The latest medical research on Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about oral & maxillofacial surgery gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Assessment of Use of Arteriovenous Graft vs Arteriovenous Fistula for First-time Permanent Hemodialysis Access.

JAMA Surgery

Initial hemodialysis access with arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is associated with superior clinical outcomes compared with arteriovenous graft (AVG) and should be the procedure of choice whenever possible. To address the national underuse of AVF in the United States, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid has established an AVF goal of 66% or greater in 2009.

To explore contemporary practice patterns and physician characteristics associated with high AVG use compared with AVF use.

This review of 100% Medicare Carrier claims between January 1, 2016, and December 31, 2017, includes both inpatient and outpatient Medicare claims data. All patients undergoing initial permanent hemodialysis access placement with an AVF or AVG were included. All surgeons performing more than 10 hemodialysis access procedures during the study period were analyzed.

Placement of an AVF or AVG for initial permanent hemodialysis access.

A surgeon-level AVG (vs AVF) use rate was calculated for all included surgeons. Hierarchical logistic regression modeling was used to identify patient-level and surgeon-level factors associated with AVG use.

A total of 85 320 patients (median age, 70 [range, 18-103] years; 47 370 men [55.5%]) underwent first-time hemodialysis access placement, of whom 66 489 (77.9%) had an AVF and 18 831 (22.1%) had an AVG. Among the 2397 surgeons who performed more than 10 procedures per year, the median surgeon level AVG use rate was 18.2% (range, 0.0%-96.4%). However, 498 surgeons (20.8%) had an AVG use rate greater than 34%. After accounting for patient characteristics, surgeon factors that were independently associated with AVG use included more than 30 years of clinical practice (vs 21-30 years; odds ratio, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.75-0.96]), metropolitan setting (odds ratio, 1.25 [95% CI, 1.02-1.54]), and vascular surgery specialty (vs general surgery; odds ratio, 0.77 [95% CI, 0.69-0.86]). Surgeons in the Northeast region had the lowest rate of AVG use (vs the South; odds ratio, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.73-0.96]). First-time hemodialysis access benchmarking reports for individual surgeons were created for potential distribution.

In this study, one-fifth of surgeons had an AVG use rate above the recommended best practices guideline of 34%. Although some of these differences may be explained by patient referral practices, sharing benchmarked performance data with surgeons could be an actionable step in achieving more high-value care in hemodialysis access surgery.

Comparison of Targeted vs Systematic Prostate Biopsy in Men Who Are Biopsy Naive: The Prospective Assessment of Image Registration in the Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer (PAIREDCAP) Study.

JAMA Surgery

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance improves the accuracy of prostate biopsy for the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer, but the optimal use of such guidance is not yet clear.

To determine the cancer detection rate (CDR) of targeting MRI-visible lesions vs systematic prostate sampling in the diagnosis of clinically significant prostate cancer in men who were biopsy naive.

This paired cohort trial, known as the Prospective Assessment of Image Registration in the Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer (PAIREDCAP) study, was conducted in an academic medical center from January 2015 to April 2018. Men undergoing first-time prostate biopsy were enrolled. Paired-cohort participants were a consecutive series of men with MRI-visible lesions (defined by a Prostate Imaging Reporting & Data System version 2 score  ≥ 3), who each underwent 3 biopsy methods at the same sitting: first, a systematic biopsy; second, an MRI-lesion biopsy targeted by cognitive fusion; and third, an MRI-lesion targeted by software fusion. Another consecutive series of men without MRI-visible lesions underwent systematic biopsies to help determine the false-negative rate of MRI during the trial period.

The primary end point was the detection rate of clinically significant prostate cancer (Gleason grade group ≥2) overall and by each biopsy method separately. The secondary end points were the effects of the Prostate Imaging Reporting & Data System version 2 grade, prostate-specific antigen density, and prostate volume on the primary end point. Tertiary end points were the false-negative rate of MRI and concordance of biopsy-method results by location of detected cancers within the prostate.

