The latest medical research on Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery

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Association of Medicaid Expansion Under the Affordable Care Act With Breast Cancer Stage at Diagnosis.

JAMA Surgery

The expansion of Medicaid sought to fill gaps in insurance coverage among low-income Americans. Although coverage has improved, little is known about the relationship between Medicaid expansion and breast cancer stage at diagnosis.

To review the association of Medicaid expansion with breast cancer stage at diagnosis and the disparities associated with insurance status, age, and race/ethnicity.

This cohort study used data from the National Cancer Database to characterize the relationship between breast cancer stage and race/ethnicity, age, and insurance status. Data from 2007 to 2016 were obtained, and breast cancer stage trends were assessed. Additionally, preexpansion years (2012-2013) were compared with postexpansion years (2015-2016) to assess Medicaid expansion in 2014. Data were analyzed from August 12, 2019, to January 19, 2020. The cohort included a total of 1 796 902 patients with primary breast cancer who had private insurance, Medicare, or Medicaid or were uninsured across 45 states.

Percent change of uninsured patients with breast cancer and stage at diagnosis, stratified by insurance status, race/ethnicity, age, and state.

This study included a total of 1 796 902 women. Between 2012 and 2016, 71 235 (4.0%) were uninsured or had Medicaid. Among all races/ethnicities, in expansion states, there was a reduction in uninsured patients from 22.6% (4771 of 21 127) to 13.5% (2999 of 22 150) (P < .001), and in nonexpansion states, there was a reduction from 36.5% (5431 of 14 870) to 35.6% (4663 of 13 088) (P = .12). Across all races, there was a reduction in advanced-stage disease from 21.8% (4603 of 21 127) to 19.3% (4280 of 22 150) (P < .001) in expansion states compared with 24.2% (3604 of 14 870) to 23.5% (3072 of 13 088) (P = .14) in nonexpansion states. In African American patients, incidence of advanced disease decreased from 24.6% (1017 of 4136) to 21.6% (920 of 4259) (P < .001) in expansion states and remained at approximately 27% (27.4% [1220 of 4453] to 27.5% [1078 of 3924]; P = .94) in nonexpansion states. Further analysis suggested that the improvement was associated with a reduction in stage 3 diagnoses.

In this cohort study, expansion of Medicaid was associated with a reduced number of uninsured patients and a reduced incidence of advanced-stage breast cancer. African American patients and patients younger than 50 years experienced particular benefit. These data suggest that increasing access to health care resources may alter the distribution of breast cancer stage at diagnosis.

Engagement and Effectiveness of a Smoking Cessation Quitline Intervention in a Thoracic Surgery Clinic.

JAMA Surgery

Smoking quitline programs effectively promote smoking cessation in outpatient primary care settings.

To examine the factors associated with smoking quitline engagement and smoking cessation among patients undergoing thoracic surgery who consented to a quitline electronic referral.

A retrospective cohort study was conducted from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2018, among 111 active smoking patients referred to the quitline from a thoracic surgery outpatient clinic visit. Patients were divided into operative and nonoperative cohorts.

Primary outcomes were engagement rates in the quitline program and successful smoking cessation. Secondary outcomes were self-reported point prevalence abstinence at 1 month and 6 months after the smoking quit date.

Of 111 patients (62 men; mean [SD] age, 61.8 [11.2] years) who had a quitline referral, 58 (52%) underwent surgery, and 32 of these 58 patients (55%) participated in the program. Of the 53 nonoperative patients (48%), 24 (45%) participated in the program. In the operative cohort, there was no difference in the smoking cessation rate between quitline participants and nonparticipants (21 of 32 [66%] vs 16 of 6 [62%]; P = .79) or in point prevalence abstinence at 1 month (23 of 32 [72%] vs 14 of 25 [56%]; P = .27) or 6 months (14 of 28 [50%] vs 6 of 18 [33%]; P = .36). Similarly, in the nonoperative cohort, there was no difference in the smoking cessation rate between quitline participants and nonparticipants (8 of 24 [33%] vs 11 of 29 [38%]; P = .78) or in point prevalence abstinence at 1 month (7 of 24 [29%] vs 8 of 27 [30%]; P = .99) or 6 months (6 of 23 [26%] vs 6 of 25 [24%]; P = .99). Regardless of quitline participation, operative patients had a 1.8-fold higher proportion of successful smoking cessation compared with nonoperative patients (37 of 58 [64%] vs 19 of 53 [36%]; P = .004) as well as a 2.2-fold higher proportion of 1-month point prevalence abstinence (37 of 57 [65%] vs 15 of 51 [29%]; P < .001) and a 1.8-fold higher proportion of 6-month point prevalence abstinence (20 of 45 [44%] vs 12 of 48 [25%]; P = .05). Having surgery doubled the odds of smoking cessation (odds ratio, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.06-5.64; P = .04) and quitline engagement tripled the odds of remaining smoke free at 6 months (odds ratio, 3.57; 95% CI, 1.03-12.38; P = .04).

