The latest medical research on Skin Cancer

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about skin cancer gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Comparisons between eyebags, droopy eyelids, and eyebrow positioning identified by photo-numeric scales or identified by written descriptive scales: Insights from the Singapore/Malaysia cross-sectional genetics epidemiology study (SMCGES) cohort.

Skin Cancer Research

We evaluate skin sagging phenotypes (eyebags, droopy eyelids, low eyebrow positioning) using written descriptive scales and photo-numeric scales. We also study how anti-ageing interventions and digital screen time influence skin sagging.

We compare the two phenotype assessment methods with each other.

Skin sagging and personal lifestyle data obtained from 2885 ethnic Chinese young adults from the Singapore/Malaysia cross-sectional genetics epidemiology study (SMCGES) cohort were collated and compared.

Significant correlations (p-value < 0.001) between written descriptive scales and photo-numeric scales were observed for eyebags (0.25) and eyebrow positioning (0.08). Significant correlations (p-value < 0.001) were observed after combining both scales for eyebags (0.38), droopy eyelids (0.30), and eyebrow positioning (0.30). Anti-ageing interventions are associated with delayed progression of eyebags from 18-45 years old, droopy eyelids from 31-45 years old, and eyebrow positioning from 35-40 years old. Significantly lower (p-value < 0.02) eyebrow positioning is associated with both <1 and 1-3 h of screen time stratified by age.

Written descriptive scales provide comparable results to photo-numeric scales. However, validating and adapting photo-numeric scales for different populations identifies phenotypes better. Anti-ageing interventions are beneficial at different age ranges. Screen time is associated with skin sagging in young (18-30 years old) participants.

No causal association between atopic dermatitis and COVID-19 outcomes: A Mendelian randomization study.

Skin Cancer Research

Frequent hand washing and disinfection during the corona virus disease (COVID-19) pandemic may lead to skin-related disability. The causal relationship between atopic dermatitis (AD), the most common chronic, noninfectious, inflammatory skin disease, and COVID-19 remains unclear. We used Mendelian randomization (MR) to explore the causal inference of atopic dermatitis with COVID-19 outcomes.

Genome-wide association study (GWAS) data for AD, consisting of 8383 cases and 236,162 controls of European ethnicity, were provided by the FinnGen database. The GWAS outcome data were derived from the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative and consisted of COVID-19 susceptibility (122,616 cases and 2,475,240 controls), hospitalization (32,519 cases and 2,062,805 controls), and very severe respiratory disease (13,769 cases and 1,072,442 controls). The inverse variance weighted with a fixed effects model (IVW (fe)) was used as the main statistical approach to assess the causality between AD and COVID-19 in this study. Several other analytical methods have also been used to complement or identify pleiotropy and heterogeneity.

MR analysis showed no causality between AD and COVID-19 outcomes. The odds ratios (OR) were 1.00 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.99-1.02) for susceptibility, 1.00 (95% CI, 0.96-1.04) for hospitalization, 0.97 (95% CI, 0.92-1.03) for very severe respiratory disease by the method of IVW (fe).

In conclusion, we found no causal relationship between AD and COVID-19 outcomes. This study provides additional ideas for the exploration of the risk factors for COVID-19.

Brilaroxazine lipogel displays antipsoriatic activity in imiquimod-induced mouse model.

Skin Cancer Research

Dopamine (D) and serotonin (5-HT) pathways contribute to psoriasis pathobiology. Disruptions incite increased inflammatory mediators, keratinocyte activation and deterioration, and worsening symptoms. Brilaroxazine (RP5063), which displays potent high binding affinity to D2/3/4 and 5-HT1A/2A/2B/7 receptors and a moderate affinity to serotonin transporter (SERT), may affect the underlying psoriasis pathology.

An imiquimod-induced psoriatic mouse model (BALB/c) evaluated brilaroxazine's activity in a topical liposomal-aqueous gel (Lipogel) formulation. Two of the three groups (n = 6 per) underwent induction with 5% imiquimod, and one group received topical brilaroxazine Lipogel (Days 1-11). Assessments included (1) Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) scores (Days 1-12), skin histology for Baker score based on H&E stained tissue (Day 12), and serum blood collection for serum cytokine analysis (Day 12). One-way ANOVA followed by post hoc Dunnett's t-test evaluated significance (p < 0.05).

