The latest medical research on Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about oral & maxillofacial surgery gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Postdischarge Virtual Visits for Low-risk Surgeries: A Randomized Noninferiority Clinical Trial.

JAMA Surgery

Postdischarge video-based virtual visits are a growing aspect of surgical care and have dramatically increased in the setting of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.

To evaluate the outcomes of all-cause 30-day hospital encounter proportion among patients who have a postdischarge video-based virtual visit follow-up compared with in-person follow-up.

Randomized, active, controlled noninferiority trial in an urban setting, including patients from a small community hospital and a large, tertiary care hospital. Patients who underwent minimally invasive appendectomy or cholecystectomy by a group of surgeons who cover emergency general surgery at these 2 hospitals were included. Patients undergoing elective and nonelective procedures were included.

Patients were randomized in a 2:1 fashion to video-based virtual visit or in-person visit.

The primary outcome is the percentage of patients with 30-day hospital encounter, and we hypothesized that there would not be a significant increase in the 30-day hospital encounter proportion for patients who receive video-based virtual postdischarge care compared with patients who receive standard (in-person) care. Hospital encounter includes emergency department visit, observation, or inpatient admission.

A total of 1645 patients were screened; 289 patients were randomized to the virtual group and 143 to the in-person group. Fifty-three patients crossed over to the in-person follow-up group. The percentage of patients who had a hospital encounter was noninferior for virtual visits (12.8% vs 13.3% for in-person, Δ 0.5% with 1-sided 95% CI, -∞ to 5.2%). The amount of time patients spent with the clinician (mean of 8.4 minutes virtual vs 7.8 minutes in-person; P = .30) was not different, but the median overall postoperative visit time was 27.5 minutes shorter (95% CI, -33.5 to -24.0).

Postdischarge video-based virtual visits did not increase hospital encounter proportions and provided shorter overall time commitment but equal time with the surgical team member. This information will help surgeons and patients feel more confident in using video-based virtual visits. Identifier: NCT03258177.

Racial Disparities in the Use of Surgical Procedures in the US.

JAMA Surgery

The largest US federal action plan to date for reducing racial disparities in health care was implemented in 2011 and continues today. It is not known whether this program, along with other initiatives, is associated with a decrease in racial disparities in the use of major surgical procedures in the US.

To analyze whether national initiatives are associated with improvement in racial disparities between White and Black patients in the use of surgical procedures in the US.

In this case-control study, the national rates of use for 9 major surgical procedures previously shown to have racial disparities in rates of performance between White and Black adult patients (including angioplasty, spinal fusion, carotid endarterectomy, appendectomy, colorectal resection, coronary artery bypass grafting, total hip arthroplasty, total knee arthroplasty, and heart valve replacement) were analyzed from January 1, 2012, through December 31, 2017. Data analysis was conducted from May 1 to June 30, 2020. Population- and sex-adjusted procedural rates during the study period were examined and standardized based on all-payer insurance status. Racial changes were further analyzed by US census division and hospital teaching status for 4 selected procedures: coronary artery bypass grafting, carotid endarterectomy, total hip arthroplasty, and heart valve replacement.

Population- and race-adjusted procedural rates by year, US census division, hospital teaching status, and insurance status.

