The latest medical research on Skin Cancer

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about skin cancer gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Mendelian randomization analysis of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis associated with risks of ulcerative colitis.

Skin Cancer Research

This study is designed to explore the potential causal relationship between psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) while investigating the genetic basis shared by these inflammatory diseases.

Significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with UC, psoriasis, and PsA were selected as genetic instrumental variables using Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) datasets. Additionally, Mendelian randomization (MR) methods, including inverse-variance weighting (IVW), MR-Egger regression, and Weighted Median (WME), were utilized to evaluate the causal relationships between these diseases. Moreover, sensitivity analysis and heterogeneity testing were conducted to validate the stability of the results.

A total of 123 significant SNPs associated with psoriasis, PsA, and UC were identified as genetic instrumental variables based on GWAS datasets. The analysis revealed a 36% increased risk of UC with psoriasis (odds ratio [OR] = 1.350, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.065-1.729, P = 0.012) and a 32.9% increased risk of UC with PsA (OR = 1.329, 95% CI = 1.176-1.592, P < 0.001). Further analysis showed a 43.5% increased risk of psoriasis with UC (OR = 1.435, 95% CI = 1.274-1.831, P < 0.001) and a 45.8% increased risk of PsA with UC (OR = 1.458, 95% CI = 1.166-1.822, P = 0.0013). In addition, sensitivity analysis and heterogeneity testing demonstrated the high stability of these results. Particularly, neither MR-Egger regression analysis nor leave-one-out analysis revealed significant heterogeneity or pleiotropy bias, indicating the reliability of these causal estimates. Moreover, the use of the MR-PRESSO further confirmed the positive correlation between psoriasis and UC, and the corrected estimates remained consistent with IVW analysis results after excluding potential outlier SNPs, enhancing the credibility of the analysis.

This study strengthens the understanding of the genetic and causal relationships among UC, psoriasis, and PsA through GWAS and MR methods, revealing the genetic basis they may share. These findings not only provide a novel perspective on the comorbidity mechanisms of these diseases but also offer a valuable reference for the development of future treatment strategies and intervention measures.

Diabetes, glycemic profile and risk of vitiligo: A Mendelian randomization study.

Skin Cancer Research

Previous observational studies have shown that vitiligo usually co-manifests with a variety of dysglycemic diseases, such as Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis was performed to further evaluate the causal association between fasting plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), T1DM, T2DM and vitiligo.

We used aggregated genome-wide association data from the Integrative Epidemiology Unit (IEU) online database of European adults vitiligo; HbA1c data were from IEU. Fasting blood glucose data were obtained from the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI). T1DM and T2DM data were from FinnGen. We used bidirectional two-sample and multivariate MR analyses to test whether dysglycemic measures (fasting blood glucose, HbA1c), diabetes-related measures (T1DM, T2DM) are causatively associated with vitiligo. Inverse variance weighting (IVW) method was used as the main test method, MR-Egger, Weighted mode and Weighted median were used as supplementary methods.

We found no statistically significant evidence to support a causal association between dysglycemic traits and vitiligo, but in the correlation analysis of diabetic traits, our data supported a positive causal association between T1DM and vitiligo (p = 0.018). In the follow-up multivariate MR analysis, our results still supported this conclusion (p = 0.016), and suggested that HbA1c was not a mediator of T1DM affecting the pathogenesis of vitiligo. No reverse causality was found in any of the reverse MR Analyses of dysglycemic traits and diabetic traits.

Our findings support that T1DM is a risk factor for the development of vitiligo, and this conclusion may explain why the co-presentation of T1DM and vitiligo is often seen in observational studies. Clinical use of measures related to T1DM may be a new idea for the prevention or treatment of vitiligo.

LncRNA NEAT1 targets miR-125/ADAM9 mediated NF-κB pathway in inflammatory response of rosacea.

Skin Cancer Research

To investigate the role of NEAT1 targeted regulation of miR-125/ADAM9 mediated NF-κB pathway in inflammatory response in rosacea.

