The latest medical research on Skin Cancer

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about skin cancer gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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A deep learning approach to detect blood vessels in basal cell carcinoma.

Skin Cancer Research

Blood vessels called telangiectasia are visible in skin lesions with the aid of dermoscopy. Telangiectasia are a pivotal identifying feature of basal cell carcinoma. These vessels appear thready, serpiginous, and may also appear arborizing, that is, wide vessels branch into successively thinner vessels. Due to these intricacies, their detection is not an easy task, neither with manual annotation nor with computerized techniques. In this study, we automate the segmentation of telangiectasia in dermoscopic images with a deep learning U-Net approach.

We apply a combination of image processing techniques and a deep learning-based U-Net approach to detect telangiectasia in digital basal cell carcinoma skin cancer images. We compare loss functions and optimize the performance by using a combination loss function to manage class imbalance of skin versus vessel pixels.

We establish a baseline method for pixel-based telangiectasia detection in skin cancer lesion images. An analysis and comparison for human observer variability in annotation is also presented.

Our approach yields Jaccard score within the variation of human observers as it addresses a new aspect of the rapidly evolving field of deep learning: automatic identification of cancer-specific structures. Further application of DL techniques to detect dermoscopic structures and handle noisy labels is warranted.

Repeatability and reproducibility of a hyperspectral imaging system for in vivo color evaluation.

Skin Cancer Research

Color imaging is a tried and true method for the evaluation of cosmetic and dermatological effects, but it fails to capture all the information in a scene's spectral reflectance. For this reason, there has been in recent years increasing interest in the use of imaging spectrometers for clinical studies and product evaluation.

We developed a novel HyperSpectral Imager (HSI) able to take in vivo full-face format images as a next generation instrument for skin color measurement and beyond. Here, we report part of the results of our first full-scale validation test of the HSI. We replicated a make-up foundation screening test by applying three products to a panel of 9 models and evaluated the product L∗ , a∗ , b∗ , and ∆E effect immediately after application relative to the bare skin condition. We repeated this test twice in order to study the repeatability of the HSI as an evaluation instrument and during each test two different operators duplicated the data acquisition so we can assess the reproducibility of the measurements.

We find that the measurements from the HSI provide repeatability and reproducibility as good or better than those of our previous benchmark devices.

From these results, we conclude that not only is the HSI suitable for use in color evaluation studies, but also that it gives operational advantages over the previous generation of evaluation instruments, as it provides a spectral measurement combined with good spatial resolution. This allows for analysis of color over an area and post hoc selection of study regions and so opens new possibilities for studies of complex in vivo phenomena which neither non-imaging spectrometers nor conventional cameras can pursue. This study also raises points for future work concerning proper inclusion of instrument uncertainty in comparisons of results between instruments and handling of systematic uncertainties from analyses based on a single area.

Flow-through versus static in vitro percutaneous penetration at 50 years: Possible relevance for bioequivalence.

Skin Cancer Research

Compare the relevance of flow-through versus static diffusion cells data as relates to bioequivalence.

Search was conducted on PubMed and Google Scholar. Keywords utilized: static cells, flow-through cells, percutaneous permeation, percutaneous absorption, dermal absorption, and types of permeation.

Fifteen articles were identified with no consistent significant differences between flow-through and static diffusion cells identified; any differences could exist for two main reasons. (1) Sampling time differences and (2) physical chemistry (lipophilic vs hydrophilic) of the penetrant examined.

Even though there was no consistent significant difference observed, labs have generally adapted to the method they regularly use, which is usually stated in their respective articles. Well-designed multicentered prospective comparative experiments should clarify potential advantages and disadvantages for each. For flow-through systems, the flow rate that most approximates to comparable in vivo data for animals and humans may be preferable.

Objective and automatic grading system of facial signs from selfie pictures of South African women: Characterization of changes with age and sun-exposures.

Skin Cancer Research

To evaluate the capacity of the automatic detection system to accurately grade, from smartphones' selfie pictures, the severity of fifteen facial signs in South African women and their changes related to age and sun-exposure habits.