Imiquimod-induced animal Baker scores were higher versus Sham non-induced control's results (p < 0.001). Brilaroxazine Lipogel had significantly (p = 0.003) lower Baker scores versus the induced Psoriasis group. Brilaroxazine PASI scores were lower (p = 0.03) versus the induced Psoriasis group (Days 3-12), with the greatest effect in the last 3 days. The induced Psoriasis group showed higher Ki-67 and TGF-β levels versus non-induced Sham controls (p = 0.001). The brilaroxazine Lipogel group displayed lower levels of these cytokines versus the induced Psoriasis group, Ki-67 (p = 0.001) and TGF-β (p = 0.008), and no difference in TNF-α levels versus Sham non-induced controls.

Brilaroxazine Lipogel displayed significant activity in imiquimod-induced psoriatic animals, offering a novel therapeutic strategy.

Evaluation of a compounding phospholipid base for the percutaneous absorption of high molecular weight drugs using the Franz finite dose model.

Skin Cancer Research

Permeation-enhancing compounding bases are aimed to facilitate the penetration of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) across the skin barrier.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the percutaneous absorption of radiolabeled human insulin (14 C-isototpe) when incorporated in a proprietary phospholipid base designed to deliver APIs with high molecular weights (HMW). The aim was not to claim the transdermal delivery of insulin with potential therapeutic applications in diabetes but, instead, to evaluate the ability of the compounding phospholipid base to deliver HMW drugs.

The percutaneous absorption of 14 C-insulin was determined using human torso skin and the Franz skin finite dose model. Two topical test formulations were prepared for in vitro evaluation: insulin 1% in phospholipid base (standard) and insulin 1% in phospholipid base HMW. The rate of percutaneous absorption (mean flux) and the distribution of 14 C-insulin through the skin were evaluated for both topical test formulations. A two-way ANOVA was used to determine statistical differences.

The 14 C-insulin was distributed into the stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis. Mean flux values showed a rapid penetration upon application and the maximum flux was achieved at 30 min, followed by a slow decline. Subsequently, a slower decline was observed for the topical test formulation including the phospholipid base HMW.

The phospholipid base HMW facilitates the percutaneous absorption of HMW drugs across human cadaver skin and, therefore, it may potentially be a useful option for compounding pharmacists and practitioners when considering the skin for the percutaneous delivery of large drugs.

Evidence for the gut-skin axis: Common genetic structures in inflammatory bowel disease and psoriasis.

Skin Cancer Research

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and psoriasis (Ps) are common immune-mediated diseases that exhibit clinical comorbidity, possibly due to a common genetic structure. However, the exact mechanism remains unknown.

The study population consisted of IBD and Ps genome-wide association study (GWAS) data. Genetic correlations were first evaluated. Then, the overall evaluation employed LD score regression (LDSC), while the local assessment utilized heritability estimation from summary statistics (HESS). Causality assessment was conducted through two-sample Mendelian randomization (2SMR), and genetic overlap analysis utilized the conditional false discovery rate/conjunctional FDR (cond/conjFDR) method. Finally, LDSC applied to specifically expressed genes (LDSC-SEG) was performed at the tissue level. For IBD and Ps-specific expressed genes, genetic correlation, causality, shared genetics, and trait-specific associated tissues were methodically examined.

At the genomic level, both overall and local genetic correlations were found between IBD and Ps. MR analysis indicated a positive causal relationship between Ps and IBD. The conjFDR analysis with a threshold of < 0.01 identified 43 loci shared between IBD and Ps. Subsequent investigations into disease-associated tissues indicated a close association of IBD and Ps with whole blood, lung, spleen, and EBV-transformed lymphocytes.

The current research offers a novel perspective on the association between IBD and Ps. It contributes to an enhanced comprehension of the genetic structure and mechanisms of comorbidities in both diseases.

Observing the clinical efficacy of combined serum microneedle therapy for moderate to severe androgenetic alopecia in scalp repair.

Skin Cancer Research

In this study, the safety and efficacy of scalp repair serum microneedles combined with oral drug administration and topical medication were investigated for the treatment of moderate to severe androgenetic alopecia.

Twenty patients, consisting of 4 males and 16 females, who sought treatment for moderate to severe androgenetic alopecia at our hair medicine research center alopecia specialty clinic between August and December 2022 were randomly selected for the study. Male patients underwent oral administration of finasteride topical application of 5% minoxidil, and biweekly scalp repair serum microneedle therapy. Female patients were administered spironolactone or Diane-35 orally and applied 2% minoxidil topically, paired with biweekly scalp repair serum microneedle therapy sessions. After seven treatments, the scalp repair serum microneedle was discontinued, but oral administration and topical applications were continued, followed by a 1-month follow-up. Using a hair dermoscopy, hair follicles in a fixed region on the top of the head were manually counted per unit area to evaluate the hair restoration status of the patients quantitatively.