Patients undergoing thoracic surgery were nearly twice as likely to quit smoking as those who did not have an operation, and smoking quitline participation further augmented point prevalence abstinence. Improved smoking cessation rates, even among nonoperative patients, were associated with appropriate outpatient counseling and intervention.

Withdrawal of Life-Supporting Treatment in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

JAMA Surgery

There are limited data on which factors affect the critical and complex decision to withdraw life-supporting treatment (LST) in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI).

To determine demographic and clinical factors associated with the decision to withdraw LST in patients with sTBI.

This retrospective analysis of inpatient data from more than 825 trauma centers across the US in the American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program database from January 2013 to December 2015 included adult patients with sTBI and documentation of a decision regarding withdrawal of LST (WLST). Data analysis was conducted in September 2019.

Factors associated with WLST in sTBI.

A total of 37931 patients (9817 women [25.9%]) were included in the multivariable analysis; 7864 (20.7%) had WLST. Black patients (4806 [13.2%]; odds ratio [OR], 0.66; 95% CI, 0.59-0.72; P < .001) and patients of other race (4798 [13.2%]; OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.76-0.91; P < .001) were less likely than white patients (26 864 [73.7%]) to have WLST. Patients from hospitals in the Midwest (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.04-1.20; P = .002) or Northeast (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.13-1.34; P < .001) were more likely to have WLST than patients from hospitals in the South. Patients with Medicare (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.43-1.69; P < .001) and self-pay patients (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.25-1.47; P < .001) were more likely to have WLST than patients with private insurance. Older patients and those with lower Glasgow Coma Scale scores, higher Injury Severity Scores, or craniotomy were generally more likely to have WLST. Withdrawal of LST was more likely for patients with functionally dependent health status (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.08-1.58; P = .01), hematoma (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.12-1.27; P < .001), dementia (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.08-1.53; P = .004), and disseminated cancer (OR, 2.82; 95% CI, 2.07-3.82; P < .001) than for patients without these conditions.

Withdrawal of LST is common in sTBI and socioeconomic factors are associated with the decision to withdraw LST. These results highlight the many factors that contribute to decision-making in sTBI and demonstrate that in a complex and variable disease process, variation based on race, payment, and region presents as a potential challenge.

Efficacy and Safety of Ursodeoxycholic Acid for the Prevention of Gallstone Formation After Gastrectomy in Patients With Gastric Cancer: The PEGASUS-D Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Surgery

The incidence of gallstones has been reported to increase after gastrectomy. However, few studies have been conducted on the prevention of gallstone formation in patients who have undergone gastrectomy.

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in preventing gallstone formation after gastrectomy in patients with gastric cancer.

The PEGASUS-D study (Efficacy and Safety of DWJ1319 in the Prevention of Gallstone Formation after Gastrectomy in Patient with Gastric Cancer: A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study) was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted at 12 institutions in the Republic of Korea. Adults (aged ≥19 years) with a diagnosis of gastric cancer who underwent total, distal, or proximal gastrectomy were enrolled between May 26, 2015, and January 9, 2017; follow-up ended January 8, 2018. Efficacy was evaluated by both the full analysis set, based on the intention-to-treat principle, and the per-protocol set; full analysis set findings were interpreted as the main results.

Eligible participants were randomly assigned to receive 300 mg of UDCA, 600 mg of UDCA, or placebo at a ratio of 1:1:1. Ursodeoxycholic acid and placebo were administered daily for 52 weeks.

Gallstone formation was assessed with abdominal ultrasonography every 3 months for 12 months. Randomization and allocation to trial groups were carried out by an interactive web-response system. The primary end point was the proportion of patients developing gallstones within 12 months after gastrectomy.