This study included national inpatient data from 2012 to 2017. In 2012, the national incidence rate of all 9 major surgical procedures was higher in White than in Black individuals. For example, the incidence rate of total knee arthroplasty in 2012 for White males was 184.8 per 100 000 persons and for Black males was 79.8 per 100 000 persons. By 2017, these racial disparities persisted for all 9 procedures analyzed. For example, the incidence rate of total knee arthroplasty in 2017 for White males was 220.5 per 100 000 persons and for Black males was 95.6 per 100 000 persons. Although the disparity gap between White and Black patients narrowed for angioplasty (-20.1 per 100 000 persons in males, -4.2 per 100 000 persons in females), spinal fusion (-7.7 per 100 000 persons in males, -15.0 per 100 000 persons in females), carotid endarterectomy (-4.3 per 100 000 persons in males, -4.6 per 100 000 persons in females), appendectomy (-12.3 per 100 000 persons in males, -12.2 per 100 000 persons in females), and colorectal resection (-9.0 per 100 000 persons in males, -12.7 per 100 000 persons in females), the disparity remained constant for coronary artery bypass grafting and widened for 3 procedures, total hip arthroplasty (11.6 per 100 000 persons in males, 20.8 per 100 000 in females), total knee arthroplasty (19.9 per 100 000 persons in males, 12.0 per 100 000 persons in females), and heart valve replacement(12.4 per 100 000 persons in males, 9.2 per 100 000 persons in females). In 2017, racial differences persisted in all US census divisions and in both urban teaching and urban nonteaching hospitals. When rates were adjusted based on insurance status, Black patients with Medicare, Medicaid, and private insurance underwent lower rates of all procedures analyzed compared with White patients. For example, rate of spinal fusion in Black patients was 70.2% of the rate in White patients with Medicare, 56.5% to that of White patients with Medicaid, and 61.2% to that of White patients with private insurance.

Results of this study suggest that despite national initiatives, racial disparities have persisted for all analyzed procedures and worsened for one-third of the analyzed procedures. These disparities were evident regardless of US census division, hospital teaching status, or insurance status. Renewed initiatives to help diminish racial disparities and improve health care equality are warranted.

Surgical Plating vs Closed Reduction for Fractures in the Distal Radius in Older Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Surgery

The burden of injury and costs of wrist fractures are substantial. Surgical treatment became popular without strong supporting evidence.

To assess whether current surgical treatment for displaced distal radius fractures provided better patient-reported wrist pain and function than nonsurgical treatment in patients 60 years and older.

In this multicenter randomized clinical trial and parallel observational study, 300 eligible patients were screened from 19 centers in Australia and New Zealand from December 1, 2016, until December 31, 2018. A total of 166 participants were randomized to surgical or nonsurgical treatment and followed up at 3 and 12 months by blinded assessors. Those 134 individuals who declined randomization were included in a parallel observational cohort with the same treatment options and follow-up. The primary analysis was intention to treat; sensitivity analyses included as-treated and per-protocol analyses.

Surgical treatment was open reduction and internal fixation using a volar-locking plate (VLP). Nonsurgical treatment was closed reduction and cast immobilization (CR).

The primary outcome was the Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation score at 12 months. Secondary outcomes were Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire score, health-related quality of life, pain, major complications, patient-reported treatment success, bother with appearance, and therapy use.

In the 300 study participants (mean [SD] age, 71.2 [7.5] years; 269 [90%] female; 166 [81 VLP and 85 CR] in the randomized clinical trial sample and 134 [32 VLP and 102 CR] in the observational sample), no clinically important between-group difference in 12-month Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation scores (mean [SD] score of 19.8 [21.1] for VLP and 21.5 [24.3] for CR; mean difference, 1.7 points; 95% CI -5.4 to 8.8) was observed. No clinically important differences were found in quality of life, wrist pain, or bother at 3 and 12 months. No significant difference was found in total complications between groups (12 of 84 [14%] for the CR group vs 6 of 80 [8%] for the VLP group; risk ratio [RR], 0.53; 95% CI, 0.21-1.33). Patient-reported treatment success favored the VLP group at 12 months (very successful or successful: 70 [89%] vs 57 [70%]; RR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.07-1.48; P = .005). There was greater use of postoperative physical therapy in the VLP group (56 [72%] vs 44 [54%]; RR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.04-1.69; P = 0.02).

This randomized clinical trial found no between-group differences in improvement in wrist pain or function at 12 months from VLP fixation over CR for displaced distal radius fractures in older people. identifier: ACTRN12616000969460.

Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Syndrome and the Role of CDH1: A Review.