HaCaT cell rosacea phenotype was induced by LL37. The connection targeted by NEAT1 and miR-125a-5p was confirmed by Double-Luciferase report analysis. qPCR was employed to assess the levels of expression for NEAT1, miR-125a-5p, and ADAM9 genes. The levels of expression for ADAM9/TLR2/NF-κB P65 pathway proteins in each batch of cells were determined by Western blotting. The levels of expression for inflammatory factors, including TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-18, were measured through ELISA experimentation.

LL37 could successfully induce HaCaT cells to exhibit rosacea phenotype. The luciferase report experiment confirmed that NEAT1 could target and bind miR-125a-5p and inhibit its expression. ADAM9 exhibited increased expression in LL37-induced HaCaT cells, showing a positive association with NEAT1 expression and inverse relationship with miR-125a-5p activation. LL37 treatment promoted the expression of ADAM9/TLR2/NF-κB P65 pathway proteins. Silencing ADAM9 can inhibit the inflammatory signaling pathway and reduce the level of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-18 in HaCaT cells.

NEAT1 can suppress the production of miR-125a-5p and activate the TLR2/NF-κB inflammatory pathway mediated by ADAM9, thereby promoting the inflammatory response in rosacea.

Omnivore and vegetarians show similar body composition and skin physiology across body regions-A comparative analysis.

Skin Cancer Research

Skin physiology seems to be influenced by dietary choices and body composition, although links between these factors remain poorly characterised. In the present manuscript, we elaborate on the potential relationships among food groups, body composition and skin physiology in omnivores and vegetarians.

This cross-sectional observational study involved 181 participants, 129 omnivores and 52 vegetarians. The main functions of the skin measured in our laboratory were transepidermal water loss, deep and superficial epidermal hydration, skin elasticity, and carotenoid content. Skin variables obtained from different body regions were made comparable by a new Proportional Skin Index calculated to respect their relative representativity.

No statistical differences were found when comparing both groups' body composition and skin variables from different body regions, with the exception of the skin carotenoid content significantly higher in the vegetarian group (p < 0.001).

Although dietary patterns significantly differed between groups, with vegetarians consuming fewer animal-derived products and more plant-based foods, multiple linear regression analysis revealed no differences or association between the dietary pattern and the skin physiology. These findings highlight the need for further research to elucidate the specific impact of diet and food groups and body composition on skin physiology.

Cold atmospheric plasma therapy for Malassezia folliculitis: Laboratory investigations and a randomized clinical trial.

Skin Cancer Research

Current treatment options for Malassezia folliculitis (MF) are limited. Recent research has demonstrated the inhibitory effect of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) on the growth of Malassezia pachydermatis in vitro, suggesting CAP as a potential therapeutic approach for managing MF.

The objective of our study is to assess the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of Malassezia yeasts to CAP. Additionally, we aim to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of CAP in treating patients with MF.

We initially studied the antifungal effect of CAP on planktonic and biofilm forms of Malassezia yeasts, using well-established techniques such as zone of inhibition, transmission electron microscopy, colony count assay and 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide salt assay. Subsequently, a randomized (1:1 ratio), active comparator-controlled, observer-blind study was conducted comparing daily CAP therapy versus itraconazole 200 mg/day for 2 weeks in 50 patients with MF. Efficacy outcomes were measured by success rate, negative microscopy rate and changes in Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale (GAIS) scores. Safety was assessed by monitoring adverse events (AEs) and local tolerability.

In laboratory investigations, CAP time-dependently inhibited the growth of Malassezia yeasts in both planktonic and biofilm forms. Forty-nine patients completed the clinical study. At week 2, success was achieved by 40.0% of subjects in the CAP group versus 58.3% in the itraconazole group (p = 0.199). The negative direct microscopy rates of follicular samples were 56.0% in the CAP group versus 66.7% in the itraconazole group (p = 0.444). No significant differences were found in the proportion of subjects achieving DLQI scores of 0/1 (p = 0.456) or in the GAIS responder rates (p = 0.588) between the two groups. Three patients in the CAP group and one patient in the itraconazole group reported mild AEs.