A total of 521 patients (175 received 300 mg of UDCA, 178 received 600 mg of UDCA, and 168 received placebo) were randomized. The full analysis set included 465 patients (311 men; median age, 56.0 years [interquartile range, 48.0-64.0 years]), with 151 patients in the 300-mg group, 164 patients in the 600-mg group, and 150 patients in the placebo group. The proportion of patients developing gallstones within 12 months after gastrectomy was 8 of 151 (5.3%) in the 300-mg group, 7 of 164 (4.3%) in the 600-mg group, and 25 of 150 (16.7%) in the placebo group. Compared with the placebo group, odds ratios for gallstone formation were 0.27 (95% CI, 0.12-0.62; P = .002) in the 300-mg group and 0.20 (95% CI, 0.08-0.50; P < .001) in the 600-mg group. No significant adverse drug reactions were detected among the enrolled patients.

Administration of UDCA for 12 months significantly reduced the incidence of gallstones after gastrectomy for gastric cancer. These findings suggest that UDCA administration prevents gallstone formation after gastrectomy in patients with gastric cancer.

ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02490111.

Evaluation of Intraoperative Near-Infrared Fluorescence Visualization of the Lung Tumor Margin With Indocyanine Green Inhalation.

JAMA Surgery

Identification of the tumor margin during surgery is important for precise minimal resection of lung tumors. Intravenous injection of indocyanine green (ICG) has several limitations when used for intraoperative visualization of lung cancer.

To describe a technique for intraoperative visualization of lung tumor margin using ICG inhalation and evaluate the clinical applicability of the technique in mouse and rabbit lung tumor models as well as lung specimens of patients with lung tumors.

In lung tumor models of both mice and rabbits, the distribution of inhaled ICG in the lung tumor margin was investigated in vivo and ex vivo using a near-infrared imaging system. Lung tumor margin detection via inhalation of ICG was evaluated by comparing the results obtained with those of the intravenous injection method (n = 32, each time point for 4 mice). Based on preclinical data, use of ICG inhalation to help detect the tumor margin in patients with lung cancer was also evaluated (n = 6). This diagnostic study was conducted from May 31, 2017, to March 30, 2019.

The use of tumor margin detection by inhaled ICG was evaluated by comparing the inhaled formulation with intravenous administration of ICG.

From 10 minutes after inhalation of ICG to 24 hours, the distribution of ICG in the lungs was significantly higher than that in other organs (signal to noise ratio in the lungs: 39 486.4; interquartile range [IQR], 36 983.74-43 592.5). Ex vivo and histologic analysis showed that, in both lung tumor models, inhaled ICG was observed throughout the healthy lung tissue but was rarely found in tumor tissue. The difference in the fluorescent signal between healthy and tumor lung tissues was associated with the mechanical airway obstruction caused by the tumor and with alveolar macrophage uptake of the inhaled ICG in healthy tissues. Inhalation at a 20-fold lower dose of ICG had a 2-fold higher efficiency for tumor margin detection than did the intravenous injection (2.9; IQR, 2.7-3.2; P < .001).

The results of this study suggest that lung-specific inhalation delivery of ICG is feasible and may be useful for the intraoperative visualization of lung tumor margin in clinical practice.

Associations Between Career Satisfaction, Personal Life Factors, and Work-Life Integration Practices Among US Surgeons by Gender.

JAMA Surgery

Burnout among US surgeons is alarmingly high, particularly among women, and work-life integration conflicts contribute to career dissatisfaction.

To evaluate associations between surgical career satisfaction and personal life factors such as time requirements for outside interests, household chores, and parenting responsibilities and to explore similarities and differences between men and women.

This cross-sectional survey study of practicing US surgeons was conducted between June 4 and August 1, 2018. The 257-item online survey was sent to 25 748 fellows of the American College of Surgeons. A 31-item subanalysis was performed from August 13 to November 4, 2019.

Degree of career satisfaction was measured on a 5-point Likert scale. Professional and personal life factors associated with career satisfaction were evaluated with gender-stratified multivariable proportional odds models.