JAMA Surgery

Inherited variants in the tumor suppressor gene CDH1 are associated with an increased risk of gastric and breast cancers. This review aims to address the most current topics in management of the hereditary diffuse gastric cancer syndrome attributed to CDH1.

Consensus management guidelines have broadened genetic testing criteria for CDH1. Prophylactic total gastrectomy is recommended for any pathogenic or likely pathogenic CDH1 variant carrier starting at the age of 20 years. Annual surveillance endoscopy is recommended to those who defer prophylactic total gastrectomy. Women with a CDH1 variant should initiate magnetic resonance imaging breast surveillance starting at age 30 years. Further research is needed to understand the pathogenesis of early-stage gastric cancers (T1a), which are pathognomonic of hereditary diffuse gastric cancer syndrome, that lead to advanced gastric cancer to develop both treatment and prevention strategies for this patient population.

The heritable CDH1 gene mutation is of importance to today's surgeons because it is associated with a substantial increased risk of developing both gastric and breast cancers. Management of this cancer syndrome currently uses prophylactic surgery and enhanced cancer surveillance strategies.

Patient Factors Associated With Parathyroidectomy in Older Adults With Primary Hyperparathyroidism.

JAMA Surgery

Parathyroidectomy provides definitive management for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), reducing the risk of subsequent fracture, nephrolithiasis, and chronic kidney disease (CKD), but its use among older adults in the US is unknown.

To identify patient characteristics associated with the use of parathyroidectomy for the management of PHPT in older adults.

This population-based, retrospective cohort study used 100% Medicare claims from beneficiaries with an initial diagnosis of PHPT from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2016. Patients were considered to meet consensus guideline criteria for parathyroidectomy based on diagnosis codes indicating osteoporosis, nephrolithiasis, or stage 3 CKD. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify patient characteristics associated with parathyroidectomy. Data were analyzed from February 11, 2020, to October 8, 2020.

The primary outcome was parathyroidectomy within 1 year of diagnosis.

Among 210 206 beneficiaries with an incident diagnosis of PHPT (78.8% women; mean [SD] age, 75.3 [6.8] years), 63 136 (30.0%) underwent parathyroidectomy within 1 year of diagnosis. Among the subset of patients who met consensus guideline criteria for operative management (n = 131 723), 38 983 (29.6%) were treated with parathyroidectomy. Patients treated operatively were younger (mean [SD] age, 73.5 [5.7] vs 76.0 [7.1] years) and more likely to be White (90.1% vs 86.0%), to be robust or prefrail (92.1% vs 85.7%), and to have fewer comorbidities (Charlson Comorbidity Index score of 0 or 1, 54.6% vs 44.1%), in addition to being more likely to live in socioeconomically disadvantaged (46.9% vs 40.3%) and rural (18.1% vs 13.6%) areas (all P < .001). On multivariable analysis, increasing age had a strong inverse association with parathyroidectomy among patients aged 76 to 85 years (unadjusted rate, 25.9%; odds ratio [OR], 0.68 [95% CI, 0.67-0.70]) and older than 85 years (unadjusted rate, 11.2%; OR, 0.27 [95% CI, 0.26-0.29]) compared with those aged 66 to 75 years (unadjusted rate, 35.6%), as did patients with moderate to severe frailty (unadjusted rate, 18.9%; OR, 0.60 [95% CI, 0.56-0.64]) compared with robust patients (unadjusted rate, 36.1%) and those with a Charlson Comorbidity Index score of 2 or greater (unadjusted rate, 25.9%; OR, 0.77 [95% CI, 0.75-0.79]) compared with a Charlson Comorbidity Index score of 0 (unadjusted rate, 37.0%). With regard to operative guidelines, a history of nephrolithiasis increased the odds of parathyroidectomy (OR, 1.43 [95% CI, 1.39-1.47]); stage 3 CKD decreased the odds of parathyroidectomy (OR, 0.71 [95% CI, 0.68-0.74]); and osteoporosis showed no association (OR, 1.01 [95% CI, 0.99-1.03]).