CAP demonstrated significant antifungal activity against Malassezia yeasts in vitro and exhibited comparable efficacy to itraconazole in treating MF patients. Without the associated adverse effects of oral antifungal drugs, CAP can be considered a promising and safe treatment modality for MF.

A smartphone application for personalized facial aesthetic monitoring.

Skin Cancer Research

Methods available at home for capturing facial images to track changes in skin quality and evaluate skincare treatments are limited. In this study, we developed a smartphone camera application (app) for personalized facial aesthetic monitoring.

A face alignment indicators (FAIN) system utilizing facial landmark detection, an artificial intelligence technique, to estimate key facial parts, was implemented into the app to maintain a consistent facial appearance during image capture. The FAIN system is composed of a fixed target indicator and an alignment indicator that dynamically changes its shape according to the user's face position, size, and orientation. Users align their faces to match the alignment indicator with the fixed target indicator, and the image is automatically captured when alignment is achieved.

We investigated the app's effectiveness in ensuring a consistent facial appearance by analyzing both geometric and colorimetric data. Geometric information from captured faces and colorimetric data from stickers applied to the faces were utilized. The coefficients of variation (CVs) for the L*, a*, and b* values of the stickers were higher compared to those measured by a colorimeter, with CVs of 14.9 times, 8.14 times, and 4.41 times for L*, a*, and b*, respectively. To assess the feasibility of the app for facial aesthetic monitoring, we tracked changes in pseudo-skin color on the cheek of a participant using skin-colored stickers. As a result, we observed the smallest color difference ∆Eab of 1.901, which can be considered as the experimentally validated detection limit using images acquired by the app.

While the current monitoring method is a relative quantification approach, it contributes to evidence-based evaluations of skincare treatments.

Prinsepia utilis Royle polysaccharides promote skin barrier repair through the Claudin family.

Skin Cancer Research

Plant polysaccharides have various biological activities. However, few studies have been conducted on the skin barrier of Prinsepia utilis Royle polysaccharide extract (PURP).

The proportions of polysaccharides, monosaccharides and proteins were determined by extracting polysaccharides from fruit meal using water. The healing rate was measured by cell scratch assays. SDS-damaged reconstructed human epidermal models, an acetone-ether-induced mouse model and an IL-4-induced cellular inflammation model were used to detect the effects of polysaccharides on the phenotype, HA, TEWL, and TEER, with further characterizations performed using QRT-PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence (IF) assays.

PURP contained 35.73% polysaccharides and 11.1% proteins. PURP promoted cell migration and increased skin thickness in a reconstructed human epidermis model. The TEWL significantly decreased, and the HA content significantly increased. PURP significantly increased the TEER and decreased the permeability of the SDS-damaged reconstructed human epidermis model. Claudin-3, Claudin-4, and Claudin-5 were significantly upregulated. IF and Western blot analysis revealed that the Claudin-4 level significantly increased after treatment with PURP. Claudin-1, Claudin-3, Claudin-4, and Claudin-5 gene expression and IF and immunohistochemical staining were significantly increased in mice treated with acetone-ether. PURP promoted the expression of Claudin-1, Claudin-3, Claudin-4, and Claudin-5 after treatment with 100 ng/mL IL-4. PURP also downregulated the expression of NO, IL6, TNFα and NFκB in Raw 264.7 cells and in a mouse model.

We hypothesize that PURP may repair the skin barrier by promoting the expression of the claudin family and can assist in skin therapy.

Intra-day variations in volar forearm skin hydration.

Skin Cancer Research

Skin hydration (SKH) measurements are used for multiple purposes: to study skin physiology, to clinically investigate dermatological issues, and to assess localized skin water in pathologies like diabetes and lymphedema. Often the volar forearm is measured at various times of day (TOD). This report aims to characterize intra-day variations in volar forearm SKH to provide guidance on expected TOD dependence.