Among 3807 respondents, 3166 self-identified as male (83%) and 639 (17%) as female. Fewer women reported career satisfaction (483 [77%] vs 2514 [82%]) and relatively more women reported problematic interruption of personal life owing to work (315 [50%] vs 1381 [45%]). A higher proportion of women reported being primarily responsible for meal preparation (282 [46%] vs 355 [12%]) and housekeeping (149 [24%] vs 161 [5%]). On multivariable analyses, factors independently associated with career satisfaction were generally similar between genders. Stronger collegial support of work-life integration efforts was significantly associated with higher career satisfaction for both genders (P < .001), although the odds ratio (OR) for women was higher than for men (OR, 4.52; 95% CI, 2.60-7.87 vs OR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.88-3.21). For men and women, increasing age was significantly associated with higher career satisfaction (men: OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.03-1.05; P < .001; women: OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.06; P = .001), and insufficient time for family owing to work was associated with lower satisfaction (men: OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.49-0.90; P = 009; women: OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.30-0.81; P = .006). For women only, there was a significant association between primary responsibility for at least 1 household chore and lower career satisfaction (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.45-0.98; P = .04).

In this study, although women had relatively lower surgical career satisfaction than men, the associations between career satisfaction and personal life factors were largely similar. Collegial support of work-life integration efforts appeared to be the most influential factor, particularly for women. Optimization of work-life integration may not only decrease physician burnout but also promote gender equity in surgery.

Circulating Exosomal Gastric Cancer-Associated Long Noncoding RNA1 as a Biomarker for Early Detection and Monitoring Progression of Gastric Cancer: A Multiphase Study.

JAMA Surgery

The gastric cancer (GC)-associated long noncoding RNA1 (lncRNA-GC1) plays an important role in gastric carcinogenesis. However, exosomal lncRNA-GC1 and its potential role in GC are poorly understood.

To evaluate the diagnostic value of circulating exosomal lncRNA-GC1 for early detection and monitoring progression of GC.

We performed a multiphase investigation of circulating exosomal lncRNA-GC1 for early detection of GC involving consecutive patients with GC (n = 522), patients with gastric precancerous lesions (n = 85), and healthy donor individuals (HDs; n = 219) from December 2016 to February 2019 at Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, China. LncRNA-GC1 was measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction by independent researchers who had no access to patients' information. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to calculate diagnostic efficiency in comparison between lncRNA-GC1 and 3 traditional biomarkers (carcinoembryonic antigen [CEA], cancer antigen 72-4 [CA72-4], and CA19-9).

Assessment of diagnostic efficiency on the basis of area under curve (AUC), specificity, and sensitivity.

Of the 826 patients included in the study, 508 were men (61.5%), and the median age of all patients was 60 years (range, 28-82 years). In the test phase, lncRNA-GC1 achieved better diagnostic performance than the standard biomarkers CEA, CA72-4, and CA19-9 (AUC = 0.9033) for distinguishing between the patients with GC and HDs. Additionally, exosomal lncRNA-GC1 levels were significantly higher in culture media from GC cells compared with those of normal gastric epithelial cells (t = 5.310; P = .002). In the verification phase, lncRNA-GC1 retained its diagnostic efficiency in discriminating patients with GC from those with gastric precancerous lesions as well from HDs. Moreover, lncRNA-GC1 exhibited a higher AUC compared with those of CEA, CA72-4, and CA19-9 for early detection of GC with sufficient specificity and sensitivity, especially for patients with GC with negative standard biomarkers. Moreover, the levels of circulating exosomal lncRNA-GC1 were significantly associated with GC from early to advanced stages (HD vs stage I, t = 20.98; P < .001; stage I vs stage II, t = 2.787; P = .006; stage II vs stage III, t = 4.471; P < .001; stage III vs stage IV, t = 1.023; P = .30), independent of pathological grading and Lauren classification (pathological grading: HD vs G1, t = 21.09; P < .001; G1 vs G2, t = 0.3718; P = .71; G2 vs G3, t = 0.3598; P = .72; Lauren classification: t = 24.81; P <.001). In the supplemental phase, the levels of circulating exosomal lncRNA-GC1 were consistent with those in GC tissues and cells and were higher compared with those in normal tissues and cells. Furthermore, the levels of circulating lncRNA-GC1 were unchanged after exosomes were treated with RNase and remained constant after prolonged exposure to room temperature or after repeated freezing and thawing (t = 1.443; P = .39). Total circulating lncRNA-GC1 was nearly all packaged within exosomes rather than a free form in plasma.