In this cohort study, most older adults with PHPT did not receive definitive treatment with parathyroidectomy. Older age, frailty, and multimorbidity were associated with nonoperative management, and guideline recommendations had minimal effect on treatment decisions. Further research is needed to identify barriers to surgical care and develop tools to target parathyroidectomy to older adults most likely to benefit.

Association of Fluoroquinolone Use With Short-term Risk of Development of Aortic Aneurysm.

JAMA Surgery

Although fluoroquinolones are commonly prescribed antibiotics in the US, recent international studies have shown an increased risk of aortic aneurysm and dissection after fluoroquinolone use, leading to US Food and Drug Administration warnings limiting use for high-risk patients. It is unclear whether these data are true for the US population and who is truly high risk.

To assess aortic aneurysm and dissection risks in a heterogeneous US population after fluoroquinolone use.

Prescription fills for fluoroquinolones or a comparator antibiotic from 2005 to 2017 among commercially insured individuals aged 18 to 64 years were identified in this retrospective analysis of MarketScan health insurance claims. This cohort study included 27 827 254 US adults (47 596 545 antibiotic episodes), aged 18 to 64 years, with no known previous aortic aneurysm or dissection, no recent antibiotic exposure, and no recent hospitalization.

Outpatient fill of an oral fluoroquinolone or comparator antibiotic (amoxicillin-clavulanate, azithromycin, cephalexin, clindamycin, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim).

The 90-day incidence of aortic aneurysm and dissection. Inverse probability of treatment weighting in Cox regression was used to estimate the association between fluoroquinolone fill and 90-day aneurysm incidence. Interaction terms were used to assess the association of known risk factors (ie, sex, age, and comorbidities) with aneurysm after fluoroquinolone use. Data analysis was performed March 2019 to May 2020.

Of 47 596 545 prescription fills, 9 053 961 (19%) were fluoroquinolones and 38 542 584 (81%) were comparator antibiotics. The median (interquartile range) age of adults with fluoroquinolone fills was 47 (36-57) years vs 43 (31-54) years with comparator antibiotic fills. Women comprised 61.3% of fluoroquinolone fills and 59.5% of comparator antibiotic fills. Before weighting, the 90-day incidence of newly diagnosed aneurysm was 7.5 cases per 10 000 fills (6752 of 9 053 961) after fluoroquinolones compared with 4.6 cases per 10 000 fills (17 627 of 38 542 584) after comparator antibiotics. After weighting for demographic characteristics and comorbidities, fluoroquinolone fills were associated with increased incidence of aneurysm formation (hazard ratio [HR], 1.20; 95% CI, 1.17-1.24). More specifically, compared with comparator antibiotics, fluoroquinolone fills were associated with increased 90-day incidence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.25-1.37), iliac artery aneurysm (HR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.33-1.91), and other abdominal aneurysm (HR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.39-1.79), and adults were more likely to undergo aneurysm repair (HR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.44-2.46). When stratified by age, all adults 35 years or older appeared at increased risk (18-34 years: HR, 0.99 [95% CI, 0.83-1.18]; 35-49 years: HR, 1.18 [95% CI, 1.09-1.28]; 50-64 years: HR, 1.24 [95% CI, 1.19-1.28]; P = .04).

This study found that fluoroquinolones were associated with increased incidence of aortic aneurysm formation in US adults. This association was consistent across adults aged 35 years or older, sex, and comorbidities, suggesting fluoroquinolone use should be pursued with caution in all adults, not just in high-risk individuals.

Association of Frailty and Sex With Wait List Mortality in Liver Transplant Candidates in the Multicenter Functional Assessment in Liver Transplantation (FrAILT) Study.

JAMA Surgery

Female liver transplant candidates experience higher rates of wait list mortality than male candidates. Frailty is a critical determinant of mortality in patients with cirrhosis, but how frailty differs between women and men is unknown.

