The latest medical research on Skin Cancer

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about skin cancer gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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High-frequency ultrasound features in vulvar lichen sclerosus and correlation with histopathology.

Skin Cancer Research

Vulvar lichen sclerosus (VLS) is a chronic inflammatory disease initially involving anogenital areas. Noninvasive assessment is essential for precise management in VLS. We aim to analyze high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) features and correlate HFUS with histopathological changes.

Forty patients with histopathologically confirmed VLS lesions were retrospectively identified from August 2020 to September 2021. The clinical manifestations, dermoscopic images as well as both 20 and 50 MHz HFUS images were assessed. HFUS assessment included epidermal morphology, hypoechoic dermal band thickness, and hypoechoic dermal band internal echo. We compared HFUS images with histopathology, and Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to assess the relationship between hypoechoic dermal band thickness and histopathological depth.

Hypoechoic dermal band was present in 100% (40/40) VLS lesions. There was a significant linear positive correlation between the histopathological depth and corresponding hypoechoic dermal band thickness, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.685 (p < 0.001). Besides, 95% (38/40) lesions revealed smooth epidermis, and the internal echo of hypoechoic dermal band was assessed as homogeneous in 60% (24/40) and inhomogeneous in 40% (16/40) lesions.

HFUS characteristics, as well as measurable hypoechoic dermal band thickness, may provide valuable information in the precise diagnosis and the treatment monitoring of VLS.

Assessing changes in facial skin quality using noninvasive in vivo clinical skin imaging techniques after use of a topical retinoid product in subjects with moderate-to-severe photodamage.

Skin Cancer Research

Studies utilizing reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and dynamic optical coherence tomography (D-OCT) to assess cosmetic skin changes are limited.

A 12-week, open-label study was conducted using RCM and D-OCT to evaluate the effects of a topical cosmetic retinol (RET05) on subjects with facial photodamage. Study endpoints included investigator grading, standardized (VISIA-CR) and 3D photography (Antera 3D), independent RCM (VivaScope1500) and D-OCT (VivoSight) image analysis, validated FACE-Q scales, and subject questionnaires.

Twenty-three subjects, 45- to 68-year old, with Fitzpatrick skin types II-IV completed the study. After 12 weeks of repeated application, RET05 demonstrated significant corresponding cosmetic improvements for overall photodamage, skin tone unevenness, tactile roughness, fine lines/wrinkles (forehead, periocular, and perioral), and coarse lines/wrinkles (forehead, periocular, and cheeks), and Allergan Skin Roughness Scale. FACE-Q assessments also demonstrated significant improvements from baseline at week 12. RCM analysis showed decreases in all epidermis, less compact stratum corneum (SC), more non-compact SC, decreases in coarse/huddled dermal fibers, and increases in fibrillar dermal fibers, as compared to baseline. D-OCT analysis showed significant decreases in epidermal thickness (ET), reduction of moderate/many collagen fragments and collagen bundles, and significant increases in the stroma attenuation coefficient and collagen density. Moreover, the dermal-epidermal junction was more pronounced, and vascular abundance at 300 and 500 μm depth increased. Independent evaluation of RCM and D-OCT images showed similar decreases in ET and improvements in dermal fibers.

This study was the first to utilize RCM and D-OCT to evaluate the cosmetic effects of a topical retinoid and further substantiate improvements in skin quality.

Digital skin imaging applications, part I: Assessment of image acquisition technique features.

Skin Cancer Research

The rapid adoption of digital skin imaging applications has increased the utilization of smartphone-acquired images in dermatology. While this has enormous potential for scaling the assessment of concerning skin lesions, the insufficient quality of many consumer/patient-taken images can undermine clinical accuracy and potentially harm patients due to lack of diagnostic interpretability. We aim to characterize the current state of digital skin imaging applications and comprehensively assess how image acquisition features address image quality.

Publicly discoverable mobile, web, and desktop-based skin imaging applications, identified through keyword searches in mobile app stores, Google Search queries, previous teledermatology studies, and expert recommendations were independently assessed by three reviewers. Applications were categorized by primary audience (consumer-facing, nonhospital-based practice, or enterprise/health system), function (education, store-and-forward teledermatology, live-interactive teledermatology, electronic medical record adjunct/clinical imaging storage, or clinical triage), in-app connection to a healthcare provider (yes or no), and user type (patient, provider, or both).