Circulating exosomal lncRNA-GC1 may serve as a noninvasive biomarker for detecting early-stage GC and for monitoring disease progression. Combining circulating exosomal lncRNA-GC1 detection with endoscopy could improve the early diagnostic rate of GC.

Assessment of Risk Factors for Suicide Among US Health Care Professionals.

JAMA Surgery

Burnout among health care professionals has been increasingly associated with suicide risk. An examination of possible risk factors may help in the prevention of suicide among health care professionals.

To assess suicide risk factors for 3 categories of health care professionals (surgeons, nonsurgeon physicians, and dentists) compared with non-health care professionals.

Data from the National Violent Death Reporting System were reviewed to identify all individuals who died by suicide in the United States between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2016. Individuals were divided into health care professionals and non-health care professionals (general population), with the health care professionals further categorized into surgeons, nonsurgeon physicians, and dentists. The covariates of suicide decedents included demographic characteristics (age, sex, race, and marital status), medical history (mental illness, substance use, and physical health), and documented factors associated with the suicide death (job, intimate partner, financial, legal, and other problems). Data were analyzed from October 2 to December 17, 2019.

In this analysis, the outcome variable was occupation, with health care professionals overall and by category compared with the general population. Multiple logistic regression analyses with backward stepwise selection were performed.

A total of 170 030 individuals who died by suicide between 2003 and 2016 were identified. Of those, 767 individuals (0.5%) were health care professionals (mean [SD] age, 59.6 [15.6] years; 675 men [88.0%]; 688 white [89.7%]), with the remainder of the sample (95.5%) comprising the general population (mean [SD] age, 46.8 [31.5] years; 77.7% men; 87.8% white). A total of 485 health care professionals (63.2%) were nonsurgeon physicians, 179 professionals (23.3%) were dentists, and 103 professionals (13.4%) were surgeons. Compared with the general population, risk factors for suicide among health care professionals included having Asian or Pacific Islander ancestry (odds ratio [OR], 2.80; 95% CI, 1.96-3.99; P < .001), job problems (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.49-2.17; P < .001), civil legal problems (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.15-2.26; P = .006), and physical health problems (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.19-1.64; P < .001) and currently receiving treatment for mental illness (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.24-1.69; P < .001). Compared with the general population, health care professionals had a lower risk of suicide if they had black ancestry (OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.36-0.84; P < .001) or were female (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.35-0.55; P < .001) or unmarried (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.31-0.42; P < .001). Health care professionals who died by suicide were also less likely to have problems with intimate partners (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.60-0.86; P < .001) or alcohol use (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.45-0.73; P < .001) compared with the general population. Surgeons had a higher risk of suicide compared with the general population if they were older, male, married, had Asian or Pacific Islander ancestry, were currently receiving treatment for mental illness, or had problems with their job or alcohol use. Compared with their nonsurgeon physician colleagues, surgeons had a higher risk of suicide if they were male, older, married, or currently receiving treatment for mental illness.

This study highlights risk factors for suicide among health care professionals, with additional analyses of surgeon-specific risk factors. The results may be useful in improving the detection of burnout and the development of suicide prevention interventions among health care professionals.

Deimplementation of the Choosing Wisely Recommendations for Low-Value Breast Cancer Surgery: A Systematic Review.

JAMA Surgery

Overtreatment of early-stage breast cancer results in increased morbidity and cost without improving survival. Major surgical organizations participating in the Choosing Wisely campaign identified 4 breast cancer operations as low value: (1) axillary lymph node dissection for limited nodal disease in patients receiving lumpectomy and radiation, (2) re-excision for close but negative lumpectomy margins for invasive cancer, (3) contralateral prophylactic mastectomy in patients at average risk with unilateral cancer, and (4) sentinel lymph node biopsy in women 70 years or older with hormone receptor-positive cancer.

To evaluate the extent to which these procedures have been deimplemented, determine the implications of decreased use, and recognize possible barriers and facilitators to deimplementation.

A systematic review of published literature on use trends in breast surgery was performed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. The Ovid, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Cochrane databases were searched for original research with relevance to the Choosing Wisely recommendations of interest. Eligible studies were examined for data about use, and any patient-level, clinician-level, or system-level factors associated with use.

