The latest medical research on Skin Cancer

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about skin cancer gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Quantitative assessment and influence factors of facial wrinkle situation in male construction workers in Beijing.

Skin Cancer Research

To investigate current situation of facial wrinkles of male construction workers in Beijing area and to discuss the correlative factors.

A total of 149 male construction works and 63 male non-construction workers in Beijing were required to complete a questionnaire on their exposure to sunlight, dust, noise, and heat in their workplace environment. Their facial wrinkle scores were measured by VISIA Complexion Analysis System. The two-sample t test, chi-square test, and multiple linear regression were used for statistical analysis RESULTS: The exposure to sunlight, dust, noise, and heat of construction workers was significantly higher than that of non-construction workers (P < .01). The wrinkle score of construction workers between 20 and 29 years old was significantly higher than that of non-construction workers (t = 4.077, P < .01). The facial wrinkle score of construction workers(r = 0.657, P < .01) and non-construction workers (r = 0.681, P < .01) was both positively correlated with age. The wrinkle score of construction workers was related to age, sunlight, and noise(P < .01).

The wrinkle score of male construction workers between 20 and 29 years old is significantly higher than that of non-construction workers in Beijing. Age, sunlight, and noise were the main influencing factors of wrinkle.

A novel automated approach to rapid and precise in vivo measurement of hair morphometrics using a smartphone.

Skin Cancer Research

Although many hair disorders can be readily diagnosed based on their clinical appearance, their progression and response to treatment are often difficult to monitor, particularly in quantitative terms. We introduce an innovative technique utilizing a smartphone and computerized image analysis to expeditiously and automatically measure and compute hair density and diameter in patients in real time.

A smartphone equipped with a dermatoscope lens wirelessly transmits trichoscopy images to a computer for image processing. A black-and-white binary mask image representing hair and skin is produced, and the hairs are thinned into single-pixel-thick fiber skeletons. Further analysis based on these fibers allows morphometric characteristics such as hair shaft number and diameters to be computed rapidly. The hair-bearing scalps of fifty participants were imaged to assess the precision of our automated smartphone-based device in comparison with a specialized trichometry device for hair shaft density and diameter measurement. The precision and operation time of our technique relative to manual trichometry, which is commonly used by hair disorder specialists, is determined.

An equivalence test, based on two 1-sided t tests, demonstrates statistical equivalence in hair density and diameter values between this automated technique and manual trichometry within a 20% margin. On average, this technique actively required 24 seconds of the clinician's time whereas manual trichometry necessitated 9.2 minutes.

Automated smartphone-based trichometry is a rapid, precise, and clinically feasible technique which can significantly facilitate the assessment and monitoring of hair loss. Its use could be easily integrated into clinical practice to improve standard trichoscopy.

Evaluation of High-Efficiency Image Coding algorithm for dermatology images in teledermatology.

Skin Cancer Research

Currently, teledermatology assumes a progressively greater role in the modern healthcare system, especially in consultation, diagnosis, or examining lesions and skin cancers. One of the major challenges facing teledermatology systems is determining the optimal image compression method to efficiently reduce the space needed for electronic storage and data transmission.

To the objective and subjective assessment of HEIC compression method on dermatological color images and benchmarking the performance of High-Efficiency Image Coding (HEIC) with different algorithms to a feasibility study of the method for teledermatology.

Twenty-five clinical and five skin histopathology images were taken in department of dermatology, Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. For each image, a set of 24 compressed images with different compression rates, which is composed of eight JPEG, eight JPEG2000, and eight HEIC images, has been prepared. Compressed and original images were shown simultaneously to three dermatologists and one dermatopathologist with different experiences. Each dermatologist scored quality and suitability of compressed images for diagnostic, as well as educational/scientific purposes. An objective evaluation was performed by calculating the mean "distance" of pixel colors and peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR).

All compression rates for HEIC were objectively better than JPEG and JPEG2000, particularly at PSNR. Moreover, mean "color distance" per pixel for compressed images using HEIC was lower than others. The subjective image quality assessment also confirms the results of objective evaluation. In both educational and clinical diagnostic applications, HEIC compressed images have the highest score.

In consideration of objective and subjective evaluation, the HEIC algorithm represents an optimal performance in dermatology images compression compared with JPEG and JPEG2000.