A total of 300 men participated; 248 had MRI-visible lesions (mean [SD] age, 65.5 [7.7] years; 197 were white [79.4%]), and 52 were control participants (mean [SD] age, 63.6 [5.9] years; 39 were white [75%]). The overall CDR was 70% in the paired cohort group, achieved by combining systematic and targeted biopsy results. The CDR by systematic sampling was 15% in the group without MRI-visible lesions. In the paired-cohort group, CDRs varied from 47% (116 of 248 men) when using cognitive fusion biopsy alone, to approximately 60% when using systematic biopsy (149 of 248 men) or either fusion method alone (154 of 248 men), to 70% (174 of 248 men) when combining systematic and targeted biopsy. Discordance of tumor locations suggests that the different biopsy methods detect different tumors. Thus, combining targeting and systematic sampling provide greatest sensitivity for detection of clinically significant prostate cancer. For all biopsy methods, the Prostate Imaging Reporting & Data System version 2 grade and prostate-specific antigen density were directly associated with CDRs, and prostate volume was inversely associated.

An MRI-visible lesion in men undergoing first-time prostate biopsy identifies those with a heightened risk of clinically significant prostate cancer. Combining targeted and systematic biopsy offers the best chances of detecting the cancer.

Role of Hepatic Artery Infusion Chemotherapy in Treatment of Initially Unresectable Colorectal Liver Metastases: A Review.

JAMA Surgery

Although liver metastasis develops in more than half of patients with colorectal cancer, only 15% to 20% of these patients have resectable liver metastasis at presentation. Moreover, patients with initially unresectable colorectal liver metastasis (IU-CRLM) who progress on first-line systemic chemotherapy have limited treatment options. Hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC), in combination with systemic chemotherapy, leverages a multimodality approach to achieving control of hepatic disease and/or expanding resectability in patients with liver-only disease or liver-dominant disease.

Intra-arterial delivery of agents with high first-pass hepatic extraction (eg, floxuridine) limits systemic toxic effects and allows for administration of systemic chemotherapy at near-full doses. Hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy in conjunction with systemic chemotherapy augments response rates up to 92% in patients who are chemotherapy naive, and up to 85% in pretreated patients with IU-CRLM. In turn, these responses translate into encouraging rates of conversion to resectability (CTR). Prospective trials have reported CTR rates as high as 52% in heavily pretreated patients with IU-CRLM who have an extensive hepatic disease burden. As such, CTR remains a compelling indication for liver-directed chemotherapy in this subset of patients. This review discusses the biological rationale for HAIC, evolution of rational combinations with systemic chemotherapy, contemporary evidence for CTR using HAIC and systemic chemotherapy, juxtaposition with rates of CTR using systemic chemotherapy alone, and morbidity and toxic effect profiles of HAIC.

The argument is made for consideration of earlier initiation of HAIC in patients with IU-CRLM who are chemotherapy naive and for adoption of HAIC strategies to augment rates of resectability in patients who have failed first-line systemic chemotherapy before proceeding to second-line or third-line regimens.

Comparison of Costs of Radical Cystectomy vs Trimodal Therapy for Patients With Localized Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer.

JAMA Surgery

Earlier studies on the cost of muscle-invasive bladder cancer treatments lack granularity and are limited to 180 days.

To compare the 1-year costs associated with trimodal therapy vs radical cystectomy, accounting for survival and intensity effects on total costs.

This population-based cohort study used the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database and included 2963 patients aged 66 to 85 years who had received a diagnosis of clinical stage T2 to T4a muscle-invasive bladder cancer from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2011. The data analysis was performed from March 5, 2018, through December 4, 2018.

Total Medicare costs within 1 year of diagnosis following radical cystectomy vs trimodal therapy were compared using inverse probability of treatment-weighted propensity score models that included a 2-part estimator to account for intrinsic selection bias.

Of 2963 participants, 1030 (34.8%) were women, 2591 (87.4%) were white, 129 (4.4%) were African American, and 98 (3.3%) were Hispanic. Median costs were significantly higher for trimodal therapy than radical cystectomy in 90 days ($83 754 vs $68 692; median difference, $11 805; 95% CI, $7745-$15 864), 180 days ($187 162 vs $109 078; median difference, $62 370; 95% CI, $55 581-$69 160), and 365 days ($289 142 vs $148 757; median difference, $109 027; 95% CI, $98 692-$119 363), respectively. Outpatient care, radiology, medication expenses, and pathology/laboratory costs contributed largely to the higher costs associated with trimodal therapy. On inverse probability of treatment-weighted adjusted analyses, patients undergoing trimodal therapy had $136 935 (95% CI, $122 131-$152 115) higher mean costs compared with radical cystectomy 1 year after diagnosis.