All 20 patients completed 3 months of combined therapy and a 1-month follow-up. On average, the patients experienced an increase of 42.6 hairs, with an efficiency rate of 100%. Significant differences were observed in hair count between any two of the first seven treatments (p < 0.001). A significant negative correlation was discovered between the initial pre-treatment hair count and the total improvement of hair (p < 0.001), indicating that the greater the degree of hair loss before treatment, the more pronounced the improvement.

Scalp repair serum microneedle combined therapy in moderate to severe androgenetic alopecia significantly reduces the number of microneedle treatments required, enhances treatment efficacy, and improves therapeutic outcomes.

Predicting the evolution of clinical skin aging in a multi-ethnic population: Developing causal Bayesian networks using dermatological expertise.

Skin Cancer Research

Software to predict the impact of aging on physical appearance is increasingly popular. But it does not consider the complex interplay of factors that contribute to skin aging.

To predict the +15-year progression of clinical signs of skin aging by developing Causal Bayesian Belief Networks (CBBNs) using expert knowledge from dermatologists.

Structures and conditional probability distributions were elicited worldwide from dermatologists with experience of at least 15 years in aesthetics. CBBN models were built for all phototypes and for ages ranging from 18 to 65 years, focusing on wrinkles, pigmentary heterogeneity and facial ptosis. Models were also evaluated by a group of independent dermatologists ensuring the quality of prediction of the cumulative effects of extrinsic and intrinsic skin aging factors, especially the distribution of scores for clinical signs 15 years after the initial assessment.

For easiness, only models on African skins are presented in this paper. The forehead wrinkle evolution model has been detailed. Specific atlas and extrinsic factors of facial aging were used for this skin type. But the prediction method has been validated for all phototypes, and for all clinical signs of facial aging.

This method proposes a skin aging model that predicts the aging process for each clinical sign, considering endogenous and exogenous factors. It simulates aging curves according to lifestyle. It can be used as a preventive tool and could be coupled with a generative AI algorithm to visualize aging and, potentially, other skin conditions, using appropriate images.

Livin expression promotes keratinocyte release of inflammatory mediators in psoriasis.

Skin Cancer Research

Psoriasis is a prevalent, long-term skin condition characterized by inflammation. Keratinocytes (KCs) are important effector cells that release inflammatory factors and chemokines to promote the inflammatory cascade in psoriasis. However, the mechanisms underlying the activation of KCs in psoriasis remain unclear. Livin suppresses apoptotic proteins and directly affects the growth and spread of cancer cells. Livin expression reportedly increases significantly in lesions of patients with psoriasis; however, its specific role in KC activation remains unknown. This study aimed to examine the impact of Livin on KC activation and the subsequent release of inflammatory mediators.

Immunofluorescence staining, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and western blotting were used to assess Livin expression in patients with psoriasis, an imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like mouse model, and M5-treated HaCaT cells. To investigate the role of Livin in KCs, we performed RNA sequencing and proteomic analysis of Livin-knockdown (knockdown-HaCaT) and negative control (NC-HaCaT) cells. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes were used for enrichment analyses. Moreover, the effect of Livin expression on the release of inflammatory mediators in KCs was verified using ELISA.

Livin expression was higher in KCs of patients with psoriasis than in those healthy controls. Livin expression in HaCaT cells treated with M5 increased significantly over time. Livin expression was higher in the skin lesions of the IMQ mouse model than in the control group. Proteomic analysis and RNA sequencing used to investigate the function of Livin in HaCaT cells revealed its potential role in mediating KC activation and inflammatory mediator release, which affected the pathology of psoriasis.

Livin expression played an effect on KCs activation, which induced release of inflammatory mediators and up-regulation of keratin. This study provides a new effector molecule for the mechanism of inflammatory response in psoriasis.

Clinical efficacy of CO2 fractional laser in treating post-burn hypertrophic scars in children: A meta-analysis: CO2 fractional laser in treating post-burn hypertrophic scars in children.

Skin Cancer Research

To evaluate and explore the efficacy of CO2 fractional laser in treating post-burn hypertrophic scars in children through Meta-analysis.

English databases (PubMed, Web of Science and The National Library of Medicine), as well as Chinese databases (China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang Data) were searched. RevMan 5.3 software was used to data analysis.

