The latest medical research on Occupational & Environmental Medicine

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about occupational & environmental medicine gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Physical activity interventions in early life aimed at reducing later risk of obesity and related non-communicable diseases: A rapid review of systematic reviews.

Obesity Reviews

To identify useful components of interventions aimed at prevention of childhood obesity and related non-communicable diseases (NCDs), which include...

Infant and young child feeding interventions targeting overweight and obesity: A narrative review.

Obesity Reviews

findings from systematic reviews into infant feeding and later adiposity are largely negative. World Health Organization (WHO) is auspicing Healthy...

Narrative review of reviews of preconception interventions to prevent an increased risk of obesity and non-communicable diseases in children.

Obesity Reviews

Evidence for the effect of preconception and periconceptional risk factors on childhood outcomes such as obesity and other non-communicable disease...

Nutrition-related interventions targeting childhood overweight and obesity: A narrative review.

Obesity Reviews

Systematic reviews of nutritional interventions indicate limited efficacy in reducing childhood obesity, but their blanket conclusions could obscur...

Healthy Life Trajectories Initiative: Summary of the evidence base for pregnancy-related interventions to prevent overweight and obesity in children.

Obesity Reviews

This overview of systematic reviews (SRs) aimed to identify dietary and lifestyle interventions in pregnant women that reduce the prevalence of ove...

Pregnancy after bariatric surgery: Consensus recommendations for periconception, antenatal and postnatal care.

Obesity Reviews

The objective of the study is to provide evidence-based guidance on nutritional management and optimal care for pregnancy after bariatric surgery. ...

Patient motivations and expectations prior to bariatric surgery: A qualitative systematic review.

Obesity Reviews

Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for weight loss in individuals with severe and complex obesity. While the extant literature has m...

Educational differences in duration of working life and loss of paid employment: working life expectancy in The Netherlands.

Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment

Objectives This study aims to provide insight into educational differences in duration of working life by working life expectancy (WLE) and working...

Organophosphate Pesticide Exposure in Pregnancy in Association with Ultrasound and Delivery Measures of Fetal Growth.

Environmental Health Perspectives

Perturbations in fetal growth may have adverse consequences for childhood and later life health. Organophosphate pesticide (OP) exposure has been associated with reduced birth weight at delivery but results are not consistent. We investigated this question by utilizing ultrasound measures of size in utero in combination with measures from delivery.

Within Generation R, a population-based prospective cohort conducted between 2002 and 2006 in Rotterdam, Netherlands, we measured dialkyl phosphates (DAPs), OP metabolites, in urine samples from early, middle, and late pregnancy and created a subject-specific average to estimate OP exposure ([Formula: see text]). Ultrasound measures of head circumference, femur length, and estimated fetal weight from middle and late pregnancy and delivery measures were converted to standard deviation scores (SDS). Associations with DAP average were examined in linear mixed effects models that included an interaction term between gestational age at measurement and DAP average to investigate whether the relationship differed over time. Windows of vulnerability to exposure were assessed by modeling urinary DAPs from each visit in relation to growth measurements.

A 10-fold increase in average DAPs was associated with a [Formula: see text] SDS decrease in fetal length (95% [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) and a [Formula: see text] SDS decrease in estimated fetal weight (95% [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) at 20 weeks of gestation. These differences corresponded to 5% and 6% decreases relative to the mean. Effect estimates were greatest in magnitude for DAP concentrations measured early in pregnancy. Associations between average DAPs and growth measures at delivery were positive but not significant for head circumference and length and were null for weight.

Maternal urinary DAPs were associated with decreased fetal weight and length measured during mid-pregnancy, but not at delivery. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4858.

Web-based decision aid tool for disclosure of a mental health condition in the workplace: a randomised controlled trial.

Occupational and Environmental Medicine

Making decisions about disclosing a mental illness in the workplace is complicated. Decision aid tools are designed to help an individual make a specific choice. We developed a web-based decision aid to help inform decisions about disclosure for employees. This study aimed to examine the efficacy of this tool.

