genotypes (hazard ratio for survival, 0.38 [95% CI, 0.27-0.53]; P = 1.0 × 10-8).

The identified polymorphisms may serve as a noninvasive biomarker signature of prospective survival after pancreatic resection that is readily available at the time of PDAC diagnosis. This signature can be used to identify a subset of high-risk patients with PDAC with very low survival probability who might be eligible for inclusion in clinical trials of new therapeutic strategies, including neoadjuvant chemotherapy protocols. In addition, the biological knowledge about these SNPs could help guide the development of individualized genomic strategies for PDAC therapies.

Management Options for Gastric Variceal Hemorrhage.

JAMA Surgery

Varices are one of the main clinical manifestations of cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Gastric varices are less common than esophageal varices but are often associated with poorer prognosis, mainly because of their higher propensity to bleed.

Currently, treatments used to control and manage gastric variceal bleeding include β-blockers, endoscopic injection sclerotherapy, endoscopic variceal ligation, endoscopic variceal obturation, shunt surgery, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts, balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO), and modified BRTO. In the past few decades, Western (United States and Europe) interventional radiologists have preferred transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts that aim to decompress the liver and reduce portal pressure. Conversely, Eastern radiologists (Japan and South Korea) have preferred BRTO that directly targets the gastric varices. Over the past 20 years, BRTO has evolved and procedure-related risks have decreased. Owing to its safety and efficiency in treating gastric varices, BRTO is now starting to gain popularity among Western interventional radiologists. In this review, we present a comprehensive literature review of current and emerging management options, including BRTO and modified BRTO, for the treatment of gastric varices in the setting of cirrhosis and portal hypertension.

Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration has emerged as a safe and effective alternative treatment option for gastric variceal hemorrhage. A proper training, evidence-based consensus and guideline, thorough preprocedural and postprocedural evaluation, and a multidisciplinary team approach with BRTO and modified BRTO are strongly recommended to ensure best patient care.

Association of Racial Disparities With Access to Kidney Transplant After the Implementation of the New Kidney Allocation System.

JAMA Surgery

Inactive patients on the kidney transplant wait-list have a higher mortality. The implications of this status change on transplant outcomes between racial/ethnic groups are unknown.

To determine if activity status changes differ among races/ethnicities and levels of sensitization, and if these differences are associated with transplant probability after implementation of the Kidney Allocation System.

A multistate model was constructed from the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network kidney transplant database (December 4, 2014, to September 8, 2016). The time interval followed Kidney Allocation System implementation and provided at least 1-year follow-up for all patients. The model calculated probabilities between active and inactive status and the following competing risk outcomes: living donor transplant, deceased donor transplant, and death/other. This retrospective cohort study included 42 558 patients on the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network kidney transplant wait-list following Kidney Allocation System implementation. To rule out time-varying confounding from relisting, analysis was limited to first-time registrants. Owing to variations in listing practices, primary center listing data were used for dually listed patients. Individuals listed for another organ or pancreatic islets were excluded. Analysis began July 2017.

Probabilities were determined for transitions between active and inactive status and the following outcome states: active to living donor transplant, active to deceased donor transplant, active to death/other, inactive to living donor transplant, inactive to deceased donor transplant, and inactive to death/other.

The median (interquartile range) age at listing was 55.0 (18.0-89.0) years, and 26 535 of 42 558 (62.4%) were men. White individuals were 43.3% (n = 18 417) of wait-listed patients, while black and Hispanic individuals made up 27.8% (n = 11 837) and 19.5% (n = 8296), respectively. Patients in the calculated plasma reactive antibody categories of 0% or 1% to 79% showed no statistically significant difference in transplant probability among races/ethnicities. White individuals had an advantage in transplant probability over black individuals in calculated plasma reactive antibody categories of 80% to 89% (hazard ratio [HR], 1.8 [95% CI, 1.4-2.2]) and 90% or higher (HR, 2.4 [95% CI, 2.1-2.6]), while Hispanic individuals had an advantage over black individuals in the calculated plasma reactive antibody group of 90% or higher (HR, 2.5 [95% CI, 2.1-2.8]). Once on the inactive list, white individuals were more likely than Hispanic individuals (HR, 1.2 [95% CI, 1.17-1.3]) or black individuals (HR, 1.4 [95% CI, 1.3-1.4]) to resolve issues for inactivity resulting in activation.