To determine whether frailty is associated with the gap between women and men in mortality among patients with cirrhosis awaiting liver transplantation.

This prospective cohort study enrolled 1405 adults with cirrhosis awaiting liver transplant without hepatocellular carcinoma seen during 3436 ambulatory clinic visits at 9 US liver transplant centers. Data were collected from January 1, 2012, to October 1, 2019, and analyzed from August 30, 2019, to October 30, 2020.

At outpatient evaluation, the Liver Frailty Index (LFI) score was calculated (grip strength, chair stands, and balance).

The risk of wait list mortality was quantified using Cox proportional hazards regression by frailty. Mediation analysis was used to quantify the contribution of frailty to the gap in wait list mortality between women and men.

Of 1405 participants, 578 (41%) were women and 827 (59%) were men (median age, 58 [interquartile range (IQR), 50-63] years). Women and men had similar median scores on the laboratory-based Model for End-stage Liver Disease incorporating sodium levels (MELDNa) (women, 18 [IQR, 14-23]; men, 18 [IQR, 15-22]), but baseline LFI was higher in women (mean [SD], 4.12 [0.85] vs 4.00 [0.82]; P = .005). Women displayed worse balance of less than 30 seconds (145 [25%] vs 149 [18%]; P = .003), worse sex-adjusted grip (mean [SD], -0.31 [1.08] vs -0.16 [1.08] kg; P = .01), and fewer chair stands per second (median, 0.35 [IQR, 0.23-0.46] vs 0.37 [IQR, 0.25-0.49]; P = .04). In unadjusted mixed-effects models, LFI was 0.15 (95% CI, 0.06-0.23) units higher in women than men (P = .001). After adjustment for other variables associated with frailty, LFI was 0.16 (95% CI, 0.08-0.23) units higher in women than men (P < .001). In unadjusted regression, women experienced a 34% (95% CI, 3%-74%) increased risk of wait list mortality than men (P = .03). Sequential covariable adjustment did not alter the association between sex and wait list mortality; however, adjustment for LFI attenuated the mortality gap between women and men. In mediation analysis, an estimated 13.0% (IQR, 0.5%-132.0%) of the gender gap in wait list mortality was mediated by frailty.

These findings demonstrate that women with cirrhosis display worse frailty scores than men despite similar MELDNa scores. The higher risk of wait list mortality that women experienced appeared to be explained in part by frailty.

A Genomic-Pathologic Annotated Risk Model to Predict Recurrence in Early-Stage Lung Adenocarcinoma.

JAMA Surgery

Recommendations for adjuvant therapy after surgical resection of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) are based solely on TNM classification but are agnostic to genomic and high-risk clinicopathologic factors. Creation of a prediction model that integrates tumor genomic and clinicopathologic factors may better identify patients at risk for recurrence.

To identify tumor genomic factors independently associated with recurrence, even in the presence of aggressive, high-risk clinicopathologic variables, in patients with completely resected stages I to III LUAD, and to develop a computational machine-learning prediction model (PRecur) to determine whether the integration of genomic and clinicopathologic features could better predict risk of recurrence, compared with the TNM system.

This prospective cohort study included 426 patients treated from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2017, at a single large cancer center and selected in consecutive samples. Eligibility criteria included complete surgical resection of stages I to III LUAD, broad-panel next-generation sequencing data with matched clinicopathologic data, and no neoadjuvant therapy. External validation of the PRecur prediction model was performed using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Data were analyzed from 2014 to 2018.

The study end point consisted of relapse-free survival (RFS), estimated using the Kaplan-Meier approach. Associations among clinicopathologic factors, genomic alterations, and RFS were established using Cox proportional hazards regression. The PRecur prediction model integrated genomic and clinicopathologic factors using gradient-boosting survival regression for risk group generation and prediction of RFS. A concordance probability estimate (CPE) was used to assess the predictive ability of the PRecur model.