Just over half (57%) of 191 included skin imaging applications had at least one of 14 image acquisition technique features. Those that were consumer-facing, intended for educational use, and designed for both patient and physician users had significantly greater feature richness (p < 0.05). The most common feature was the inclusion of text-based imaging tips, followed by the requirement to submit multiple images and body area matching.

Very few skin imaging applications included more than one image acquisition technique feature. Feature richness varied significantly by audience, function, and user categories. Users of digital dermatology tools should consider which applications have standardized features that improve image quality.

Microinjections with hyaluronic acid in combination with glycerol: How do they influence biophysical viscoelastic skin properties?

Skin Cancer Research

Skin quality improvement with hyaluronic acid microinjections is increasing as a clinical treatment indication and as a scientific issue. This present study assessed changes in biomechanical viscoelastic skin properties after microinjections with the skin quality booster CPM-HA20G (Belotero Revive).

Fifteen subjects have been randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive either three treatments (total 3 ml per side) or a single-dose treatment (total 1.5 ml per side) with CPM-HA20G at dermal level into the lower cheeks via microinjections. Treatments were provided 4 weeks apart. Biophysical measurements were performed describing the viscoelastic skin properties and the underlying skin structure. The measurements were performed before injection (week 0) and on follow-up visits 4, 8, 16, 24, and 36 weeks after the last injection treatment.

One (p = 0.028) as well as three (p = 0.003) consecutive treatments with CPM-HA20G improved statistically significant skin firmness (R0). For the multiple-treatment group improved significant differences were observed for skin fatigue (R3; p = 0.007) and skin density (p = 0.017) with stable skin thickness levels (p > 0.05), too. There were zero-to-weak correlations between skin thickness and biomechanical skin properties (R0, rs  = 0.084; R3, rs  = 0.093).

Overall, microinjections with CPM-HA20G improved biomechanical viscoelastic skin properties with a stronger and more pronounced effect in the multiple-treatment group. The observed changes may explain some of the skin quality improvements observed after treatment with CPM-HA20G.

Identifying the neural basis for rosacea using positron emission tomography-computed tomography cerebral functional imaging analysis: A cross-sectional study.

Skin Cancer Research

The neural basis of rosacea is not well understood. This study aimed to determine whether cerebral glucose metabolism (CGM) changes on 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scans can detect functional network changes in specific brain areas in patients with rosacea.

Eight adults with rosacea and 10 age/sex-matched healthy adults (controls) were enrolled in the study. 18 F-FDG PET/CT brain images for all eight patients and whole-body images for two of the patients were analyzed qualitatively and semi-quantitatively. Differences between the study groups were examined using Fischer's exact test and a Student's t-test. A voxel-based analysis using statistical parametric mapping was performed to compare the brain metabolism of the patients with that of the controls.

Compared with the controls, the patients with rosacea showed extensive changes in the CGM signals in the cerebral cortex and limbic system, with less CGM shown in the right superior parietal lobule, right postcentral gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, left superior frontal gyrus, and lateral posterior thalamic nucleus and more CGM in the right precentral gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus, and cerebellar tonsil. No dysmetabolic lesions were found in the whole-body 18 F-FDG PET/CT images.

Specific neural functional changes occur in patients with rosacea that may explain its pathogenesis.

Confocal Raman spectroscopy is suitable to assess hair cleansing-derived skin dryness on human scalp.

Skin Cancer Research

The purpose of this pilot study was to provide information about the washout-dependent depletion of important skin components in the horny layer of the scalp. They were taken as markers for scalp drying effects of cosmetic cleansing products and were measured directly in vivo.

In vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy was used to measure the depletion of the total natural moisturizing factor (total NMF) and some of its components (urea and lactic acid) as well as a fraction of stratum corneum lipids, after repeated washing with a standard shampoo on the human scalp.

The measurements showed a reduction in the amount of NMF and lipids of the stratum corneum caused by repeated shampooing.

