The latest medical research on Obstetrics And Gynecology

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Predictors of Postpartum Persisting Hypertension Among Women with Preeclampsia Admitted at Carlos Manuel de Cèspedes Teaching Hospital, Cuba.

International Journal of Epidemiology

We established the prevalence and predictors of persisting hypertension in women with preeclampsia admitted at the Carlos Manuel de Cèspedes Teaching Hospital in Cuba so as to guide the health-care providers in early identification of the patients at risk for timely intervention.

A three-year prospective cohort study was conducted between March 2017 and March 2020. A cohort of 178 women diagnosed with preeclampsia at the hypertension unit of Carlos Manuel de Cèspedes Teaching Hospital were recruited. Interviewer administered questionnaires and laboratory and ultrasound scan result forms were used to collect the data. Binary logistic regression was conducted to determine the predictors. All data analyses were conducted using STATA version 14.2.

Forty-five (27.8%) of the studied 162 patients were still hypertensive at 12 weeks postpartum. Maternal age of 35 years or more (aRR=1.14,95% CI:1.131-4.847, p=0.022), early onset preeclampsia (before 34 weeks of gestation) (aRR=7.93, 95% CI:1.812-34.684, p=0.006), and elevated serum creatinine levels of more than 0.8mg/dl (aRR=1.35, 95% CI:1.241-3.606, p=0.032) were the independent predictors of persisting hypertension at 12 weeks postpartum.

Recognition of these predictors and close follow-up of patients with preeclampsia will improve the ability to diagnose and monitor women likely to develop persisting hypertension before its onset for timely interventions.

Community Perception Regarding Maternity Service Provision in Public Health Institutions in 2018 and 2019: A Qualitative Study.

International Journal of Epidemiology

In the perspective of health care, community perception is defined as a combination of experiences, expectations and perceived needs. The community and client's perception of health services seem to have been largely ignored by health-care providers in developing countries. There is a knowledge gap about communities' perception and perspective of maternal health. If the community's perception is known, the quality of maternity care may be improved, maternal morbidity and mortality could be decreased, and the overall health of the mother can be improved. The aim of this study was to explore community's perception of maternity service provision in public health institutions.

A qualitative study with the underpinning philosophy of phenomenology was conducted in five subcities of Mekelle city, Ethiopia. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDSs) with participants who are residing in Mekelle city and who experienced maternity service as a client or as attendants were conducted to collect the necessary information. Using a semi-structured tool that has been translated into the local language, collected data were analyzed thematically using computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software ATLAS version 7. Qualitative data were transcribed through replaying the tape recorded interview from IDIs and FGDs. The text was carefully read and similar ideas were organized together. The participant's inductive meanings were extracted verbatim and described in narratives. The researcher and research assistants independently transcribed participant's comments verbatim to confirm the reliability of the findings.

Participants reported that maternal health services in public health institutions were negative. Participants described experiencing poor staff attitude, lack of prescribed drugs in the institutional pharmacies, long waiting time, family proximity by professionals, poor attention to women during labor, lack of privacy and mistreatment made them develop a negative perception towards public health institutions. Despite these complaints, participants acknowledged public health facilities for affordable, accessible, qualified personnel and usually stocked with quality medications and equipment.

This study revealed that the community has a negative perception of the maternal health services in the public health institutions. The main reasons for their negative perception were poor staff attitude, unavailability of prescribed drugs in the institutional pharmacies, long waiting time, family proximity by professionals, poor attention to women during labor, lack of privacy and mistreatment.

A Multilevel Analysis of Factors Associated with Teenage Pregnancy in Ethiopia.

International Journal of Epidemiology

A significant number of girls in Ethiopia begin childbearing at an early age. Teenage pregnancy is the main contributor to maternal and child morbidity and mortality, and the vicious cycle of ill-health and poverty. However limited evidence exists about individual- and community-level factors affecting teenage pregnancy in Ethiopia.

This study used data from the 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS). A total of 3381 (weighted) teenagers aged 15-19 years were included in the study. A two-stage stratified cluster was used. Data were analyzed using Stata version 14. Multilevel mixed effect logistic regression was used to identify factors affecting teenage pregnancy.