We conducted a randomised controlled trial with recruitment, randomisation and data collection all online. Participants had access to the intervention for 2 weeks. Assessments occurred at baseline, postintervention and 6 weeks' follow-up. The primary outcome was decisional conflict. Secondary outcomes were stage and satisfaction of decision-making and mental health symptoms.

107 adult employees were randomised to READY (n=53) or the control (n=54). The sample was predominantly female (83.2%). Participants using READY showed greater reduction in decisional conflict at postintervention (F(1,104)=16.8, p<0.001) (d=0.49, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.9) and follow-up (F(1,104)=23.6, p<0.001) (d=0.61, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.9). At postintervention the READY group were at a later stage of decision-making (F(1,104)=6.9, p=0.010) which was sustained, and showed a greater reduction in depressive symptoms (F(1,104)=6.5, p=0.013). Twenty-eight per cent of READY users disclosed, and reported a greater improvement in mental health than those who did not disclose.

READY provides a confidential, flexible and effective tool to enhance employee's decision-making about disclosure. Its use led to a comparative improvement in depressive symptoms compared with the current information provided by a leading mental health non-governmental organisation, without apparent harm. READY seems worth evaluating in other settings and, if these results are replicated, scaling for wider use.

ACTRN12618000229279.

Role of asbestos clearance in explaining long-term risk of pleural and peritoneal cancer: a pooled analysis of cohort studies.

Occupational and Environmental Medicine

Models based on the multistage theory of cancer predict that rates of malignant mesothelioma continuously increase with time since first exposure (TSFE) to asbestos, even after the end of external exposure. However, recent epidemiological studies suggest that mesothelioma rates level off many years after first exposure to asbestos. A gradual clearance of asbestos from the lungs has been suggested as a possible explanation for this phenomenon. We analysed long-term trends of pleural and peritoneal cancer mortality in subjects exposed to asbestos to evaluate whether such trends were consistent with the clearance hypothesis.

We used data from a pool of 43 Italian asbestos cohorts (51 801 subjects). The role of asbestos clearance was explored using the traditional mesothelioma multistage model, generalised to include a term representing elimination of fibres over time.

Rates of pleural cancer increased until 40 years of TSFE, but remained stable thereafter. On the other hand, we observed a monotonic increase of peritoneal cancer with TSFE. The model taking into account asbestos clearance fitted the data better than the traditional one for pleural (p=0.004) but not for peritoneal (p=0.09) cancer.

Rates of pleural cancer do not increase indefinitely after the exposure to asbestos, but eventually reach a plateau. This trend is well described by a model accounting for a gradual elimination of the asbestos fibres. These results are relevant for the prediction of future rates of mesothelioma and in asbestos litigations.

Overall and cause-specific mortality in a cohort of farmers and their spouses.

Occupational and Environmental Medicine

Lower mortality rates compared with the general population have been reported for Agricultural Health Study (AHS) participants (enrolled 1993-1997) followed through 2007. We extended analysis of mortality among AHS participants (51 502 private pesticide applicators, their 31 867 spouses and 4677 commercial pesticide applicators from North Carolina and Iowa) through 2015 and compared results using several analytical approaches.

We calculated standardised mortality ratios (SMRs), causal mortality ratios (CMR) and relative SMRs (rSMR) using state-specific mortality rates of the general populations as the referent.

Over the average 16 years of follow-up (1999-2015), 9305 private applicators, 3384 spouses and 415 commercial applicators died. SMRs and CMRs, with expected deaths calculated using the person-time among the cohort and the general population, respectively, indicated lower overall mortality in all study subgroups (SMRs from 0.61 to 0.69 and CMRs from 0.74 to 0.89), although CMRs indicated elevated mortality in private applicators from North Carolina and in ever-smokers. In SMR analyses, there were fewer than expected deaths from many causes, but deaths from some external causes including transportation-related injuries and mechanical forces were elevated in private applicators. CMRs indicated higher than expected deaths from prostate cancer, lymphohaematopoietic cancers, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease, and chronic glomerulonephritis in private applicators, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in spouses (from 1.19 to 1.53). rSMR results were generally elevated, similar to CMR findings.

AHS participants experienced lower overall mortality than the general population.Mortality from a few specific causes was increased in private applicators, specifically when CMR and rSMR approaches were used.