Of the 426 patients included in the analysis (286 women [67%]; median age at surgery, 69 [interquartile range, 62-75] years), 318 (75%) had stage I cancer. Association analysis showed that alterations in SMARCA4 (clinicopathologic-adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.44; 95% CI, 1.03-5.77; P = .042) and TP53 (clinicopathologic-adjusted HR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.09-2.73; P = .02) and the fraction of genome altered (clinicopathologic-adjusted HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.10-1.04; P = .005) were independently associated with RFS. The PRecur prediction model outperformed the TNM-based model (CPE, 0.73 vs 0.61; difference, 0.12 [95% CI, 0.05-0.19]; P < .001) for prediction of RFS. To validate the prediction model, PRecur was applied to the TCGA LUAD data set (n = 360), and a clear separation of risk groups was noted (log-rank statistic, 7.5; P = .02), confirming external validation.

The findings suggest that integration of tumor genomics and clinicopathologic features improves risk stratification and prediction of recurrence after surgical resection of early-stage LUAD. Improved identification of patients at risk for recurrence could enrich and enhance accrual to adjuvant therapy clinical trials.

Laparoscopic Lavage vs Primary Resection for Acute Perforated Diverticulitis: Long-term Outcomes From the Scandinavian Diverticulitis (SCANDIV) Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Surgery

Perforated colonic diverticulitis usually requires surgical resection, with significant morbidity. Short-term results from randomized clinical trials have indicated that laparoscopic lavage is a feasible alternative to resection. However, it appears that no long-term results are available.

To compare long-term (5-year) outcomes of laparoscopic peritoneal lavage and primary resection as treatments of perforated purulent diverticulitis.

This international multicenter randomized clinical trial was conducted in 21 hospitals in Sweden and Norway, which enrolled patients between February 2010 and June 2014. Long-term follow-up was conducted between March 2018 and November 2019. Patients with symptoms of left-sided acute perforated diverticulitis, indicating urgent surgical need and computed tomography-verified free air, were eligible. Those available for trial intervention (Hinchey stages <IV) were included in the long-term follow-up.

Patients were assigned to undergo laparoscopic peritoneal lavage or colon resection based on computer-generated, center-stratified block randomization.

The primary outcome was severe complications within 5 years. Secondary outcomes included mortality, secondary operations, recurrences, stomas, functional outcomes, and quality of life.

Of 199 randomized patients, 101 were assigned to undergo laparoscopic peritoneal lavage and 98 were assigned to colon resection. At the time of surgery, perforated purulent diverticulitis was confirmed in 145 patients randomized to lavage (n = 74) and resection (n = 71). The median follow-up was 59 (interquartile range, 51-78; full range, 0-110) months, and 3 patients were lost to follow-up, leaving a final analysis of 73 patients who had had laparoscopic lavage (mean [SD] age, 66.4 [13] years; 39 men [53%]) and 69 who had received a resection (mean [SD] age, 63.5 [14] years; 36 men [52%]). Severe complications occurred in 36% (n = 26) in the laparoscopic lavage group and 35% (n = 24) in the resection group (P = .92). Overall mortality was 32% (n = 23) in the laparoscopic lavage group and 25% (n = 17) in the resection group (P = .36). The stoma prevalence was 8% (n = 4) in the laparoscopic lavage group vs 33% (n = 17; P = .002) in the resection group among patients who remained alive, and secondary operations, including stoma reversal, were performed in 36% (n = 26) vs 35% (n = 24; P = .92), respectively. Recurrence of diverticulitis was higher following laparoscopic lavage (21% [n = 15] vs 4% [n = 3]; P = .004). In the laparoscopic lavage group, 30% (n = 21) underwent a sigmoid resection. There were no significant differences in the EuroQoL-5D questionnaire or Cleveland Global Quality of Life scores between the groups.

Long-term follow-up showed no differences in severe complications. Recurrence of diverticulitis after laparoscopic lavage was more common, often leading to sigmoid resection. This must be weighed against the lower stoma prevalence in this group. Shared decision-making considering both short-term and long-term consequences is encouraged. Identifier: NCT01047462.