In elderly Caucasian women, younger facial perceived age correlates with better forearm skin microcirculation reactivity.

Skin Cancer Research

Visual and molecular changes occurring upon aging are rather well characterized. Still, aging signs show great significant inter-individual variations, and little is known concerning the link between perceived age and cutaneous microcirculation.

To investigate this point, we recruited Caucasian women in their mid-50's to mid-70's and subsampled women looking older or younger than their age. We studied their facial skin color, as well as their microvascular reactivity to local heating assessed in the forearm skin. We also used skin biopsies from some of these women for gene expression or immunohistochemical analysis.

Clinical and instrumental analysis of skin color revealed that subjects who look 5 years younger differ only by a higher glowing complexion. Our most striking result is that subjects looking 5 years younger than their age present a higher microcirculation reactivity in forearm skin. Transcriptome comparison of skin samples from women looking older or younger than their age revealed 123 annotated transcripts differentially expressed, among which MYL9 relates to microcirculation. MYL9 is downregulated in the group of women looking younger than their real age. Microscopy shows that the labeling of MYL9 and CD31 are altered and heterogeneous with age, as is the morphology of microvessels.

Therefore, assessing generalized vascular reactivity in non-photo-exposed skin to focus on the intrinsic aging allows subtle discrimination of perceived age within elderly healthy subjects.

Evaluating the respective weights of some facial signs on the perceived radiance/glow in differently aged women of six countries.

Skin Cancer Research

To evaluate the impact of Facial radiance or Glow on the perception of age (PA) and to assess which facial signs most influence PA.

The faces of 1058 differently aged women (18-80 years) of six different ethnicities/countries (China, Japan, Korea, India, South Africa, and Brazil) were photographed under standard conditions. These allowed to focus on 20 different facial signs that were further graded by experts, using referential Atlases dedicated to facial aging. In each of the six countries, 100 local women were recruited as naïve panels to express their perceptions on Glow and Age on each full-face photograph (blind coded) of the local studied woman.

A decreased Glow/Radiance appears clearly associated with an increased perceived age in all studied subjects, especially among Chinese, Japanese, and South African women. With regard facial signs, Skin texture (Wrinkles of all kinds), Ptosis/Sagging, and Pigmentation signs prevail in almost all women at the exception of South African women where Pigmentation signs and Cheek skin pores largely predominate in the perception of both Glow and PA. Pigmentation signs are of a very high weight among Chinese and Japanese women.

Despite some collective agreements, the present study shows some specificities within the women of the six ethnicities/countries. PA, a core index of antiaging strategies, goes along with facial Glow in almost all studied women. The duller the facial skin, the older it is perceived.

Objective and quantitative measurement of skin micro-relief by image analysis and application in age-dependent changes.

Skin Cancer Research

Skin micro-relief has been researched by a variety of devices and methods, which usually are expensive or complicated. On the other hand, skin micro-relief relates to quite a few parameters, and it is hard to evaluate all of them at the same time. In the study, all parameters related to skin micro-relief are extracted and evaluated by image analysis.

Skin micro-relief evaluation was divided into four aspects: (a) Tamura features method was used to evaluate skin surface. (b) Morphological transform was applied to extract skin pores. (c) Watershed transform was applied to extract skin furrows. (d) labeling operation was used to evaluate the number, area and average area of skin closed polygons. Then, cheek images from 163 healthy Japanese females (0-70 years old) are analyzed to explore the age-dependent changes.

Most parameters increased as age went on with significant differences, such as skin surface coarseness, contrast, skin pore number, area, average area, skin furrow width, skin closed polygon area and skin closed polygon average area. Skin coarseness has a strong correlation with pore area.

The method proposed in the study provided a comprehensive and effective assessment of skin micro-relief.

Combining Raman imaging and MCR-ALS analysis for monitoring retinol permeation in human skin.

Skin Cancer Research

Monitoring the transcutaneous permeation of exogenous molecules using conventional techniques generally requires long pre-analytical preparation or labelling of samples. However, Raman spectroscopy is a label-free and non-destructive method which provides spatial distribution of tracked actives in skin. The aim of our study was to prove the interest of Raman imaging coupled with multivariate curve resolution alternating least square (MCR-ALS) analysis in monitoring retinol penetration into frozen and living human skin.