A two-steps approach was conducted based on self-taken selfie images. At first, to assess on 306 South African women (20-69 years) enrolled in Pretoria area (25.74°S, 28.22°E), age changes on fifteen facial signs measured by an artificial intelligence (AI)-based automatic grading system previously validated by experts/dermatologists. Second, as these South African panelists were recruited according to their usual behavior toward sun-exposure, that is, nonsun-phobic (NSP, N = 151) and sun-phobic (SP, N = 155) and through their regular and early use of a photo-protective product, to characterize the facial photo-damages.

(1) The automatic scores showed significant changes with age, by decade, of sagging and wrinkles/texture (p < 0.05) after 20 and 30 years, respectively. Pigmentation cluster scores presented no significant changes with age whereas cheek skin pores enlarged at a low extent with two plateaus at thirties and fifties. (2) After 60 years, a significantly increased severity of wrinkles/texture and sagging was observed in NSP versus SP women (p < 0.05). A trend of an increased pigmentation of the eye contour (p = 0.06) was observed after 50 years.

This work illustrates specific impacts of aging and sun-exposures on facial signs of South African women, when compared to previous experiments conducted in Europe or East Asia. Results significantly confirm the importance of sun-avoidance coupled with photo-protective measures to avoid long-term skin damages. In inclusive epidemiological studies that aim at investigating large human panels in very different contexts, the AI-based system offers a fast, affordable and confidential approach in the detection and quantification of facial signs and their dependency with ages, environments, and lifestyles.

Objective analysis of the effectiveness of facial massage using breakthrough computed tomographic technology: A preliminary pilot study.

Skin Cancer Research

Facial massage is empirically known to be associated with morphological changes, such as improvements in facial sagging. However, quantified objective evaluations of massage-induced changes have not been performed to date. This preliminary pilot study aimed to verify the effectiveness of facial massages by using breakthrough computed tomographic technology.

Five healthy adult volunteers (three women and two men; age, 29-37 years) were enrolled, and computed tomography (CT) examinations using a 320 detectors-spiral CT system known as 320-multidetector-row CT (MDCT) were performed before and after facial massages. Each participant performed a self-massage twice daily for 2 weeks. Massage-induced changes in the cheeks and the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) were analyzed by two radiologists on a workstation with a high-accuracy imaging analysis system.

After facial massage, the malar top became thinner by -0.8% ± 0.45% and shifted cranially and horizontally over a distance of 3.9 ± 1.94 mm. The SMAS-height, defined as the highest vertical distance of the SMAS, increased by 2.6% ± 2.6%. The change rate in cheek thickness and SMAS-height showed a significant correlation (r = -0.63; P < 0.05). These changes were attributed to the lifting and tightening effects of facial massage.

We conducted a detailed analysis of the effects of facial massages by using the breakthrough CT technology. Our results provide useful information for beauty treatments and could contribute to the collection of objective scientific evidence for facial massages.

Association between biophysical properties and anxiety in patients with sensitive skin.

Skin Cancer Research

Sensitive skin (SS) is a syndrome in which neurosensory disorders accompany epidermal barrier dysfunction. However, it is not yet clear how high anxiety levels affect the biophysical parameters of the skin in patients with SS.

We aimed to investigate the relationship between anxiety levels and facial neurosensitivity, the erythema index, sebum content, and sensitive skin scale scores in individuals with sensitive skin.

The study was carried out on 35 individuals with SS and 40 without SS over three months. In the study, a questionnaire to detect the presence of sensitive skin, the sensitive skin scale for sensitive skin severity, the lactic acid sting test (LAST) to show facial neurosensitivity, a Mexameter for erythema index measurement, and a Sebumeter for sebum content measurement were used. In addition, the anxiety levels of the patient and control groups were measured using the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS).

While the HADS-Anxiety scores were found to be significantly higher in patients with sensitive skin, there was no significant difference in the HADS-Depression scores. Moreover, a strong positive correlation was found between the HADS-Anxiety scores and the erythema index in patients with sensitive skin.

Sensitive skin is a disorder that can sometimes occur without any dermatological examination findings. In particular, the sensations of the patients, along with their anxiety levels, are essential parameters that should be evaluated in the approach to patients with sensitive skin.

Devices measuring transepidermal water loss: A systematic review of measurement properties.