Forty medical students (20 male) self-measured tissue dielectric constant (TDC) on their non-dominant forearm in triplicate as an index of local skin tissue water every 2 h starting at 0800 and ending at 2400 h. All were trained and pre-certified in the procedure and had whole-body fat (FAT%) and water (H2O%) measured. Day average TDC (TDCAVG) was determined as the average of all time points expressed as mean ± SD.

Males versus females had similar ages (25.1 ± 2.2 years vs. 25.1 ± 1.5 years), higher H2O% (56.6 ± 5.0 vs. 51.8 ± 5.7, p = 0.002), and higher TDCAVG (32.7 ± 4.1 vs. 28.5 ± 5.1, p = 0.008). TDC values were not significantly impacted by H2O% or FAT%. Female TDC exhibited a significant decreasing trend from morning to night (p = 0.004); male TDC showed no trend.

Skin water assessed by TDC shows some intra-day variations for females and males but with quite different temporal patterns. Clinical relevance relates to the confidence level associated with skin hydration estimates when measured at different times of day during normal clinic hours which, based on the present data, is expected to be around 5% for both males and females.

Metagenomics reveals unique gut mycobiome biomarkers in psoriasis.

Skin Cancer Research

In present, the diagnosis of psoriasis is mainly based on the patient's typical clinical manifestations, dermoscopy and skin biopsy, and unlike other immune diseases, psoriasis lacks specific indicators in the blood. Therefore, we are required to search novel biomarkers for the diagnosis of psoriasis.

In this study, we analyzed the composition and the differences of intestinal fungal communities composition between psoriasis patients and healthy individuals in order to find the intestinal fungal communities associated with the diagnosis of psoriasis. We built a machine learning model and identified potential microbial markers for the diagnosis of psoriasis.

The results of AUROC (area under ROC) showed that Aspergillus puulaauensis (AUROC = 0.779), Kazachstania africana (AUROC = 0.750) and Torulaspora delbrueckii (AUROC = 0.745) had high predictive ability (AUROC > 0.7) for predicting psoriasis, While Fusarium keratoplasticum (AUROC = 0.670) was relatively lower (AUROC < 0.7).

The strategy based on the prediction of intestinal fungal communities provides a new idea for the diagnosis of psoriasis and is expected to become an auxiliary diagnostic method for psoriasis.

Identifying the genetic association between common rheumatic diseases and vitiligo.

Skin Cancer Research

Although observational studies have suggested a correlation between vitiligo and rheumatic diseases, conclusive evidence supporting a causal relationship is still lacking. Therefore, this study aims to explore the potential causal relationship between vitiligo and rheumatic diseases.

Using genome-wide association studies, we performed a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. In our analysis, the random-effects inverse variance weighted (IVW) method was predominantly employed, followed by several sensitivity analyses, which include heterogeneity, horizontal pleiotropy, outliers, and "leave-one-out" analyses.

The genetically predicted vitiligo was associated with an increased risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (OR, 1.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29-1.68; p < 0.001), and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.06-1.39; p = 0.005). The causal associations were supported by sensitivity analyses. In Sjögren's syndrome and ankylosing spondylitis, no causal relationship with vitiligo was found in the study.

Our MR results support the causal effect that vitiligo leads to a higher risk of RA and SLE. Individuals with vitiligo should be vigilant for the potential development of RA and SLE. Managing and addressing this potential requires regular monitoring.

m6A- and m5C- modified lncRNAs orchestrate the prognosis in cutaneous melanoma and m6A- modified LINC00893 regulates cutaneous melanoma cell metastasis.

Skin Cancer Research

As the most important modifications on the RNA level, N6-methyladenosine (m6A-) and 5-methylcytosine (m5C-) modification could have a direct influence on the RNAs. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) could also be modified by methylcytosine modification. Compared with mRNAs, the function of lncRNAs could be more potent to some extent in biological processes like tumorigenesis. Until now, rare reports have been done associated with cutaneous melanoma. Herein, we wonder if the m6A- and m5C- modified lncRNAs could influence the immune landscape and prognosis in melanoma, and we also want to find some lncRNAs which could directly affect the malignant behaviors of melanoma.