After topical treatment of skin samples by free or encapsulated retinol, thin cross sections were analysed by Raman imaging (up to 100 µm depth). Mann-Whitney test was used to identify retinol spectroscopic markers in skin. MCR-ALS was used to estimate retinol contribution in Raman spectral images. Heat maps were constructed to compare the distribution of free and encapsulated retinol in skin models.

We identified the bands at 1158, 1196 and 1591 cm-1 as specific features for monitoring retinol in skin. Moreover, our MCR-ALS results showed an improvement of retinol penetration (up to 30 µm depth) with the encapsulated form as well as storage reservoir formation in stratum corneum, for each skin model. Finally, greater retinol penetration into living skin was observed.

This study shows a proof of concept for the evaluation of retinol penetration in skin using Raman imaging coupled with MCR-ALS. This concept needs to be validated on more subjects to include inter-individual variability but also other factors affecting skin permeation (age, sex, pH, etc). Our study can be extended to other actives.

Anti-pollution effects of two antioxidants and a chelator-Ex vivo electron spin resonance and in vivo cigarette smoke model assessments in human skin.

Skin Cancer Research

Skin damage arising from pollutants in gaseous and particulate matter forms is mainly mediated by oxidative stress. The pollutants directly or indirectly generate free radicals on and in the skin, leading, for example, to MMP up-regulation and damage of collagen fibers. Antioxidants and chelators are used in anti-pollution cosmetics to reduce the harmful effects of free radical generation.

We investigated the efficacy of two antioxidants and one chelator in an anti-pollution cigarette smoke model. Free radical generation was measured directly after UV and cigarette smoke exposure ex vivo on pig skin (slaughterhouse waste), by use of Electron Spin Resonance (ESR). Effects of cigarette smoke were compared to those of Urban Dust (NIST-standard). ESR was also used to measure the copper chelation activity of the test products. Following cigarette smoke application in vivo, two markers of lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde (MDA), and squalene monohydroperoxide (SQOOH), were measured from swab solutions taken from the smoke-exposed skin sites.

EDTA generated no effect and the non-chelator antioxidant Tocopherol only small antioxidant effects after exposed to cigarette smoke ex vivo as well as in vivo. Only the hydrophilic phenylethanoid H1 showed significant effects. A clear reduction of free radicals ex vivo and further a significant reduction of in vivo lipid peroxide formation was measured.

The cigarette smoke model is an ideal method for in vivo assessment of anti-pollution efficacy of topical products with close relation to the real situation of subjects exposed to urban pollution. Further research is required to better understand the role of chelators in anti-pollution cosmetics.

Application of a novel finger temperature device in the assessment of subjects with Raynaud's phenomenon.

Skin Cancer Research

Finger skin thermometry is one of the most commonly used methods for evaluating the response of the digital vessels to cold stimulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of a novel finger skin temperature device for performing cold-stimulation test (CST) in subjects with primary and secondary Raynaud's phenomenon (RP).

A total of 155 consecutive subjects were studied. They were divided into three groups: 73 patients with primary RP (8 males, 65 females, mean age 38.5 ± 16.2), 42 patients with secondary RP (4 males, 38 females, mean age 49.6 ± 13.1, connected with lupus erythematosus and systemic scleroderma), and 40 healthy controls (5 males, 35 females, mean age 38.8 ± 16.6). Standardized CST consisting of exposure of both hands to water with a temperature of 10℃ for 5 minutes was performed. Changes in skin temperature of both wrists and 2-5 fingers were measured using a novel finger temperature device (Courage & Khazaka). Measurements were made before and 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes after cold stimulation. The time of recovery for baseline temperature of all fingers below 15 minutes was considered normal.

The CST was normal in 6 (8.2%) of the patients with primary RP, in 7 (16.6%) of the patients with secondary RP, and in 28 (70%) of the healthy control subjects. The time of complete recovery of baseline temperature with respect to the first finger and for all 2-5 fingers in the three groups was as follows: 24.8 and 28.5 minutes (primary RP), 21.7 and 26.8 minutes (secondary RP), and 11.1 and 15.2 minutes (healthy subjects). Furthermore, the microcirculation was seriously disturbed (rewarming time >31 minutes of all 2-5 digits of both hands) in 54.1% (n = 79), 34.5% (n = 29) and 5% (n = 4) in the same study groups.