Being 17 (AOR=9.26, 95% CI=2.67-32.04), 18 (AOR=9.53, 95% CI=2.97-30.04) and 19 years old (AOR=20.01, 95% CI=5.94-67.39), uneducated (AOR=3.83, 95% CI=1.05-14.00), primary educated (AOR=3.34, 95% CI=1.01-11.08), being married (AOR=70.12, 95% CI=27.55-178.4), and communities with a higher proportion of poor (AOR=3.86, 95% CI=1.80-8.26) were predictors of teenage pregnancy.

Age, educational status, and marital status from individual-level factors, and community wealth status from community-level factors were predictors of teenage pregnancy. The government should strive to improve female education, and fight against early marriage and sexual initiation.

Demand for Cervical Cancer Screening in Tigray Region of Ethiopia in 2018: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

International Journal of Epidemiology

Cervical cancer is a public health concern worldwide, and is increasing in developing countries. Despite the efforts of governments, demand for cervical cancer screening is low and not well studied. As such, this study was done to figure out the demand for cervical cancer screening in Tigray regional state.

A cross-sectional study design was conducted, and 1,010 participants were recruited using simple random sampling. Data were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire, and analysis was done using multilevel logistic regression.

A total of 1,000 women were included in the final analysis. The mean age of participants was 32.57±8.56 years. Those demandeing cervical cancer screening numbered 480 (48%). Intraclass correlation indicated that 18.9% of the total variance in demand was attributable to differences across the cluster districts (p0.0001). Predictors of demand for cervical cancer screening were age 31-40 years (AOR 2.33, 95% CI 0.42-3.83) and 41-45 years (AOR 3.02, 95% CI 1.64-5.55), tertiary education (AOR 2.81, 95% CI 1.43-5.51), history of sexually transmitted disease (AOR 1.71, 95% CI 1.05-2.79), being knowledgeable about cervical cancer, (AOR 9.21, 95% CI 5.79-14.65), and having a positive attitude toward cervical cancer screening (AOR 8.32, 95% CI 5.53-12.51). Among community level variables, community awareness of cervical cancer and population:health institution ratio were factors associated with demand.

Demand for cervical cancer screening is low compared to the government's plan for 2020. Health professionals and leaders need to focus on communit- level demand creation for cervical cancer screening by planning health-promotion strategies.

What is the Impact of Abnormal Amniotic Fluid Volumes on Perinatal Outcomes in Normal Compared with At-Risk Pregnancies?

International Journal of Epidemiology

Assessing amniotic fluid volume is an integral part of obstetric practice. Data are sparse on at-risk pregnancy and amniotic fluid volumes. The aim of our study was to determine if there is a difference in perinatal outcomes based on complications of pregnancy and amniotic fluid volumes. We hypothesized that at-risk pregnancies with abnormal amniotic fluid volumes would have worse perinatal outcomes than normal pregnancies with abnormal amniotic fluid volumes.

This retrospective cohort study evaluated both normal and at-risk singleton pregnancies with intact membranes on admission for delivery. Amniotic fluid volumes were estimated using both the amniotic fluid index (AFI) and single deepest pocket (SDP) techniques. All sonograms were performed by trained ultrasound technicians or obstetrician/gynecologists. We placed 3365 women into 6 separate groups (at-risk versus normal, then further stratified by oligohydramnios by SDP, normal fluid, or polyhydramnios by AFI).

At-risk pregnancies with normal fluid and at-risk pregnancies with polyhydramnios have significantly increased risk of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission [OR 2.06 (95% CI 1.63,2.60), OR 2.74 (95% CI 1.54, 4.87)]. Birthweight is significantly higher in at-risk and normal pregnancies with polyhydramnios than those with normal pregnancies and normal fluid (p<0.0001). Birthweight is significantly lower in at-risk pregnancies with oligohydramnios (p<0.0001). There were no significant differences in need for amnioinfusion in labor, variables or lates influencing delivery, meconium staining, or umbilical artery pH <7.1.

Our study attempted to further define risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes by defining the pregnancy as normal or at-risk and amniotic fluid volumes. Contrary to our hypothesis, we did not find an increased risk of many of the adverse perinatal outcomes we studied amongst at-risk pregnancies with abnormal fluid. There was an increased risk of NICU admission associated with polyhydramnios in normal and at-risk pregnancies.

A Culturally Sensitive and Supportive Maternity Care Service Increases the Uptake of Maternity Waiting Homes in Ethiopia.