For patients who are highly sensitized, there continues to be less access to kidney transplant in the black population after the implementation of the Kidney Allocation System. Health disparities continue after listing where individuals from minority groups have greater difficulty in resolving issues of inactivity.

Variation in Surgical Outcomes Across Networks of the Highest-Rated US Hospitals.

JAMA Surgery

Hospitals are rapidly consolidating into regional delivery networks. To our knowledge, whether these multihospital networks leverage their combined assets to improve quality and provide a uniform standard of care has not been explored.

To evaluate the extent to which surgical outcomes varied across hospitals within the networks of the highest-rated US hospitals.

This longitudinal analysis of 87 hospitals that participated in 1 of 16 networks that are affiliated with US News & World Report Honor Roll hospitals used data from Medicare beneficiaries who were undergoing colectomy, coronary artery bypass graft, or hip replacement between 2005 and 2014 to evaluate the variation in risk-adjusted surgical outcomes at Honor Roll and affiliated hospitals within and across networks. The data were analyzed between April 20, 2018, and June 25, 2018.

Thirty-day postoperative complications, mortality, failure to rescue, and readmissions.

Of 143 174 patients, 68 718 (48.0%) were men, 124 427 (86.9%) were white, and the mean (SD) age was 71.8 (9.9) years and 73.5 (9.1) years in Honor Roll and affiliated hospitals, respectively. Outcomes were not consistently better at Honor Roll hospitals compared with network affiliates. For example, Honor Roll hospitals had lower failure to rescue rates (13.3% vs 15.1%; odds ratio, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.86-0.98) but higher complication rates (22.1% vs 18.0%; odds ratio, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.03-1.19). Within networks, risk-adjusted outcomes varied widely across affiliated hospitals. The differences in failure to rescue varied by as little as 1.1-fold (range, 12.7%-14.3%) in some networks to as much as 4.9-fold (range, 7.6%-37.3%) in others. Similarly, complication rates varied by 1.1-fold (range, 21%-23%) to 4.3-fold (range, 6%-26%) across all networks.

Surgical outcomes vary widely across hospitals affiliated with the US News & World Report Honor Roll hospitals. Public reporting mechanisms should provide patients with information on the quality of all network-affiliated hospitals. Networks should monitor variations in outcomes to characterize and improve the extent to which a uniform standard of care is being delivered.

Uptake of Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Lung Resections Within the Veterans Affairs for Known or Suspected Lung Cancer.

JAMA Surgery

Minimally invasive lobectomy for early-stage lung cancer has become more prevalent. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery has lower rates of morbidity, better long-term survival, and equivalent oncologic outcomes compared with thoracotomy. However, little has been published on the use and outcomes of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery within Veterans Affairs. There is a public assumption that the the Veterans Affairs is slow to adopt new procedures and technologies.

To determine the uptake of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery within the Veterans Affairs for patients with known or suspected lung cancer.

In this retrospective cohort study of national Veterans Affairs Corporate Data Warehouse data from January 2002 to December 2015, a total of 11 004 veterans underwent lung resection for known or suspected lung cancer. Data were analyzed from March to November 2018.

Open or video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy or wedge resection.

Patient demographic characteristics and procedure and diagnosis International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes were abstracted from Corporate Data Warehouse data.

Of the 11 004 included veterans, 10 587 (96.2%) were male, and the median (interquartile range) age was 66.0 (61.0-72.0) years. Of 11 004 included procedures, 8526 (77.5%) were lobectomies and 2478 (22.5%) were wedge resections. The proportion of video-assisted thoracoscopic lung resections increased steadily from 15.6% in 2002 to 50.6% in 2015. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery use by Veterans Integrated Service Networks ranged from 0% to 81.7%, and higher Veterans Integrated Service Network volume was correlated with higher video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery use (Pearson r = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.15-0.52; P < .001). Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery use and rate of uptake varied widely across Veteran Affairs regions (P < .001 by Wilcoxon signed rank test).

Paralleling academic hospitals, most lung resections are now performed in the Veterans Affairs using video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. More research is needed to identify reasons behind the heterogeneous uptake of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery across Veterans Affairs regions.

Comparison of Laparoscopic 270° Posterior Partial Fundoplication vs Total Fundoplication for the Treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Surgery

Restoration of the esophagogastric junction competence is critical for effective long-term treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Surgical repair results in such restoration, but mechanical adverse effects seem unavoidable. Minimizing these adverse effects without jeopardizing reflux control is warranted.