Compared with radical cystectomy, trimodal therapy was associated with higher costs among patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The differences in costs were largely attributed to medication and radiology expenses associated with trimodal therapy. Extrapolating cost figures resulted in a nationwide excess spending of $468 million for trimodal therapy compared with radical cystectomy for patients who received a diagnosis of bladder cancer in 2017.

Contributors to Postinjury Mental Health in Urban Black Men With Serious Injuries.

JAMA Surgery

Physical injury is associated with postinjury mental health problems, which typically increase disability, cost, recidivism, and self-medication for symptoms.

To determine risk and protective factors across the life span that contribute to depression and posttraumatic stress symptom severity at 3 months after hospital discharge.

This prospective cohort study used a 3-month postdischarge follow-up of patients who had been treated at an urban, level 1 trauma center in the Northeastern United States. Men with injuries who were hospitalized, self-identified as black, were 18 years or older, and resided in the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, region were eligible and consecutively enrolled. Those who were experiencing a cognitive dysfunction or psychotic disorder, hospitalized because of attempted suicide, or receiving current treatment for depression or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were excluded. Data were collected from January 2013 to October 2017. Data analysis took place from January 2018 to August 2018.

A serious injury requiring hospitalization; adverse childhood experiences, childhood neighborhood disadvantage, and preinjury physical and mental health; and emotional resources, injury intent, and acute stress responses.

Depression and PTSD symptom severity were assessed with the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms-Self-report and the PTSD Check List-5. The a priori hypothesis was that risk and protective factors are associated with depression and PTSD symptom severity. The analytic approach was structural equation modeling.

A total of 623 black men were enrolled. Of these, 502 participants (80.6%) were retained at 3-month follow-up. Their mean (SD) age was 35.6 (14.9) years; 346 (55.5%) had experienced intentional injuries, and the median (range) Injury Severity Score was 9 (1-45). Of the 500 participants with complete primary outcome data, 225 (45.0%) met the cut point criteria for mental health diagnoses at 3 months. For both mental health outcomes, the models fit the data well (depression: root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA], 0.044; comparative fit index [CFI], 0.93; PTSD: RMSEA = 0.045; CFI = 0.93), and all hypothesized paths were significant and in the hypothesized direction. Outcomes were associated with poor preinjury health (standardized weights: depression, 0.28; P < .001; PTSD, 0.17; P = .02), acute psychological reactions (depression, 0.34; PTSD, 0.38; both P < .001), and intentional injury (depression, 0.16; PTSD, 0.24; both P < .001). Acute psychological reactions were associated with childhood adversity (depression, 0.33; PTSD, 0.36; both P < .001). A history of prior mental health challenges (depression, 0.70; PTSD, 0.70; both P < .001) and psychological or emotional health resources (depression, -0.22; PTSD, -0.23; both P = .003) affected poor preinjury health, which was in turn associated with acute psychological reaction (depression, 0.44; PTSD, 0.42; both P < .001).

The intersection of prior trauma and adversity, prior exposure to neighborhood disadvantage, and poorer preinjury health and functioning are important, even in the midst of acute medical care for traumatic injury. These results support the importance of trauma-informed health care and focused assessment to identified patients with injuries who are at highest risk for poor postinjury mental health outcomes.

Transition Planning for the Senior Surgeon: Guidance and Recommendations From the Society of Surgical Chairs.

JAMA Surgery

Aging is well documented to be associated with declines in cognitive function and psychomotor performance, but only limited guidance is currently available from medical professional societies or regulatory agencies on how to translate these observations into the appropriate monitoring of physician performance.

The Society of Surgical Chairs conducted a panel discussion at its 2017 annual meeting and a subsequent survey of its membership in 2018 to develop recommendations for the transitioning of the senior surgeon.

Recommendations include mandatory cognitive and psychomotor testing of surgeons by at least age 65 years, potentially as a component of ongoing professional practice evaluation; career transition discussions with surgeons beginning early in their careers; respectful consideration of the potential financial needs, long-standing work commitments, and work-life concerns of retiring surgeons; and creation of teaching, mentoring or coaching, and/or administrative opportunities for senior surgeons in modified clinical or nonclinical roles. Ideally, these initiatives will catalyze a thoughtful and comprehensive new vista in supporting an aging workforce while ensuring the safety of patients, the efficient management of health care organizations, and the avoidance of unnecessary depletions to a sufficiently sized cadre of physicians with case-specific competencies.