Systematically, we explored the expression pattern of m6A- and m5C- modified lncRNAs in melanoma from datasets including UCSC Xena and NCBI GEO, and the prognostic lncRNAs were selected. Then, according to the expression pattern of lncRNAs, melanoma samples from these datasets were divided into several subtypes. Prognostic model, nomogram survival model, drug sensitivity, GO, and KEGG pathway analysis were performed. Furthermore, among several selected lncRNAs, we identified one lncRNA named LINC00893 and investigated its expression pattern and its biological function in melanoma cell lines.

We identified 27 m6A- and m5C- related lncRNAs which were significantly associated with survival, and we made a subtype analysis of melanoma samples based on these 27 lncRNAs. Among the two subtypes, we found differences of immune cells infiltration between these two subtypes. Then, LASSO algorithm was used to screen the optimized lncRNAs combination including ZNF252P-AS1, MIAT, FAM13A-AS1, LINC-PINT, LINC00893, AGAP2-AS1, OIP5-AS1, and SEMA6A-AS1. We also found that there was a significant correlation between the different risk groups predicted based on RS model and the actual prognosis. The nomogram survival model based on independent survival prognostic factors was also constructed. Besides, sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents, GO and KEGG analysis were performed. In different risk groups, a total of 14 drug molecules with different distributions were obtained, which included AZD6482, AZD7762, AZD8055, camptothecin, dasatinib, erlotinib, gefitinib, gemcitabine, GSK269962A, nilotinib, rapamycin, and sorafenib. A total of 55 significantly related biological processes and 17 KEGG signaling pathways were screened. At last, we noticed that LINC00893 had a relatively lower expression in melanoma tissue and cell lines compared with adjacent tissues and epidermal melanocyte, and down-regulation of LINC00893 could promote the malignant behavior of melanoma cells in A875 and MV3. In these two melanoma cell lines, down-regulation of m6A-related molecules like YTHDF3 and METTL3 could promote the expression of LINC00893.

We made an analysis of m6A- and m5C- related lncRNAs in melanoma samples and a prediction of these lncRNAs' role in prognosis, tumor microenvironment, immune infiltration, and clinicopathological features. We also found that LINC00893, which is potentially regulated by m6A modification, could serve as a tumor-suppressor in melanoma and play an inhibitory role in melanoma metastasis.

Genetic association between asthma and alopecia areata: A two-sample Mendelian randomization study.

Skin Cancer Research

Many patients with asthma experience alopecia areata (AA) in their lives. However, it is unclear whether asthma causes or results from AA. Our objective was to investigate the genetic causal relationship between asthma and AA.

Two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) was used to assess the causal relationship between asthma and AA based on the largest publicly available genome-wide association study summary statistics. Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and cicatricial alopecia (CA) were chosen as the control groups for AA. The main estimates were obtained using inverse variance weighting meta-analysis (IVW), Mendelian randomization-Egger (MR-Egger), maximum likelihood estimation, and the weighted median. Sensitivity analyses were conducted using Cochran's Q test, MR-Egger, and leave-one-out methods. Lastly, we conducted a reverse MR analysis to evaluate the possibility of reverse causation.

Genetically, asthma is associated with an increased risk of AA, while the association between genetically predicted AGA or CA and asthma was negative. The risk of AA increased by 1.86 times in patients with asthma under the IVW method (OR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.31-2.629, p < 0.001). The reverse MR analysis did not find evidence supporting reverse causality from three phenotypes of alopecia to asthma. Sensitivity analyses yielded consistent causal estimates.

This study suggests that asthma is causally associated with AA. The findings deepen our understanding of the role of asthma in the pathology of AA, which emphasizes the potential for opening a new vista for the prevention and diagnosis of AA.