To determine whether partial fundoplication (PF) or total fundoplication (TF) is superior in laparoscopic antireflux surgery.

In this double-blind, randomized clinical trial of 1171 patients scheduled for laparoscopic antireflux surgery at a single university-affiliated center between November 19, 2001, and January 24, 2006, 456 patients were randomized and followed up for 5 years. Data were collected from November 2001 to April 2012, and data were analyzed from April 2012 to September 2018.

A 270° posterior PF or a 360° Nissen TF.

Esophageal acid exposure at 3 years after surgery.

Of the 456 randomized patients, 268 (58.8%) were male, and the mean (SD) age was 49.0 (11.7) years. A total of 229 patients were randomized to PF, and 227 patients were randomized to TF. At 3 years postoperatively, the median (interquartile range) esophageal acid exposure was reduced from 14.6% (9.8-21.9) to 1.8% (0.7-4.4) after PF and from 16.0% (10.4-22.7) to 2.5% (0.8-6.8) after TF (P = .31). Likewise, reflux symptoms were equally and effectively controlled. Early postoperative dysphagia (6 weeks) was common in both groups but then decreased toward normality. A small but statistically significant difference in favor of PF was noted in the mean (SD) scoring of dysphagia for liquids at 6 weeks (PF, 1.6 [0.9]; TF, 1.9 [1.3]; P = .01) and for solid food at 12 months (PF, 1.3 [1.0]; TF, 1.9 [1.4]; P < .001) and 24 months (PF, 1.3 [0.9]; TF, 1.7 [1.2]; P = .001). Quality of life was reduced before surgery but increased to normal values after surgery and remained so over 5-year follow-up, with no difference between the groups.

The results from this randomized clinical trial suggest that although PF and TF could be recommended for treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease, PF might be superior by inducing less dysphagia. identifier: NCT03659487.

Association of Race With Bariatric Surgery Outcomes.

JAMA Surgery

The outcomes of bariatric surgery vary considerably across patients, but the association of race with these measures remains unclear.

To examine the association of race on perioperative and 1-year outcomes of bariatric surgery.

Propensity score matching was used to assemble cohorts of black and white patients from the Michigan Bariatric Surgery Collaborative who underwent a primary bariatric operation (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy, or adjustable gastric banding) between June 2006 and January 2017. Cohorts were balanced on baseline characteristics and procedure. Conditional fixed-effects models were used to evaluate the association of race on outcomes within hospitals and surgeons. Data analysis occurred from June 2006 through August 2018.

Thirty-day complications and health care resource utilization measures, as well as 1-year weight loss, comorbidity remission, quality of life, and satisfaction.

In each group, 7105 patients were included. Black patients had a higher rate of any complication (628 [8.8%] vs 481 [6.8%]; adjusted odds ratio, 1.33 [95% CI, 1.17-1.51]; P = .02), but there were no significant differences in the rates of serious complications (178 [2.5%] vs 135 [1.9%]; adjusted odds ratio, 1.32 [95% CI, 1.05-1.66]; P = .29) or mortality (5 [0.10%] vs 7 [0.10%]; adjusted odds ratio, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.23-2.31]; P = .54). Black patients had a greater length of stay (mean [SD], 2.2 [3.0] days vs 1.9 [1.7] days; adjusted odds ratio, 0.30 [95% CI, 0.20-0.40]; P < .001), as well as a higher rate of emergency department visits (541 [11.6%] vs 826 [7.6%]; adjusted odds ratio, 1.60 [95% CI, 1.43-1.79]; P < .001) and readmissions (414 [5.8%] vs 245 [3.5%]; adjusted odds ratio, 1.73 [95% CI, 1.47-2.03]; P < .001). At 1 year, black patients had lower mean total body weight loss and as a percentage of weight (32.0 kg [26%]; vs 38.3 kg [29%]; P < .001) and this held true across procedures. Remission of hypertension was lower for black patients (564 [40.0%] vs 1096 [56.0%]; P < .001), but the rate of sleep apnea remission (467 [62.6%] vs 615 [56.1%]; P = .005) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (309 [78.6%] vs 453 [75.4%]; P = .049) were higher. There were no significant differences in remission of diabetes with insulin dependence, diabetes without insulin dependence,or hyperlipidemia hyperlipidemia. Fewer black patients than white patients reported a good or very good quality of life (1379 [87.2%] vs 2133 [90.4%]; P = .002) and being very satisfied with surgery (1908 [78.4%] vs 2895 [84.2%]; P < .001) at 1 year.