Fracture Risk After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass vs Adjustable Gastric Banding Among Medicare Beneficiaries.

JAMA Surgery

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is associated with significant bone loss and may increase fracture risk, whereas substantial bone loss and increased fracture risk have not been reported after adjustable gastric banding (AGB). Previous studies have had little representation of patients aged 65 years or older, and it is currently unknown how age modifies fracture risk.

To compare fracture risk after RYGB and AGB procedures in a large, nationally representative cohort enriched for older adults.

This population-based retrospective cohort analysis used Medicare claims data from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2014, from 42 345 severely obese adults, of whom 29 624 received RYGB and 12 721 received AGB. Data analysis was performed from April 2017 to November 2018.

The primary outcome was incident nonvertebral (ie, wrist, humerus, pelvis, and hip) fractures after RYGB and AGB surgery defined using a combination of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition and Current Procedural Terminology 4 codes.

Of 42 345 participants, 33 254 (78.5%) were women. With a mean (SD) age of 51 (12) years, recipients of RYGB were younger than AGB recipients (55 [12] years). Both groups had similar comorbidities, medication use, and health care utilization in the 365 days before surgery. Over a mean (SD) follow-up of 3.5 (2.1) years, 658 nonvertebral fractures were documented. The fracture incidence rate was 6.6 (95% CI, 6.0-7.2) after RYGB and 4.6 (95% CI, 3.9-5.3) after AGB, which translated to a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.73 (95% CI, 1.45-2.08) after multivariable adjustment. Site-specific analyses demonstrated an increased fracture risk at the hip (HR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.82-4.49), wrist (HR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.33-2.14), and pelvis (HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.08-2.07) among RYGB recipients. No significant interactions of fracture risk with age, sex, diabetes status, or race were found. In particular, adults 65 years and older showed similar patterns of fracture risk to younger adults. Sensitivity analyses using propensity score matching showed similar results (nonvertebral fracture: HR 1.75; 95% CI, 1.22-2.52).

This study of a large, US population-based cohort including a substantial population of older adults found a 73% increased risk of nonvertebral fracture after RYGB compared with AGB, including increased risk of hip, wrist, and pelvis fractures. Fracture risk was consistently increased among RYGB patients vs AGB across different subgroups, and to a similar degree among older and younger adults. Increased fracture risk appears to be an important unintended consequence of RYGB.

Identification and Validation of a Biomarker Signature in Patients With Resectable Pancreatic Cancer via Genome-Wide Screening for Functional Genetic Variants.

JAMA Surgery

Surgery currently offers the only chance for a cure in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but it carries a significant morbidity and mortality risk and results in varying oncologic outcomes. At present, to our knowledge, there are no tests available before surgical resection to identify tumors with an aggressive biological phenotype that could guide personalized treatment strategies.

Identification of noninvasive genetic biomarkers that could direct therapy in patients whose cases are amenable to pancreatic cancer resection.

This multicenter study combined a prospective European cohort of patients with PDAC who underwent pancreatic resection (from University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; Cantonal Hospital of Winterthur, Winterthur, Switzerland; and University Clinic of Ulm, Ulm, Germany) with data from the Cancer Genome Atlas database in the United States, which includes prospectively registered patients with PDAC. A genome-wide screening for functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that affect PDAC survival was conducted using the European cohort for identification and the Cancer Genome Atlas cohort for validation. We used Cox proportional hazards models to screen for high-frequency polymorphic variants that are associated with allelic differences in tumor-associated survival and either result in an altered protein structure and function or reside in known regulatory noncoding genomic regions. The false-discovery rate method was applied for multiple hypothesis-testing corrections. Data analysis occurred from November 2017 to May 2018.

Pancreatic resection.

Tumor-associated survival.

A total of 195 patients in the European cohort were included, as well as 136 patients in the Cancer Genome Atlas cohort (overall median [range] age, 66 [19-87] years; 156 [47.1%] were women, and 175 [52.9%] were men). Two SNPs in noncoding, functional regions of genes that regulate cancer progression, invasion, and metastasis were identified (CHI3L2 SNP rs684559 and CD44 SNP rs353630). These were associated with survival after PDAC resection; patients who carry the risk alleles at 1 of both SNP loci had a 2.63-fold increased risk for tumor-associated death compared with those with protective genotypes (hazard ratio for survival, 0.38 [95% CI, 0.27-0.53]; P = 1.0 × 10-8).