Skin Cancer Research

The objective of this review is to examine the reliability and measurement error of devices that measure transepidermal water loss (TEWL).

TEWL is a physiological property of skin which increases when the epidermis is damaged. It is, therefore, a commonly utilised measure of skin barrier integrity. Devices measuring TEWL are available as open, semi-open or closed chamber. Studies of reliability examine the consistency of measurement, and/or responsiveness whereas measurement error scores in absolute terms the amount of error due to sources of variation.

The search strategy aimed to locate published and unpublished studies. Databases searched included PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and Web of Science, utilising identified keywords and limited to studies in English. Grey literature sources were searched to identify any unpublished documents. Study selection using the inclusion criteria was then assessed by two reviewers for methodological quality utilising the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) risk of bias tool to assess the reliability and measurement error of outcome measurement instruments.

A total of 22 devices were examined in the 38 included studies. The quality of study design was on average rated as 'Adequate' however reliability and measurement error statistical methods were on average rated as 'Doubtful'.

TEWL measurement devices were found to demonstrate good reliability and frequently correlated with other devices. However, measurement error was highly variable but improves under in vitro conditions. Future research should consider risk of bias factors when designing studies.

Visualization of energy-based device-induced thermal tissue alterations using bimodal ex-vivo confocal microscopy with digital staining. A proof-of-concept study.

Skin Cancer Research

Ex-vivo confocal microscopy (EVCM) enables examination of tissue alterations immediately after treatment with energy-based devices (EBDs). This proof-of-concept study aimed to describe EBD-induced tissue effects in ex-vivo porcine skin after treatment with microneedle radiofrequency (MNRF) and ablative fractional CO2 -laser (AFL) using EVCM.

Ex-vivo porcine skin was treated with MNRF and AFL. Three cryosections from each intervention were stained with acridine orange (AO) and scanned with EVCM. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM, 638 nm) and fluorescence confocal microscopy (FCM, 488 nm) images were captured and evaluated individually, after image fusion, and after digital hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining.

Bimodal EVCM was able to visualize EBD-induced thermal alterations in porcine skin. In RCM mode, the full width and depth of the vertically aligned microscopic treatment zones (MTZs) were displayed with clear demarcation to surrounding intact skin. In FCM mode, the ablation of the epidermis after AFL was prominent in contrast with the almost intact epidermis observed in MNRF treated skin. In fusion mode, fluorescence signal from AO marked the surrounding coagulation zone (CZ) from both interventions, with enhanced discrimination between ablation and coagulation. Digitally H&E-stained images closely resembled conventional histopathology but proved superior in terms of visualization of the CZ.

Bimodal EVCM with digital H&E-staining facilitates the identification and qualitative evaluation of thermal alterations induced by treatment with EBD. By providing high-resolution images comparable to standard histology, EVCM is a useful tool in the research and development of EBD to visualize and evaluate device-tissue interactions.

Efficacy of a fine fiber film applied with a water-based lotion to improve dry skin.

Skin Cancer Research

Dry skin can trigger eczema that affects >10% of the US population. Dressing films have been developed to improve diseased skin, but there is limited knowledge about their effects, especially for dry skin-related symptoms. We developed an electrospinning method that creates a coating film, called a fine fiber (FF) film, characterized by the production of a transparent, thin, flexible, and adherent membrane on the skin surface.

The aim of this pilot study was to examine the effects of the FF film on dry skin.

Three treatments (lotion only, lotion with the FF film, and lotion with an alternative film) were designed to treat subjects with rough skin on their lower legs. Twenty-four females were enrolled and used either a water-based lotion U or a petrolatum-based lotion P and the FF film for 2 weeks followed by a regression phase for 1 week. Skin hydration and roughness scores were assessed as were the subjects' perceptions of the effects.

When the FF film was applied with lotion U, skin hydration was significantly improved even after 1 week, accompanied by a significant improvement of skin roughness and an increase in skin hydration by the end of the regression phase. An evaluation of moisture permeability suggested that the FF film, especially with lotion U, performed as a semipermeable membrane with optimal moisture healing effects on dry skin.

The FF film together with a water-based lotion is a promising treatment to quickly improve dry skin conditions.