Black patients undergoing bariatric surgery in Michigan had significantly higher rates of 30-day complications and resource utilization and experienced lower weight loss at 1 year than a matched cohort of white patients. While sleep apnea and gastroesophageal reflux disease remission were higher and hypertension remission lower in black patients, comorbidity remission was otherwise similar between matched cohorts. Racial and cultural differences among patients should be considered when designing strategies to optimize outcomes with bariatric surgery.

Association Between Long-term Opioid Use in Family Members and Persistent Opioid Use After Surgery Among Adolescents and Young Adults.

JAMA Surgery

Prior studies have found a substantial risk of persistent opioid use among adolescents and young adults undergoing surgical and dental procedures. It is unknown whether family-level factors, such as long-term opioid use in family members, is associated with persistent opioid use.

To determine whether long-term opioid use in family members is associated with persistent opioid use among opioid-naive adolescents and young adults undergoing surgical and dental procedures.

This retrospective cohort study used data from a commercial insurance claims database for January 1, 2010, to June 30, 2016, to study 346 251 opioid-naive patients aged 13 to 21 years who underwent 1 of 11 surgical and dental procedures and who were dependents on a family insurance plan.

Long-term opioid use in family members, defined as having 1 or more family members who (1) filled opioid prescriptions totaling a 120 days' supply or more during the 12 months before the procedure date or (2) filled 3 or more opioid prescriptions in the 90 days before the procedure date.

The main outcome measure was persistent opioid use, defined as 1 or more postoperative prescription opioid fills between 91 and 180 days among patients with an initial opioid prescription fill. Generalized estimating equations with robust SEs clustered at the family level were used to model persistent opioid use as a function of long-term opioid use among family members, controlling for procedure, total morphine milligram equivalents of the initial fill, and patient and family characteristics.

A total of 346 251 patients (mean [SD] age, 17.0 [2.3] years; 175 541 [50.7%] female) were studied. Among these patients, 257 085 (74.3%) had an initial opioid fill. Among patients with an initial opioid fill, 11 016 (4.3%) had long-term opioid use in a family member. Persistent opioid use occurred in 453 patients (4.1%) with long-term opioid use in a family member compared with 5940 patients (2.4%) without long-term opioid use in a family member (adjusted odds ratio, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.39-1.71).

The findings suggest that long-term opioid use among family members is associated with persistent opioid use among opioid-naive adolescents and young adults undergoing surgical and dental procedures. Physicians should screen young patients for long-term opioid use in their families and implement heightened efforts to prevent opioid dependence among patients with this important risk factor.

Nationwide Introduction of Minimally Invasive Robotic Surgery for Early-Stage Endometrial Cancer and Its Association With Severe Complications.

JAMA Surgery

Minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery (MILS) for endometrial cancer reduces surgical morbidity compared with a total abdominal hysterectomy. However, only a minority of women with early-stage endometrial cancer undergo MILS.

To evaluate the association between the Danish nationwide introduction of minimally invasive robotic surgery (MIRS) and severe complications in patients with early-stage endometrial cancer.

In this nationwide prospective cohort study of 5654 women with early-stage endometrial cancer who had undergone surgery during the period from January 1, 2005, to June 30, 2015, data from the Danish Gynecological Cancer Database were linked with national registers on socioeconomic status, deaths, hospital diagnoses, and hospital treatments. The women were divided into 2 groups; group 1 underwent surgery before the introduction of MIRS in their region, and group 2 underwent surgery after the introduction of MIRS. Women with an unknown disease stage, an unknown association with MIRS implementation, unknown histologic findings, sarcoma, or synchronous cancer were excluded, as were women who underwent vaginal or an unknown surgical type of hysterectomy. Statistical analysis was conducted from February 2, 2017, to May 4, 2018.

Minimally invasive robotic surgery, MILS, or total abdominal hysterectomy.

Severe complications were dichotomized and encompassed death within 30 days after surgery and intraoperative and postoperative complications diagnosed within 90 days after surgery.