International Journal of Epidemiology

Maternal delays in utilization of emergency obstetric care are impacting on a high maternal mortality, especially in the poor resource countries including Ethiopia. Different strategies are designed and employed to reduce those maternal delays, and one of such strategies employed to overcome the geographic barriers and improve maternal and neonatal health outcomes is utilization of maternity waiting homes (MWHs). Studies related to the utilization of MWHs and associated factors are limited in Ethiopia and there were none in the study area.

The aim of this study was to assess the utilization of maternity waiting homes and associated factors.

A community-based cross-sectional study design was conducted, using multistage sampling technique. Logistic regression analysis with 95% CI for odds ratio (OR) was used to identify significant factors.

A total of 379 women participated in this study, making a response rate of 85%. Of the total participants, 42.5% (95% CI=38-48) of women utilized MWHs. After controlling for potential confounders, women's decision-making capacity (AOR=12.74; 95% CI=6.18-26.26), women having someone who can care for their children and/or husband at home (AOR=2.71; 95% CI=1.44-5.09), MWHs offering food service (AOR=4.03; 95% CI=2.07- 7.85), offering and/or allowing women to practice their own cultural ceremony (allowing to cook their own food type, porridge, coffee, etc) (AOR=9.55; 95% CI=4.45-20.47), and women's attitude towards MWHs (AOR=0.09; 95% CI=0.03-0.23) were factors significantly associated with the utilization of MWHs.

Compared to its contribution in reducing maternal and perinatal mortality, the utilization of MWHs was low in this study area. The integration of culturally sensitive and supportive maternity services, along with community participatory approach, would increase utilization of MWHs and consequently contribute in achieving the SDGs related to maternal and neonatal health.

Description of Maternal Morbidities Amongst 1000 Women During Pregnancy in Ambanja, Madagascar - Opportunities and Challenges of Using an mHealth System.

International Journal of Epidemiology

The estimated burden of maternal morbidities in lower-income countries, such as Madagascar, is high. However, there is still a lack of data on maternal morbidities, in part due to an absence of standardized assessment tools. This cross-sectional study aims to report maternal morbidities among 1015 women in the district of Ambanja, Madagascar, and to describe the advantages and limitations of a mHealth system.

Data were collected using the PANDA (pregnancy and newborn diagnosis assessment) system, an mHealth device that incorporates the WHO recommendations for antenatal care (ANC). Data, including personal and medical information, but also clinical data such as hypertension, anemia or HIV were collected from more than 1000 women attending ANC.

A total of 1015 pregnant women were recruited from January 2015 to August 2018. The average age was 24.6 years old, and most women were married (82.3%). The majority lived in urban areas and were unemployed. Prevalence of hypertension and gestational diabetes was relatively low (4% vs 2.2%). Malaria infection was diagnosed in 2.2% and HIV was diagnosed in 1.2% of pregnant women. The most common morbidity was anemia (68.4%) and the only significant factor associated was being single compared to being married (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.05-2.70, p-value 0.032).

The prevalence of anemia in our study population was much higher than previously reported in Sub-Saharan Africa. This finding highlights the need for regular iron supplementation during pregnancy, especially in vulnerable (eg, single) women. The PANDA mHealth system provides unique opportunities due to its standardization of ANC and creation of a digital database accessible from a distance. However, one of the main challenges was that even a mHealth system such as the PANDA remains dependent on the local procurement chain. Therefore, future studies need to access opportunities of mHealth systems to support health service delivery.

Registered on ISRCTN on 14th October 2015, number ISRCTN18270380. Retrospectively registered.

Reducing Disrespect and Abuse of Women During Antenatal Care and Delivery Services at Injibara General Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: A Pre-Post Interventional Study.

International Journal of Epidemiology

Disrespect and abuse during pregnancy and childbirth continue to be a barrier for the utilization and quality of care in maternal health services. This study was therefore aimed at reducing the disrespect and abuse of mothers during antenatal care and delivery services at Injibara general hospital, northwest Ethiopia.