Confocal Raman spectroscopy is an innovative technology that can be used successfully in vivo on the hairy scalp. The loss of the most important skin components caused by hair washing can be quantified directly with this technology. The method is valuable to support the development cosmetic cleansing products, as it is suitable to directly compare the effects of different product candidates on the human scalp in a most realistic way.

Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans: Utility of high-resolution dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI.

Skin Cancer Research

Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a kind of low-grade malignant spindle cell neoplasm, the diagnosis, and treatment, which have markedly attracted clinicians' attention for its repeated recurrence. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HR-MRI) has shown unique capabilities in diagnosis of various cutaneous tumors.

Data of 29 patients with clinically suspected DFSPs and undergoing dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) HR-MRI preoperatively were prospectively collected. The HR-MRI qualitative features were evaluated and compared. The DCE-associated quantitative parameters and the time-signal intensity curve (TIC) types were provided using DCE sequences.

A total of 7 DFSPs, nine dermatofibromas (DF, including four cases of cellular variant [CDF]), 12 keloids, and one nodular fasciitis were enrolled. DFSP showed the largest major diameter and the deepest depth. Five DFSPs (71.4%) showed ill-defined margins as well as infiltration of peripheral adipose. All DFSPs showed irregular shape. Most DFSPs presented hyperintensity on T2 WI (71.4%) and iso-intensity on T1 WI (85.7%). Six cases (85.7%) had significant enhancement, and six cases (85.7%) had homogeneous enhancement. There were significant differences of Ktrans , Kep , Ve and iAUC values among DFSPs, DFs, and keloids, and DFSP had the highest values for these parameters. Six DFSPs (85.7%) and four CDFs (100%) showed type-III TICs, while the other lesions showed type-Ⅰor type-Ⅱ TICs.

DCE-HR-MRI could show the growth characteristics of DFSPs, which was of great value for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of DFSPs and was helpful for the determination of treatment options, thereby to improve the prognosis of patients.

The effects of wearing a face mask and of subsequent moisturizer use on the characteristics of sensitive skin.

Skin Cancer Research

COVID-19 is a serious respiratory disease, and wearing masks has become essential in daily life. Nevertheless, the number of people complaining of skin problems caused by wearing masks is increasing. Therefore, we investigated the characteristics of changes in sensitive skin caused by wearing a mask.

Twenty healthy Korean women with sensitive skin participated in this study. To determine any skin-related changes caused by mask-wearing, we evaluated redness, hydration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and moisture at 2.5 mm below the surface before and 4 h after wearing a Korea Filter 94 mask. In addition, we tested whether applying a moisturizer for 30 min after mask removal could reverse any mask-induced changes.

Skin redness and TEWL were significantly increased at 4 h after wearing a mask (p < 0.05), otherwise skin hydration and the 2.5 mm moisture were significantly decreased (p < 0.05). After applying the moisturizer, skin redness and TEWL were significantly decreased compared to their values 4 h after wearing masks (p < 0.05), whereas skin hydration and the 2.5 mm moisture were significantly increased (p < 0.05). Moreover, after applying the moisturizer, skin redness and TEWL were significantly reduced compared to the pre-masking baseline (p < 0.05), whereas skin hydration was significantly increased (p < 0.05); the 2.5 mm moisture showed no significant change.

We observed that wearing masks causes physiological changes in sensitive skin, whereas applying a moisturizer after removing the mask improved skin conditions.

AcneGrader: An ensemble pruning of the deep learning base models to grade acne.

Skin Cancer Research

Acne is one of the most common skin lesions in adolescents. Some severe or inflammatory acne leads to scars, which may have major impacts on patients' quality of life or even job prospects. Grading acne plays an important role in diagnosis, and the diagnosis is made by counting the number of acne. It is a labor-intensive job and it is easy for dermatologists to make mistakes, so it is very important to develop automatic diagnosis methods. Ensemble learning may improve the prediction results of the base models, but its time complexity is relatively high. The ensemble pruning strategy may solve this computational challenge by removing the redundant base models.

This study proposed a novel ensemble pruning framework of deep learning models to accurately detect and grade acne using images. First, we train multi-base models and prune the redundancy models according to the performance and diversity of the models. Then, we construct the new features of the training data by the base models we select in the previous step. Next, we remove the redundancy models further by a feature selection algorithm. Finally, we integrate all the base models by classifiers. The ensemble pruning algorithm was proposed to prune the deep learning base models.