A total of 10 pieces of literature were included, involving 413 children. Meta-analysis showed that: (1) The average Vancouver Scar Scale after surgery was significantly lower than that before surgery [weight mean difference (WMD) = -3.56, 95% confidence interval (CI):-4.53,-2.58, p < 0.001]; (2) After CO2 fractional laser, pigmentation [WMD = -0.74, 95% CI:-1.10,-0.38, p < 0.001], pliability [WMD = -0.92, 95% CI:-1.20,-0.65, p < 0.001], vascularity [WMD = -0.77, 95% CI:-1.09,-0.46, p < 0.001], height [WMD = -0.57, 95% CI:-0.95,-0.19, p < 0.001] were improved compared with those before surgery. (3) The average Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) after surgery was significantly lower than that before surgery [WMD = -3.94, 95% CI:-5.69,-2.22, p < 0.001]. (4) Both Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS)-Observer [WMD = -3.98, 95% CI:-8.44,0.47, p < 0.001] and POSAS-Patient [WMD = -4.98, 95% CI:-8.09,-1.87, p < 0.001] were significantly lower than those before surgery. (5) Erythema and vesicles were the most common complications after CO2 fractional laser therapy, with an incidence of 4.09%.

CO2 fractional laser is beneficial to the recovery of hypertrophic scar after burn in children, and can effectively improve the scar symptoms and signs in children, with desirable clinical efficacy.

Transcriptome analysis of frontal fibrosis alopecia revealed involvement of immune cells and ferroptosis.

Skin Cancer Research

Frontal fibrosis alopecia (FFA) is a primary cicatricial alopecia and has received increasing attention in recent years. However, the pathogenesis of FFA has not been fully elucidated.

Herein, we collected the transcriptome data of scalp lesions of seven patients with FFA and seven healthy controls. The differential expression analysis and weighted gene co-expression network analysis were conducted and we identified 458 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in two key modules. Later, we performed functional enrichment analysis and functional modules identification, revealing the participation of immune response and fatty acid metabolism. Based on the results, we processed further studies. On the one hand, we analyzed the infiltrating immune cells of FFA through CIBERSORT algorithm, indicating the activation of M1 macrophage and CD8+ T cell. On the other hand, considering lipid metabolism of FFA and oxidative stress of hair follicle cells in alopecia, we explored the potential ferroptosis of FFA. By intersection of DEGs and ferroptosis-related genes from FerrDb database, 19 genes were identified and their expression was validated in an external dataset containing 36 FFA cases and 12 controls. Then, we used LASSO algorithms to construct a four-gene diagnostic model, which achieved an AUC of 0.924 in validation dataset. Additionally, the immune cells were found to be related to ferroptosis in FFA.

Taken together, this study contributed to reveal the molecular mechanisms of FFA and is expected to inspire future research on treatment.

Identification of potential crucial genes shared in psoriasis and ulcerative colitis by machine learning and integrated bioinformatics.

Skin Cancer Research

Mounting evidence suggest that there are an association between psoriasis and ulcerative colitis (UC), although the common pathogeneses are not fully understood. Our study aimed to find potential crucial genes in psoriasis and UC through machine learning and integrated bioinformatics.

The overlapping differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of the datasets GSE13355 and GSE87466 were identified. Then the functional enrichment analysis was performed. The overlapping genes in LASSO, SVM-RFE and key module in WGCNA were considered as potential crucial genes. The receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was used to estimate their diagnostic confidence. The CIBERSORT was conducted to evaluate immune cell infiltration. Finally, the datasets GSE30999 and GSE107499 were retrieved to validate.

112 overlapping DEGs were identified in psoriasis and UC and the functional enrichment analysis revealed they were closely related to the inflammatory and immune response. Eight genes, including S100A9, PI3, KYNU, WNT5A, SERPINB3, CHI3L2, ARNTL2, and SLAMF7, were ultimately identified as potential crucial genes. ROC curves showed they all had high confidence in the test and validation datasets. CIBERSORT analysis indicated there was a correlation between infiltrating immune cells and potential crucial genes.

In our study, we focused on the comprehensive understanding of pathogeneses in psoriasis and UC. The identification of eight potential crucial genes may contribute to not only understanding the common mechanism, but also identifying occult UC in psoriasis patients, even serving as therapeutic targets in the future.

Modern techniques in addressing facial acne scars: A thorough analysis.

Skin Cancer Research

Facial acne scars are a prevalent concern, leading to the development of various treatment modalities.

This review aims to explore the latest advancements in the treatment of facial acne scars, focusing on both surgical and non-surgical methods.

The non-surgical treatments reviewed include topical medications (such as retinoids and alpha hydroxy acids) and non-invasive procedures (like microdermabrasion and chemical peels). Surgical options discussed are punch excision, subcision, and fractional laser treatments.

Combination therapy, integrating both surgical and non-surgical approaches, is frequently utilized to achieve optimal results in scar improvement.

Recent advancements in the treatment of facial acne scars provide promising options for individuals seeking improvement. However, these treatments have associated risks and potential adverse effects, highlighting the importance of consulting a dermatologist before beginning any treatment regimen.