The identified polymorphisms may serve as a noninvasive biomarker signature of prospective survival after pancreatic resection that is readily available at the time of PDAC diagnosis. This signature can be used to identify a subset of high-risk patients with PDAC with very low survival probability who might be eligible for inclusion in clinical trials of new therapeutic strategies, including neoadjuvant chemotherapy protocols. In addition, the biological knowledge about these SNPs could help guide the development of individualized genomic strategies for PDAC therapies.

Management Options for Gastric Variceal Hemorrhage.

JAMA Surgery

Varices are one of the main clinical manifestations of cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Gastric varices are less common than esophageal varices but are often associated with poorer prognosis, mainly because of their higher propensity to bleed.

Currently, treatments used to control and manage gastric variceal bleeding include β-blockers, endoscopic injection sclerotherapy, endoscopic variceal ligation, endoscopic variceal obturation, shunt surgery, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts, balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO), and modified BRTO. In the past few decades, Western (United States and Europe) interventional radiologists have preferred transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts that aim to decompress the liver and reduce portal pressure. Conversely, Eastern radiologists (Japan and South Korea) have preferred BRTO that directly targets the gastric varices. Over the past 20 years, BRTO has evolved and procedure-related risks have decreased. Owing to its safety and efficiency in treating gastric varices, BRTO is now starting to gain popularity among Western interventional radiologists. In this review, we present a comprehensive literature review of current and emerging management options, including BRTO and modified BRTO, for the treatment of gastric varices in the setting of cirrhosis and portal hypertension.

Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration has emerged as a safe and effective alternative treatment option for gastric variceal hemorrhage. A proper training, evidence-based consensus and guideline, thorough preprocedural and postprocedural evaluation, and a multidisciplinary team approach with BRTO and modified BRTO are strongly recommended to ensure best patient care.

Association of Racial Disparities With Access to Kidney Transplant After the Implementation of the New Kidney Allocation System.

JAMA Surgery

Inactive patients on the kidney transplant wait-list have a higher mortality. The implications of this status change on transplant outcomes between racial/ethnic groups are unknown.

To determine if activity status changes differ among races/ethnicities and levels of sensitization, and if these differences are associated with transplant probability after implementation of the Kidney Allocation System.

A multistate model was constructed from the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network kidney transplant database (December 4, 2014, to September 8, 2016). The time interval followed Kidney Allocation System implementation and provided at least 1-year follow-up for all patients. The model calculated probabilities between active and inactive status and the following competing risk outcomes: living donor transplant, deceased donor transplant, and death/other. This retrospective cohort study included 42 558 patients on the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network kidney transplant wait-list following Kidney Allocation System implementation. To rule out time-varying confounding from relisting, analysis was limited to first-time registrants. Owing to variations in listing practices, primary center listing data were used for dually listed patients. Individuals listed for another organ or pancreatic islets were excluded. Analysis began July 2017.

Probabilities were determined for transitions between active and inactive status and the following outcome states: active to living donor transplant, active to deceased donor transplant, active to death/other, inactive to living donor transplant, inactive to deceased donor transplant, and inactive to death/other.

The median (interquartile range) age at listing was 55.0 (18.0-89.0) years, and 26 535 of 42 558 (62.4%) were men. White individuals were 43.3% (n = 18 417) of wait-listed patients, while black and Hispanic individuals made up 27.8% (n = 11 837) and 19.5% (n = 8296), respectively. Patients in the calculated plasma reactive antibody categories of 0% or 1% to 79% showed no statistically significant difference in transplant probability among races/ethnicities. White individuals had an advantage in transplant probability over black individuals in calculated plasma reactive antibody categories of 80% to 89% (hazard ratio [HR], 1.8 [95% CI, 1.4-2.2]) and 90% or higher (HR, 2.4 [95% CI, 2.1-2.6]), while Hispanic individuals had an advantage over black individuals in the calculated plasma reactive antibody group of 90% or higher (HR, 2.5 [95% CI, 2.1-2.8]). Once on the inactive list, white individuals were more likely than Hispanic individuals (HR, 1.2 [95% CI, 1.17-1.3]) or black individuals (HR, 1.4 [95% CI, 1.3-1.4]) to resolve issues for inactivity resulting in activation.