A total of 3091 women (mean [SD] age, 67 [10] years) were allocated to group 1, and a total of 2563 women (mean [SD] age, 68 [10] years) were allocated to group 2. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, the odds of severe complications were significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (odds ratio [OR], 1.39; 95% CI, 1.11-1.74). The proportion of women undergoing MILS was 14.1% (n = 436) in group 1 and 22.2% in group 2 (n = 569). The proportion of women undergoing MIRS in group 2 was 50.0% (n = 1282). In group 2, multivariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that a total abdominal hysterectomy was associated with increased odds of severe complications compared with MILS (OR, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.80-3.70) and MIRS (OR, 3.87; 95% CI, 2.52-5.93). No difference was found for MILS compared with MIRS (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 0.99-2.27).

The national introduction of MIRS changed the surgical approach for early-stage endometrial cancer from open surgery to minimally invasive surgery. This change in surgical approach was associated with a significantly reduced risk of severe complications.

Clinical Outcomes After Unilateral Adrenalectomy for Primary Aldosteronism.

JAMA Surgery

In addition to biochemical cure, clinical benefits after surgery for primary aldosteronism depend on the magnitude of decrease in blood pressure (BP) and use of antihypertensive medications with a subsequent decreased risk of cardiovascular and/or cerebrovascular morbidity and drug-induced adverse effects.

To evaluate the change in BP and use of antihypertensive medications within an international cohort of patients who recently underwent surgery for primary aldosteronism.

A cohort study was conducted across 16 referral medical centers in Europe, the United States, Canada, and Australia. Patients who underwent unilateral adrenalectomy for primary aldosteronism between January 2010 and December 2016 were included. Data analysis was performed from August 2017 to June 2018. Unilateral disease was confirmed using computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and/or adrenal venous sampling. Patients with missing or incomplete preoperative or follow-up data regarding BP or corresponding number of antihypertensive medications were excluded.

Clinical success was defined based on postoperative BP and number of antihypertensive medications. Cure was defined as normotension without antihypertensive medications, and clear improvement as normotension with lower or equal use of antihypertensive medications. In patients with preoperative normotensivity, improvement was defined as postoperative normotension with lower antihypertensive use. All other patients were stratified as no clear success because the benefits of surgery were less obvious, mainly owing to postoperative, persistent hypertension. Clinical outcomes were assessed at follow-up closest to 6 months after surgery.

On the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 435 patients (84.6%) from a cohort of 514 patients who underwent unilateral adrenalectomy were eligible. Of these patients, 186 (42.3%) were women; mean (SD) age at the time of surgery was 50.7 (11.4) years. Cure was achieved in 118 patients (27.1%), clear improvement in 135 (31.0%), and no clear success in 182 (41.8%). In the subgroup classified as no clear success, 166 patients (91.2%) had postoperative hypertension. However, within this subgroup, the mean (SD) systolic and diastolic BP decreased significantly by 9 (22) mm Hg (P < .001) and 3 (15) mm Hg (P = .04), respectively. Also, the number of antihypertensive medications used decreased from 3 (range, 0-7) to 2 (range, 0-6) (P < .001). Moreover, in 75 of 182 patients (41.2%) within this subgroup, the decrease in systolic BP was 10 mm Hg or greater.

In this study, for most patients, adrenalectomy was associated with a postoperative normotensive state and reduction of antihypertensive medications. Furthermore, a significant proportion of patients with postoperative, persistent hypertension may benefit from adrenalectomy given the observed clinically relevant and significant reduction of BP and antihypertensive medications.

Evaluation of Access to Hospitals Most Ready to Achieve National Accreditation for Rectal Cancer Treatment.

JAMA Surgery

The American College of Surgeons National Accreditation Program for Rectal Cancer (NAPRC) promotes multidisciplinary care to improve oncologic outcomes in rectal cancer. However, accreditation requirements may be difficult to achieve for the lowest-performing institutions. Thus, it is unknown whether the NAPRC will motivate care improvement in these settings or widen disparities.

To characterize hospitals' readiness for accreditation and identify differences in the patients cared for in hospitals most and least prepared for accreditation.

A total of 1315 American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer-accredited hospitals in the National Cancer Database from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2015, were sorted into 4 cohorts, organized by high vs low volume and adherence to process standards, and patient and hospital characteristics and oncologic outcomes were compared. The patients included those who underwent surgical resection with curative intent for rectal adenocarcinoma, mucinous adenocarcinoma, or signet ring cell carcinoma. Data analysis was performed from November 2017 to January 2018.

Hospitals' readiness for accreditation, as determined by their annual resection volume and adherence to 5 available NAPRC process standards.

Hospital characteristics, patient sociodemographic characteristics, and 5-year survival by hospital.