The new finger temperature device used could be considered useful for performing cold-stimulation test in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon.

Validation of the elastic angle for quantitative and visible evaluation of skin elasticity in vivo.

Skin Cancer Research

Reduction in skin elasticity due to aging causes skin sagging and wrinkles. Although there are various objective and reliable techniques for measuring skin elasticity, it is difficult to obtain a visual representation of skin elasticity with them. Therefore, we developed a novel device, the Swing anglemeter, and analyzed its effectiveness for measuring skin elasticity of the cheek.

Forty-five healthy Korean women (age, 23-60 years) participated. The Swing anglemeter works by dropping a rubber ball on a subject's cheek, which draws a curve as it collides with the cheek. After recording the movement of the ball using the slow-motion function on a mobile phone, we defined the maximum angle at which the ball bounces off the skin as the elastic angle, using frame-by-frame video analysis. Changes in the elastic angle were assessed according to age, and correlation with the Ballistometer® results (Dia-stron Ltd., Andover, UK) was analyzed for validation.

Elastic angles differed significantly (P < .001) according to age. A negative correlation was found between the elastic angle and age (r = -.799, P < .001). Compared with the Ballistometer® measurements, the elastic angle was negatively correlated with alpha (r = -.570, P < .001); it was positively correlated with the mean coefficient of restitution and area (r = .602, P < .001 and r = .535, P < .001, respectively).

The elastic angle is a useful parameter for reflecting skin elasticity, both quantitatively and visually. Our method can help subjects understand their skin elasticity status. Therefore, we expect the device will be utilized in various fields within the cosmetic industry.

Layering sunscreen with facial makeup enhances its sun protection factor under real-use conditions.

Skin Cancer Research

The proper application of sunscreen is important to ensure protection of the skin against ultraviolet (UV) damage. Sunscreens are used in various ways in real world situations, which alters their UV protection efficacy. In this study, we simulated typical consumer use of sunscreen, which is often sequentially covered with facial makeup, in a laboratory study.

We compared the sun protection factors (SPF) of sunscreen and makeup products after consecutive layering of the products.

The SPF of each sunscreen and makeup product was dramatically lower than stated on the label upon application of a typical amount used by a consumer, which is lower than recommended. For high-SPF products, the drop in effective protection was proportionally greater than those for the low-SPF products upon application of lower doses. However, layering sunscreen and makeup products greatly increased the effective SPF compared with that achieved by single application of each product, even when the amount of each product used was below the recommended level.

Layering sunscreen with makeup may compensate for insufficient sunscreen application in real-life conditions by providing an additional source of UV protection and improving the homogeneity of coverage. Our results suggest that recommending consecutive application of sunscreen and makeup products may be a practical and useful approach to improving UV protection that would not require additional steps in the facial care routines of many individuals.

A novel UV-fluorescence approach to assess the long wear efficacy of foundations.

Skin Cancer Research

The long wear properties of foundations are regarded as a must-have in terms of claims. Here, we propose an instrumental approach based on UV-fluorescence imaging as an alternative to clinical grading methods.

A method was developed, with UV-fluorescence images captured with the Visia CR as a first step, followed by images analysis using Image-Pro plus. Repeated-measures correlation was used to assess the degree of association between the UV-fluorescence method and a grading method when removing the foundation incrementally from the skin using wipes. Thresholds to ascertain whether a foundation pass or fail long-wearing using the newly developed method were established using a mixed linear model and cross-validated using two subsets of a panel of 20 women.

The method could measure incremental removal of foundation using wipes, in a similar fashion to a grading method, as outlined with repeated measures correlation (r = -.86). Pass/fail thresholds established with the mixed linear model were tested versus the grading method when assessing a foundation under real conditions for a duration over 24 hours, with minimal discrepancies between the two methods.

By capitalising on foundation physical/chemical properties, the proposed method allows to assess their long wear properties, irrespective of basal skin tone or foundation shade. It offers the advantage of appealing visuals for efficacy and to be less resource intensive than a clinical grading approach.