For patients who are highly sensitized, there continues to be less access to kidney transplant in the black population after the implementation of the Kidney Allocation System. Health disparities continue after listing where individuals from minority groups have greater difficulty in resolving issues of inactivity.

Variation in Surgical Outcomes Across Networks of the Highest-Rated US Hospitals.

JAMA Surgery

Hospitals are rapidly consolidating into regional delivery networks. To our knowledge, whether these multihospital networks leverage their combined assets to improve quality and provide a uniform standard of care has not been explored.

To evaluate the extent to which surgical outcomes varied across hospitals within the networks of the highest-rated US hospitals.

This longitudinal analysis of 87 hospitals that participated in 1 of 16 networks that are affiliated with US News & World Report Honor Roll hospitals used data from Medicare beneficiaries who were undergoing colectomy, coronary artery bypass graft, or hip replacement between 2005 and 2014 to evaluate the variation in risk-adjusted surgical outcomes at Honor Roll and affiliated hospitals within and across networks. The data were analyzed between April 20, 2018, and June 25, 2018.

Thirty-day postoperative complications, mortality, failure to rescue, and readmissions.

Of 143 174 patients, 68 718 (48.0%) were men, 124 427 (86.9%) were white, and the mean (SD) age was 71.8 (9.9) years and 73.5 (9.1) years in Honor Roll and affiliated hospitals, respectively. Outcomes were not consistently better at Honor Roll hospitals compared with network affiliates. For example, Honor Roll hospitals had lower failure to rescue rates (13.3% vs 15.1%; odds ratio, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.86-0.98) but higher complication rates (22.1% vs 18.0%; odds ratio, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.03-1.19). Within networks, risk-adjusted outcomes varied widely across affiliated hospitals. The differences in failure to rescue varied by as little as 1.1-fold (range, 12.7%-14.3%) in some networks to as much as 4.9-fold (range, 7.6%-37.3%) in others. Similarly, complication rates varied by 1.1-fold (range, 21%-23%) to 4.3-fold (range, 6%-26%) across all networks.

Surgical outcomes vary widely across hospitals affiliated with the US News & World Report Honor Roll hospitals. Public reporting mechanisms should provide patients with information on the quality of all network-affiliated hospitals. Networks should monitor variations in outcomes to characterize and improve the extent to which a uniform standard of care is being delivered.

Uptake of Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Lung Resections Within the Veterans Affairs for Known or Suspected Lung Cancer.

JAMA Surgery

Minimally invasive lobectomy for early-stage lung cancer has become more prevalent. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery has lower rates of morbidity, better long-term survival, and equivalent oncologic outcomes compared with thoracotomy. However, little has been published on the use and outcomes of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery within Veterans Affairs. There is a public assumption that the the Veterans Affairs is slow to adopt new procedures and technologies.

To determine the uptake of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery within the Veterans Affairs for patients with known or suspected lung cancer.

In this retrospective cohort study of national Veterans Affairs Corporate Data Warehouse data from January 2002 to December 2015, a total of 11 004 veterans underwent lung resection for known or suspected lung cancer. Data were analyzed from March to November 2018.

Open or video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy or wedge resection.

Patient demographic characteristics and procedure and diagnosis International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes were abstracted from Corporate Data Warehouse data.

Of the 11 004 included veterans, 10 587 (96.2%) were male, and the median (interquartile range) age was 66.0 (61.0-72.0) years. Of 11 004 included procedures, 8526 (77.5%) were lobectomies and 2478 (22.5%) were wedge resections. The proportion of video-assisted thoracoscopic lung resections increased steadily from 15.6% in 2002 to 50.6% in 2015. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery use by Veterans Integrated Service Networks ranged from 0% to 81.7%, and higher Veterans Integrated Service Network volume was correlated with higher video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery use (Pearson r = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.15-0.52; P < .001). Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery use and rate of uptake varied widely across Veteran Affairs regions (P < .001 by Wilcoxon signed rank test).

Paralleling academic hospitals, most lung resections are now performed in the Veterans Affairs using video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. More research is needed to identify reasons behind the heterogeneous uptake of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery across Veterans Affairs regions.