Associations Between Video Evaluations of Surgical Technique and Outcomes of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy.

JAMA Surgery

In any surgical procedure, various aspects of technique may affect patient outcomes. As new procedures enter practice, it is difficult to evaluate the association of each aspect of technique with patient outcomes.

To examine the associations between technique and outcomes in laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

In this cohort study of bariatric surgery programs participating in a statewide surgical quality improvement collaborative, 30 surgeons submitted intraoperative videos from representative sleeve gastrectomies performed on 6915 patients with morbid obesity. These videos were reviewed by blinded peer surgeons on key technical elements, and 605 reviews were linked to sleeve gastrectomy outcomes of all of the surgeons' patients from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2016.

Surgeons' technical approaches to 5 controversial aspects of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: dissection of the proximal stomach, sleeve caliber, sleeve anatomy, staple line reinforcement, and leak testing.

The 30-day outcomes were rate of postoperative hemorrhage and staple line leak. The 1-year outcomes were percentage of total weight lost and reflux severity (Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Health-Related Quality of Life instrument).

A total of 30 surgeons submitted 46 videos of operations performed on 6915 patients (mean [SD] age, 45.4 [11.7] years; 5494 [79.5%] female; 4706 [68.1%] White). Complete dissection of the proximal stomach was associated with reduced hemorrhage rates (higher ratings for complete mobilization of fundus were associated with a decrease in hemorrhage rate from 2.1% [25th percentile] to 1.0% [75th percentile], P = .01; higher ratings for visualization of the left crus were associated with a decrease in hemorrhage rate from 1.5% to 0.94%, P = .006; and higher ratings for complete division of the short gastrics were associated with a decrease in hemorrhage rate from 2.8% to 1.2%, P = .03). The reduction in hemorrhage rates came at the expense of higher leak rates (higher ratings for complete mobilization of fundus were associated with an increase in leak rate from 0.05% [25th percentile] to 0.16% [75th percentile], P < .001; higher ratings for visualization of the left crus were associated with an increase in leak rate from 0.1% to 0.2%, P = .003; and higher ratings for complete division of the short gastrics were associated with an increase in leak rate from 0.02% to 0.1%, P = .01). Surgeons who stapled more tightly to the bougie had smaller decreases in reflux than those who stapled less tightly (-2.0 to -1.3 on a 50-point scale, P = .002). Staple line reinforcement (buttressing and oversewing) was associated with a small (2 of 1000 cases) decrease in hemorrhage rates. Staple line buttressing was also associated with a similarly small increase in leak rates (1 of 1000 cases). Leak testing was associated with a statistically insignificant change in the staple line leak rate (0.16%-0.22%, P = .47).

Variations in surgical technique can be measured by video review and are associated with differences in patient outcomes.

Development and Assessment of a Systematic Approach for Detecting Disparities in Surgical Access.

JAMA Surgery

Although optimal access is accepted as the key to quality care, an accepted methodology to ascertain potential disparities in surgical access has not been defined.

To develop a systematic approach to detect surgical access disparities.

This cross-sectional study used publicly available data from the Health Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Database from 2016. Using the surgical rate observed in the 5 highest-ranked counties (HRCs), the expected surgical rate in the 5 lowest-ranked counties (LRCs) in North Carolina were calculated. Patients 18 years and older who underwent an inpatient general surgery procedure and patients who underwent emergency inpatient cholecystectomy, herniorrhaphy, or bariatric surgery in 2016 were included. Data were collected from January to December 2016, and data were analyzed from March to July 2020.

Health outcome county rank as defined by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.

The primary outcome was the proportional surgical ratio (PSR), which was the disparity in surgical access defined as the observed number of surgical procedures in the 5 LRCs relative to the expected number of procedures using the 5 HRCs as the standardized reference population.