Concordant with recommendations, national rates of axillary lymph node dissection for patients with limited nodal disease have decreased by approximately 50% (from 44% in 2011 to 30% to 34% in 2012 and 25% to 28% in 2013), and national rates of lumpectomy margin re-excision have decreased by nearly 40% (from 16% to 34% before to 14% to 18% after publication of a consensus statement). Conversely, national rates of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy continue to rise each year, accounting for up to 30% of all mastectomies for breast cancer (range in all mastectomy cases: 2010-2012, 28%-30%; 1998, <2%), and rates of sentinel lymph node biopsy in women 70 years or older with low-risk breast cancer are persistently greater than 80% (range, 80%-88%). Factors associated with high rates of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy use are younger age, white race, increased socioeconomic status, and the availability of breast reconstruction; limited data exist on factors associated with high rates of sentinel lymph node biopsy in women 70 years or older. Successful deimplementation of axillary lymph node dissection and lumpectomy margin re-excision were associated with decreased costs and improved patient-centered outcomes.

This review demonstrates variable deimplementation of 4 low-value surgical procedures in patients with breast cancer. Addressing specific patient-level, clinician-level, and system-level barriers to deimplementation is necessary to encourage shared decision-making and reduce overtreatment.

Effect of Gastric Bypass vs Best Medical Treatment on Early-Stage Chronic Kidney Disease in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Surgery

Early-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) characterized by microalbuminuria is associated with future cardiovascular events, progression toward end-stage renal disease, and early mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes.

To compare the albuminuria-lowering effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery vs best medical treatment in patients with early-stage CKD, type 2 diabetes, and obesity.

For this randomized clinical trial, patients with established type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria were recruited from a single center from April 1, 2013, through March 31, 2016, with a 5-year follow-up, including prespecified intermediate analysis at 24-month follow-up.

A total of 100 patients with type 2 diabetes, obesity (body mass indexes of 30 to 35 [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared]), and stage G1 to G3 and A2 to A3 CKD (urinary albumin-creatinine ratio [uACR] >30 mg/g and estimated glomerular filtration rate >30 mL/min) were randomized 1:1 to receive best medical treatment (n = 49) or RYGB (n = 51).

The primary outcome was remission of albuminuria (uACR <30 mg/g). Secondary outcomes were CKD remission rate, absolute change in uACR, metabolic control, other microvascular complications, quality of life, and safety.

A total of 100 patients (mean [SD] age, 51.4 [7.6] years; 55 [55%] male) were randomized: 51 to RYGB and 49 to best medical care. Remission of albuminuria occurred in 55% of patients (95% CI, 39%-70%) after best medical treatment and 82% of patients (95% CI, 72%-93%) after RYGB (P = .006), resulting in CKD remission rates of 48% (95% CI, 32%-64%) after best medical treatment and 82% (95% CI, 72%-92%) after RYGB (P = .002). The geometric mean uACRs were 55% lower after RYGB (10.7 mg/g of creatinine) than after best medical treatment (23.6 mg/g of creatinine) (P < .001). No difference in the rate of serious adverse events was observed.

After 24 months, RYGB was more effective than best medical treatment for achieving remission of albuminuria and stage G1 to G3 and A2 to A3 CKD in patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity.

ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01821508.

Two-Stage Turnbull-Cutait Pull-Through Coloanal Anastomosis for Low Rectal Cancer: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Surgery

Two-stage Turnbull-Cutait pull-through hand-sewn coloanal anastomosis seems to provide benefits in terms of postoperative morbidity compared with standard hand-sewn coloanal anastomosis associated with diverting ileostomy and further ileostomy reversal in patients operated on for low rectal cancer.

To compare 30-day postoperative and 1-year follow-up results of Turnbull-Cutait pull-through hand-sewn coloanal anastomosis and standard hand-sewn coloanal anastomosis after ultralow rectal resection for rectal cancer.

Multicenter randomized clinical trial. Neither patients nor surgeons were blinded for technique. Patients were recruited in 3 centers, Bellvitge University Hospital and Valle d'Hebron University Hospital in Spain and Instituto Nazionale Tumori Fondazione G. Pascale-Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico in Italy. Patients undergoing ultralow anterior rectal resection needing hand-sewn coloanal anastomosis were randomly assigned to 2-stage Turnbull-Cutait pull-through hand-sewn coloanal anastomosis or standard hand-sewn coloanal anastomosis associated with diverting ileostomy. Data were analyzed between June 2012 and October 2018.