A multinational survey characterizing the use of surgical magnifying loupes in dermatological surgery.

Skin Cancer Research

The use of surgical loupes has not been well-documented in dermatological surgery.

An online questionnaire was developed to characterize the use of loupes in dermatological surgery.

The questionnaire was circulated to the memberships of the British Society of Dermatological Surgery, the European Society of Micrographic Surgery, and the Australasian College of Dermatologists. Responses were analyzed with a mixed methods approach using quantitative data analysis and inductive content analysis.

One-hundred twenty-five valid responses were received from 20 nations. Most respondents were from England (40%; 50/125), Australia (16%; 20/125), and the Netherlands (14.4%; 18/125). Overall, 71.2% (89/125) of respondents were consultants/Facharzt/attending. Furthermore, 55.2% (69/125) of respondents were Mohs surgeons. In dermatological surgery 38.4% (48/125) of respondents used surgical loupes routinely. The mode magnification level for loupes was 2.5× (67.5%; 27/40), with 3× second place (12.5%; 5/40). Exactly half (20/40) used through-the-lens style loupes and 40% (16/40) used flip-up-loupes. Inductive content analysis of the 51 free-text responses from nonloupe users uncovered several deterring factor themes, including expense (18/51), can manage without/don't need (14/51), and narrow field of view a(11/51), and uncomfortable/too heavy (9/51).

This is the first time the use of surgical loupes in dermatological surgery has been internationally characterized.

Comparison of dermoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy accuracy for the diagnosis of psoriasis and lichen planus.

Skin Cancer Research

Dermoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) as noninvasive tools are gaining increasing importance in the diagnosis of inflammatory skin disorders. The purpose of our study was to calculate and compare the diagnostic accuracy of dermoscopy and RCM in common inflammatory skin diseases.

We retrospectively collected clinical, dermoscopic, and RCM images of psoriasis and lichen planuscases from March 2018 to February 2021 in China-Japan Friendship Hospital. There were 10 experts evaluated dermoscopic and RCM images independently. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predict value, and negative predictive value for each and all investigators were calculated. The diagnostic accuracy was also measured by the area under the curve (AUC) for the Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) Curves.

We collected 82 psoriasis and 47 lichen planus cases. Dermoscopy was more sensitive than RCM in the diagnosis of psoriasis, and overall diagnostic accuracy of dermoscopy was also higher than RCM measured by AUC (0.879 vs. 0.835, p = 0.0001). For lichen planus, RCM had higher sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and overall diagnostic accuracy than dermoscopy (AUC 0.916 vs. 0.813, p<0.0001).

Dermoscopy and RCM play a significant role in assisting the diagnosis of psoriasis and lichens planus. These two noninvasive diagnostic tools have their own advantages and disadvantages for the evaluation of different inflammatory skin diseases, and they can be combined in clinical practice to improve the accuracy of the diagnosis of inflammatory skin diseases.

Holistic approach to visualize and quantify collagen organization at macro, micro, and nano-scale.

Skin Cancer Research

There is scarcity of imaging and image processing techniques for accurate discrimination and quantitation of the dermal extracellular matrix (ECM), primarily collagen. The aim of this study was to develop and demonstrate a holistic imaging and image processing approach to visualize and quantify collagen remodeling at the macro-, micro- and nano-scale using histochemical imaging, Reflectance Confocal Microscopy (RCM), and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), respectively.

For proof-of-concept, a commercial anti-aging product known to induce collagen neo-synthesis and re-organization was tested ex vivo on human skin biopsies from two aged females.

Relative to untreated skin, collagen fibers (RCM) and fibrils (AFM) were longer and aligned after treatment. The content of collagen and elastin (histochemical imaging and ELISA) statistically improved after treatment.

Based on our findings, we can conclude: (1) AFM, RCM, and histochemical imaging can accurately discriminate collagen from other ECM components in the skin and (2) the image processing methods can enable quantitation and hence capture small improvements in collagen remodeling after treatment (commercial cosmetic product with collagen organizer technology as proof-of-concept). The reported holistic imaging approach has direct clinical implications for scientists and dermatologists to make quick, real-time, and accurate decisions in skin research and diagnostics.