In 2016, approximately 1.9 million adults lived in the 5 HRCs, while approximately 246 854 lived in the 5 LRCs. A total of 28 924 inpatient general surgical procedures were performed, with 4521 being performed in those living in the 5 LRCs and 24 403 in those living in the 5 HRCs. The rate of general surgery in the 5 HRCs was 13.09 procedures per 1000 population. Using the 5 HRCs as the reference, the PSR for the 5 LRCs was 1.40 (95% CI, 1.35-1.44). For emergent/urgent cholecystectomy, the PSR for the 5 LRCs was 2.26 (95% CI, 2.02-2.51), and the PSR for emergent/urgent herniorrhaphy was 1.83 (95% CI, 1.33-2.45). Age-adjusted rate of obesity (body mass index [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared] greater than 30), on average, was 36.6% (SD, 3.4) in the 5 LRCs vs 25.4% (SD, 4.6) in the 5 HRCs (P = .002). The rate of bariatric surgery in the 5 HRCs was 33.07 per 10 000 population with obesity. For the 5 LRCs, the PSR was 0.60 (95% CI, 0.51-0.69).

The PSR is a systematic approach to define potential disparities in surgical access and should be useful for identifying, investigating, and monitoring interventions intended to mitigate disparities in surgical access that effects the health of vulnerable populations.

Practice Characteristics and Job Satisfaction of Private Practice and Academic Surgeons.

JAMA Surgery

Private practice and academic surgery careers vary significantly in their daily routine, compensation schemes, and definition of productivity. Data are needed regarding the practice characteristics and job satisfaction of these career paths for surgeons and trainees to make informed career decisions and to identify modifiable factors that may be associated with the health of the surgical workforce.

To obtain and compare the differences in practice characteristics and career satisfaction measures between academic and private practice surgeons.

In this cross-sectional survey performed from June 4 to August 1, 2018, an online survey accommodating smartphone, tablet, and desktop formats was distributed by email to 25 748 surgeons who were actively practicing fellows of the American College of Surgeons; had completed a general surgery residency or categorical fellowship in plastic, cardiothoracic, or vascular surgery; and had an active email address on file.

Demographic, training, and current practice characteristics were obtained, and satisfaction measures were measured on a 5-point Likert scale and compared by surgeon type. Nonresponse weights adjusted for respondent sex, age, and presence of subspecialty training between respondents and the total surveyed American College of Surgeons population.

There were 3807 responses (15% response rate) from surgeons: 1735 academic surgeons (1390 men [80%]; median age, 53 years [interquartile range (IQR), 44-61 years]) and 1464 private practice surgeons (1276 men [87%]; median age, 56 years [IQR, 48-62 years]); 589 surgeons who reported being neither an academic surgeon nor a private practice surgeon and 19 surgeons who did not respond to questions on their practice type were excluded. Academic surgeons reported working a median of 59 hours weekly (IQR, 38-65 hours) compared with 57 hours weekly (IQR, 45-65 hours) for private practice surgeons. Academic surgeons reported more weekly hours performing nonclinical work than did private practice surgeons (24 hours [IQR, 14-38 hours] vs 9 hours [IQR, 4-17 hours]; P < .001). Academic surgeons were more likely than private practice surgeons to be satisfied with their career as a surgeon (1448 of 1706 [85%] vs 1109 of 1420 [78%]; P < .001) and their financial compensation (997 of 1703 [59%] vs 546 of 1416 [39%]; P < .001). Academic surgeons were less likely than private practice surgeons to feel that competition with other surgeons is a threat to financial security (341 of 1705 [20%] vs 559 of 1422 [39%]; P < .001) and less likely to feel that malpractice experience has decreased job satisfaction (534 of 1703 [31%] vs 686 of 1413 [49%]; P < .001).

This study suggests that, although overall surgeon satisfaction was high, academic surgeons reported higher career satisfaction on several measures when compared with private practice surgeons. Advocacy for private practice surgeons is important to encourage career longevity and sustain US surgeon workforce needs.