All patients underwent ultralow anterior resection. Patients assigned to the 2-stage Turnbull-Cutait pull-through group underwent exteriorization of a segment of left colon through the anal canal and, after 6 to 10 days, the exteriorized colon was resected and a delayed hand-sewn coloanal anastomosis was performed. For patients assigned to standard coloanal anastomosis, the hand-sewn coloanal anastomosis was performed with diverting ileostomy at first operation. Closure of the ileostomy was planned after 6 to 8 months.

Primary outcome was 30-day postoperative morbidity. For the standard hand-sewn coloanal anastomosis with diverting ileostomy group, overall postoperative morbidity includes 30-day postoperative complications of the ileostomy closure.

Ninety-two white patients, 72 men and 20 women, with a median age of 62 years, were randomized and included in the analysis. Forty-six patients received standard hand-sewn coloanal anastomosis with diverting ileostomy and 46 received the 2-stage pull-through hand-sewn coloanal anastomosis. Seven patients (15.2%) in the standard hand-sewn coloanal anastomosis group did not undergo reversal ileostomy, and 1 patient (2.2%) in the 2-stage pull-through hand-sewn coloanal anastomosis group did not undergo delayed coloanal anastomosis. The 30-day overall composite postoperative complications rate was similar between the 2 groups (34.8% in 2-stage pull-through hand-sewn coloanal anastomosis group vs 45.7% in standard hand-sewn coloanal anastomosis group; P = .40), with a difference of -10.9 (95% CI, -29.5 to 8.9).

The 2-stage pull-through hand-sewn coloanal anastomosis after ultralow anterior resection for low rectal cancer is safe and does not increase the postoperative morbidity rate compared with standard coloanal anastomosis with covering ileostomy followed by ileostomy closure.

ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01766661.

Bariatric Surgery and Long-term Survival in Patients With Obesity and End-stage Kidney Disease.

JAMA Surgery

Obesity rates in patients with end-stage kidney disease are rising, contribute to excess morbidity, and limit access to kidney transplant. Despite this, there continues to be controversy around the use of bariatric surgery in this patient population.

To determine whether bariatric surgery is associated with improvement in long-term survival among patients with obesity and end-stage kidney disease.

Retrospective cohort study and secondary analysis of previously collected data from the United States Renal Data System registry (2006-2015). We used Cox proportional hazards analysis to evaluate differences in outcomes for patients receiving bariatric surgery (n = 1597) compared with a matched cohort of nonsurgical patients (n = 4750) receiving usual care. Data were analyzed between September 3, 2019, and November 13, 2019.

Receipt of bariatric surgery.

All-cause mortality at 5 years. Secondary outcomes included disease-specific mortality and incidence of kidney transplant.

Surgical and nonsurgical control patients had similar age, demographics, and comorbid disease burden. The mean (SD) age was 49.8 (11.2) years for surgical patients vs 51.7 (11.1) years for nonsurgical patients. Six hundred fifteen surgical patients (38.5%) were black vs 1833 nonsurgical patients (38.6%). Surgery was associated with lower all-cause mortality at 5 years compared with usual care (cumulative incidence, 25.6% vs 39.8%; hazard ratio, 0.69, 95% CI, 0.60-0.78). This was driven by lower mortality from cardiovascular causes at 5 years for patients undergoing bariatric surgery compared with nonsurgical control patients (cumulative incidence, 8.4% vs 17.2%; hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.41-0.65). Bariatric surgery was also associated with an increase in kidney transplant at 5 years (cumulative incidence, 33.0% vs 20.4%; hazard ratio, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.58-2.09). However, at 1 year, bariatric surgery was associated with higher all-cause mortality compared with usual care (cumulative incidence, 8.6% vs 7.7%; hazard ratio, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.13-1.85).

Among patients with obesity and end-stage kidney disease, bariatric surgery was associated with lower all-cause mortality compared with usual care. Bariatric surgery was also associated with an increase in kidney transplant. Bariatric surgery may warrant further consideration in the treatment of patients with obesity and end-stage kidney disease.