A pre-post interventional mixed method design was conducted among a total of 738 randomly selected mothers who attended antenatal care and delivery services from November 1, 2018 to May 20, 2019. To collect the data, exit interview using an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire was used. Provision of training, preparation of standard written guidelines and protocols, waiting room construction, availing screening or curtain, equipment, essential drugs and supplies, supportive supervision and mentoring, and staff motivation were the lists of interventions applied to decrease disrespect and abuse. Descriptive statistics and independent t-test were computed. The independanet t-test is used because the study populations at the baseline and endline were different. A p-value of <0.05 and a mean difference with 95% CI was used to test the significance of the interventions.

The study revealed that disrespect and abuse during pregnancy and childbirth decreased from 71.8% at baseline to 15.9% at the end-line with a 55.9% change (mean difference: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.55-0.57). Alongside, the magnitude on the subscales of disrespect and abuse (physical abuse, non-consented care, non-confidential care, non-dignified care, discrimination and neglected care) was decreased at post-intervention, compared with the baseline.

Respectful maternal healthcare after the intervention was significantly improved. The finding suggests that provision of training to healthcare providers, written policies and procedures that describe the responsibilities of healthcare providers in the respectful maternal care process, improving facility infrastructure, availing supplies, regular supportive supervision and mentoring and motivation of high-performance employees have the potential to enhance respectful maternal care. Therefore, incorporating such training into pre-service curricula and in-service training of healthcare workers may indorse the practice of respectful maternal care.

Prevalence and Associated Factors of Antenatal Depressive Symptoms in Pregnant Women Living in an Urban Area of Thailand.

International Journal of Epidemiology

Depression is a major public health problem in middle- and low-income countries. Depression in pregnancy has adverse effects on obstetric outcomes. Maternal depression remains under-recognized, under-diagnosed and undertreated in Thailand. Antenatal screening of depression is an important strategy to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. This problem has rarely been investigated in Thailand, especially in urban areas.

To discover the prevalence, associated factors, and predictive factors of depression in pregnant women living in an urban area.

This cross-sectional study of 402 pregnant women was conducted during antenatal care at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine Vajira Hospital, Navamindradhiraj University, Bangkok, Thailand, from 10 September to 31 November 2019. The participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire that included a demographic profile, obstetric conditions, socio-cultural characteristics, and a Thai language version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale to assess depressive symptoms.

Among a total 402 pregnant women, the prevalence of depressive symptoms in pregnant women in an urban area was 18.9%. Depressive symptoms in pregnant women were significantly associated with divorce (p < 0.001), low family income (p < 0.03), financial insufficiency (p < 0.001), extended family (p < 0.001), history of previous abortion (p = 0.033), history of previous pregnancy complications (p = 0.044), current alcohol use (p = 0.03), current tobacco use (p = 0.009), current substance abuse (p = 0.002), marital conflict (p < 0.001), and family conflict (p < 0.001). The significant factors predicting depression in pregnant women were extended family (AOR 3.0, 95% CI 1.59-5.51, p=0.001) and marital conflict (AOR 4.7, 95% CI 2.37-9.11, p<0.001).

This study revealed that the prevalence of depressive symptoms in pregnant women living in an urban area in Thailand was 18.9%. The significant associated factors of depressive symptoms were divorce, low family income, financial insufficiency, extended family, previous abortion, previous pregnancy complications, current alcohol use, current tobacco use, current substance abuse, marital conflict, and family conflict. Extended family and marital conflict were significant predictive factors for antenatal depressive symptoms.

Knowledge, Attitude, and Associated Factors Towards Vertical Transmission of Hepatitis B Virus Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care in Tertiary Hospitals in Amhara Region, Northwest Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

International Journal of Epidemiology

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major public health problem globally. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HBV is high in endemic countries; however, little is known about pregnant women`s knowledge and attitudes regarding MTCT and prevention methods in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and associated factors of pregnant women towards MTCT of HBV and its prevention in three tertiary hospitals in the Amhara region, northwestern Ethiopia.

A cross-sectional study was conducted from May 1, 2018 to September 30, 2019. A total of 1121 pregnant women participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the sociodemographic, knowledge, and attitudes of pregnant women towards MTCT of HBV and its prevention. Data were analyzed using SPPS version 20. χ2-test, multivariate logistic regression, Spearman correlation, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used for data analysis.