Among the 1315 included hospitals, 38 (2.9%) met proposed thresholds for all 5 NAPRC process standards and 220 (16.7%) met the threshold on 4 standards. High-volume hospitals (≥20 resections per year) tended to be academic institutions (67 of 104 [64.4%] vs 159 of 1211 [13.1%]; P = .001), whereas low-volume hospitals (<20 resections per year) tended to be comprehensive community cancer programs (530 of 1211 [43.8%] vs 28 of 104 [26.9%]; P = .001). Patients in low-volume hospitals were more likely to be older (11 429 of 28 076 [40.7%] vs 4339 of 12 148 [35.7%]; P < .001) and have public insurance (13 054 of 28 076 [46.5%] vs 4905 of 12 148 [40.4%]; P < .001). Low-adherence hospitals were more likely to care for black and Hispanic patients (1980 of 19 577 [17.2%] vs 3554 of 20 647 [10.1%]; P < .001). On multivariable Cox proportional hazards model regression, high-volume hospitals had better 5-year survival outcomes than low-volume hospitals (hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.99-1.00; P < .001), but there was no significant survival difference by hospital process standard adherence.

Hospitals least likely to receive NAPRC accreditation tended to be community institutions with worse survival outcomes, serving patients at a lower socioeconomic position. To possibly avoid exacerbating disparities in access to high-quality rectal cancer care, the NAPRC study findings suggest enabling access for patients with socioeconomic disadvantage or engaging in quality improvement for hospitals not yet achieving accreditation benchmarks.

Changes in Sexual Functioning in Women and Men in the 5 Years After Bariatric Surgery.

JAMA Surgery

Short-term improvements in sexual functioning are reported after bariatric surgery, but to our knowledge, little is known about the durability of these improvements.

To determine the percentage of adults with impairment in sexual functioning who experience durable improvements in sexual functioning after bariatric surgery and to identify factors associated with improvements.

The Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 is an observational cohort study conducted at 10 hospitals in 6 US clinical centers. Adults undergoing their first bariatric procedure were recruited from 2005 through 2009, data were collected through August 2014. Data analysis was conducted from 2016 to April 2018.

Participants completed assessments before the procedure and annually thereafter for 5 years.

A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess clinically meaningful differences before and after surgery in past-month sexual satisfaction, desire, and activity and physical health limitations to sexual activity among subgroups who reported sexual functioning at less than domain-specific thresholds before surgery.

Of 2215 participants eligible for sexual function follow-up, 2036 (91.9%) completed 1 or more follow-up assessment (1431 [64.6%] at year 5), of whom 1607 (78.9%) were women. At the presurgery assessment, median (interquartile range) age was 47 (37-55) years, and the median (interquartile range) body mass index was 45.8 (41.7-51.3). Among those who were not satisfied with their sexual life before surgery (1015 of 1456 women [69.7%]; 304 of 409 men [74.3%]), 56.0% of women (95% CI, 52.5%-59.5%) and 49.2% of men (95% CI, 42.4%-55.9%) experienced clinically meaningful improvements at year 1; these percentages did not significantly differ during further follow-up. Among those who reported physical limitations to sexual activity at baseline (892 of 1490 women [59.9%] and 267 of 406 men [65.8%]), the percentage experiencing improvement in this domain decreased during follow-up, but 73.6% (95% CI, 69.3%-78.0%) of women and 67.6% (95% CI, 59.6%-75.6%) of men continued to report improvements at year 5. Greater postsurgical reduction in depressive symptoms was independently associated with improvement in 4 domains of sexual life among women (frequency of sexual desire: adjusted relative risk [aRR] per 5-point decrease in Beck Depression Inventory score, 1.12 [95% CI, 1.07-1.18]; P < .001; frequency of sexual activity: aRR, 1.13 [95% CI, 1.08-1.18]; P < .001; the degree to which physical health limited sexual activity: aRR, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.14-1.23]; P < .001; and satisfaction with sexual life: aRR, 1.25 [95% CI, 1.19-1.31]; P < .001) and 2 domains among men (physical health limitations: aRR, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.04-1.26]; P = .008 and satisfaction with sexual life: aRR, 1.55 [95% CI, 1.33-1.81]; P < .001). Surgical procedure was not associated with improvement.

Per this study, approximately half of women and men who were not satisfied with their sexual life prior to bariatric surgery experienced improvements in satisfaction in 5 years of follow-up. Identifier: NCT00465829.