The experimental data showed that the ensemble pruned framework achieved a prediction accuracy of 85.82% on the acne dataset, better than the existing studies. To verify our method's effectiveness, we test our method in a skin cancer dataset and greatly outperform the state-of-the-art methods.

The method we proposed is used to grade acne. Our method's performance outperforms state-of-the-art methods on two datasets, and it can also remove redundancy models to reduce computational complexity.

A deep learning approach to detect blood vessels in basal cell carcinoma.

Skin Cancer Research

Blood vessels called telangiectasia are visible in skin lesions with the aid of dermoscopy. Telangiectasia are a pivotal identifying feature of basal cell carcinoma. These vessels appear thready, serpiginous, and may also appear arborizing, that is, wide vessels branch into successively thinner vessels. Due to these intricacies, their detection is not an easy task, neither with manual annotation nor with computerized techniques. In this study, we automate the segmentation of telangiectasia in dermoscopic images with a deep learning U-Net approach.

We apply a combination of image processing techniques and a deep learning-based U-Net approach to detect telangiectasia in digital basal cell carcinoma skin cancer images. We compare loss functions and optimize the performance by using a combination loss function to manage class imbalance of skin versus vessel pixels.

We establish a baseline method for pixel-based telangiectasia detection in skin cancer lesion images. An analysis and comparison for human observer variability in annotation is also presented.

Our approach yields Jaccard score within the variation of human observers as it addresses a new aspect of the rapidly evolving field of deep learning: automatic identification of cancer-specific structures. Further application of DL techniques to detect dermoscopic structures and handle noisy labels is warranted.

Repeatability and reproducibility of a hyperspectral imaging system for in vivo color evaluation.

Skin Cancer Research

Color imaging is a tried and true method for the evaluation of cosmetic and dermatological effects, but it fails to capture all the information in a scene's spectral reflectance. For this reason, there has been in recent years increasing interest in the use of imaging spectrometers for clinical studies and product evaluation.

We developed a novel HyperSpectral Imager (HSI) able to take in vivo full-face format images as a next generation instrument for skin color measurement and beyond. Here, we report part of the results of our first full-scale validation test of the HSI. We replicated a make-up foundation screening test by applying three products to a panel of 9 models and evaluated the product L∗ , a∗ , b∗ , and ∆E effect immediately after application relative to the bare skin condition. We repeated this test twice in order to study the repeatability of the HSI as an evaluation instrument and during each test two different operators duplicated the data acquisition so we can assess the reproducibility of the measurements.

We find that the measurements from the HSI provide repeatability and reproducibility as good or better than those of our previous benchmark devices.

From these results, we conclude that not only is the HSI suitable for use in color evaluation studies, but also that it gives operational advantages over the previous generation of evaluation instruments, as it provides a spectral measurement combined with good spatial resolution. This allows for analysis of color over an area and post hoc selection of study regions and so opens new possibilities for studies of complex in vivo phenomena which neither non-imaging spectrometers nor conventional cameras can pursue. This study also raises points for future work concerning proper inclusion of instrument uncertainty in comparisons of results between instruments and handling of systematic uncertainties from analyses based on a single area.

Flow-through versus static in vitro percutaneous penetration at 50 years: Possible relevance for bioequivalence.

Skin Cancer Research

Compare the relevance of flow-through versus static diffusion cells data as relates to bioequivalence.

Search was conducted on PubMed and Google Scholar. Keywords utilized: static cells, flow-through cells, percutaneous permeation, percutaneous absorption, dermal absorption, and types of permeation.

Fifteen articles were identified with no consistent significant differences between flow-through and static diffusion cells identified; any differences could exist for two main reasons. (1) Sampling time differences and (2) physical chemistry (lipophilic vs hydrophilic) of the penetrant examined.

Even though there was no consistent significant difference observed, labs have generally adapted to the method they regularly use, which is usually stated in their respective articles. Well-designed multicentered prospective comparative experiments should clarify potential advantages and disadvantages for each. For flow-through systems, the flow rate that most approximates to comparable in vivo data for animals and humans may be preferable.