The majority of 89.6%; 95% CI (87.9-91.3%) pregnant women had poor knowledge of MTCT of HBV and its prevention. However, more than half of the study participants had favorable attitudes. Only 141 (12.6%) of the pregnant women knew that HBV transmitted from mother-to-child and 169 (15.1%) knew that HBV had a vaccine. There was a significant difference in attitude between the three hospitals (P<0.001). In multivariable analysis, education, gravida and vaccination history were independent factors significantly associated with good knowledge and favorable attitudes while income and residence significantly associated only to knowledge and attitude, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between the knowledge and attitude of pregnant women (P<0.001).

The knowledge of pregnant women was found to be poor and their attitude was also limited to MTCT of HBV infection and its prevention. Educational status and vaccination history were predictors of knowledge and attitude, but income and residence only to knowledge and attitude, respectively. This study revealed a lack of knowledge in pregnant women for the prevention and control of MTCT of HBV. This calls for the Amhara Health Bureau and Ministry of Health to promote health education programs for pregnant women attending antenatal care on MTCT of HBV and its prevention methods to improve knowledge and attitudes.

Prevalence and Associated Factors of Early Postnatal Care Service Use Among Mothers Who Had Given Birth Within the Last 12 Months in Adigrat Town, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia, 2018.

International Journal of Epidemiology

The care given for the first hours, days, and weeks after childbirth is life-threatening. So far, this period receives less attention from health-care providers than the care given to pregnancy and delivery. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of early postnatal care service use among mothers who had given birth in the last 12 months in Adigrat Town, Tigray, Ethiopia.

A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April 2018 among 481mothers who had given birth in the last 12 months. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select study participants. A pre-tested and structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data analysis was computed using SPSS version 20. An adjusted odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval and p-value less than 0.05 was used to determine the level of significance.

The proportion of early postnatal care service utilization was 34.3% (95% CI: 29.9%-38.5%). Mothers' use of early postnatal care service was predicted by previous early postnatal care use (AOR=2.60, 95% CI: 1.41-4.77), ANC visit (AOR=0.122, 95% CI:0.059-0.251), delivery complication (AOR=5.57, 95% CI: 2.85-10.89), distance (AOR =5.05, 95% CI: 2.45-10.42), postnatal home visit (AOR=0.21, 95% CI: 0.11-0.40), awareness on early postnatal care (AOR=16.38 95% CI: 6.23-43.07), age (AOR=9.34, 95% CI: 1.73-50.27), (AOR=6.50, 95% CI: 2.29-18.41), (AOR= 6.23, 95% CI: 2.38-16.33) and income (AOR=7.97 95% CI: 2.42-26.26, AOR=3.30 95% CI:1.42-7.67).

Our study's finding revealed that the prevalence of early postnatal care service use was low. Early postnatal care service use was significantly associated with previous early postnatal care use, delivery complication, distance, postnatal home visit, number of ANC visits, awareness on early postnatal care use, age, and income.

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Antibodies at Delivery in Women, Partners, and Newborns.

Obstetrics and Gynecology

To investigate the frequency of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies in parturient women, their partners, and their newborns and the association of such antibodies with obstetric and neonatal outcomes.

From April 4 to July 3, 2020, in a single university hospital in Denmark, all parturient women and their partners were invited to participate in the study, along with their newborns. Participating women and partners had a pharyngeal swab and a blood sample taken at admission; immediately after delivery, a blood sample was drawn from the umbilical cord. The swabs were analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by polymerase chain reaction, and the blood samples were analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Full medical history and obstetric and neonatal information were available.

A total of 1,313 parturient women (72.5.% of all women admitted for delivery at the hospital in the study period), 1,188 partners, and 1,206 newborns participated in the study. The adjusted serologic prevalence was 2.6% in women and 3.5% in partners. Seventeen newborns had SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies, and none had immunoglobulin M antibodies. No associations between SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and obstetric or neonatal complications were found (eg, preterm birth, preeclampsia, cesarean delivery, Apgar score, low birth weight, umbilical arterial pH, need for continuous positive airway pressure, or neonatal admission), but statistical power to detect such differences was low. Full serologic data from 1,051 families showed an absolute risk of maternal infection of 39% if the partner had antibodies.

We found no association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and obstetric or neonatal complications. Sixty-seven percent of newborns delivered by mothers with antibodies had SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies. A limitation of our study is that we lacked statistical power to detect small but potentially meaningful differences between those with and without evidence of infection.