The latest medical research on Adult Reconstructive Orthopaedics

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about adult reconstructive orthopaedics gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Can the Clinical Frailty Scale on admission predict 30-day survival, postoperative complications, and institutionalization in patients with fragility hip fracture? : a cohort study of 1,255 patients.

Bone Joint J

We assessed the value of the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) in the prediction of adverse outcome after hip fracture.

Of 1,577 consecutive patients aged > 65 years with a fragility hip fracture admitted to one institution, for whom there were complete data, 1,255 (72%) were studied. Clinicians assigned CFS scores on admission. Audit personnel routinely prospectively completed the Standardised Audit of Hip Fracture in Europe form, including the following outcomes: 30-day survival; in-hospital complications; length of acute hospital stay; and new institutionalization. The relationship between the CFS scores and outcomes was examined graphically and the visual interpretations were tested statistically. The predictive values of the CFS and Nottingham Hip Fracture Score (NHFS) to predict 30-day mortality were compared using receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (AUC) analysis.

Significant non-linear associations between CFS and outcomes were observed. Risk of death within 30 days rose linearly for CFS 1 to 5, but plateaued for CFS > 5. The incidence of complications and length of stay rose linearly for CFS 1 to 4, but plateaued for CFS > 4. In contrast, the risk of new institutionalization rose linearly for CFS 1 to 8. The AUCs for 30-day mortality for the CFS and NHFS were very similar: CFS AUC 0.63 (95% CI 0.57 to 0.69) and NHFS AUC 0.63 (95% CI 0.57 to 0.69).

Use of the CFS may provide useful information on outcomes for fitter patients presenting with hip fracture, but completion of the CFS by the admitting orthopaedic team does not appear successful in distinguishing between higher CFS categories, which define patients with frailty. This makes a strong case for the role of the orthogeriatrician in the early assessment of these patients. Further work is needed to understand why patients assessed as being of mild, moderate, and severe frailty do not result in different outcomes. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2022;104-B(8):980-986.

The Fragility Fracture Postoperative Mobilisation multicentre audit : the reality of weightbearing practices following operations for lower limb fragility fractures.

Bone Joint J

The purpose of this study was to determine the weightbearing practice of operatively managed fragility fractures in the setting of publically funded health services in the UK and Ireland.

The Fragility Fracture Postoperative Mobilisation (FFPOM) multicentre audit included all patients aged 60 years and older undergoing surgery for a fragility fracture of the lower limb between 1 January 2019 and 30 June 2019, and 1 February 2021 and 14 March 2021. Fractures arising from high-energy transfer trauma, patients with multiple injuries, and those associated with metastatic deposits or infection were excluded. We analyzed this patient cohort to determine adherence to the British Orthopaedic Association Standard, "all surgery in the frail patient should be performed to allow full weight-bearing for activities required for daily living".

A total of 19,557 patients (mean age 82 years (SD 9), 16,241 having a hip fracture) were included. Overall, 16,614 patients (85.0%) were instructed to perform weightbearing where required for daily living immediately postoperatively (15,543 (95.7%) hip fracture and 1,071 (32.3%) non-hip fracture patients). The median length of stay was 12.2 days (interquartile range (IQR) 7.9 to 20.0) (12.6 days (IQR 8.2 to 20.4) for hip fracture and 10.3 days (IQR 5.5 to 18.7) for non-hip fracture patients).

Non-hip fracture patients experienced more postoperative weightbearing restrictions, although they had a shorter hospital stay. Patients sustaining fractures of the shaft and distal femur had a longer median length of stay than demographically similar patients who received hip fracture surgery. We have shown a significant disparity in weightbearing restrictions placed on patients with fragility fractures, despite the publication of a national guideline. Surgeons intentionally restrict postoperative weightbearing in the majority of non-hip fractures, yet are content with unrestricted weightbearing following operations for hip fractures. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2022;104-B(8):972-979.

Cost-utility analysis of cemented hemiarthroplasty versus hydroxyapatite-coated uncemented hemiarthroplasty for the treatment of displaced intracapsular hip fractures : the World Hip Trauma Evaluation 5 (WHiTE 5) trial.

Bone Joint J

The aim of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of cemented hemiarthroplasty (HA) versus hydroxyapatite-coated uncemented HA for the treatment of displaced intracapsular hip fractures in older adults.

A within-trial economic evaluation was conducted based on data collected from the World Hip Trauma Evaluation 5 (WHiTE 5) multicentre randomized controlled trial in the UK. Resource use was measured over 12 months post-randomization using trial case report forms and participant-completed questionnaires. Cost-effectiveness was reported in terms of incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained from the NHS and personal social service perspective. Methodological uncertainty was addressed using sensitivity analysis, while decision uncertainty was represented graphically using confidence ellipses and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves.

The base-case analysis showed that cemented implants were cost-saving (mean cost difference -£961 (95% confidence interval (CI) -£2,292 to £370)) and increased QALYs (mean QALY difference 0.010 (95% CI 0.002 to 0.017)) when compared to uncemented implants. The probability of the cemented implant being cost-effective approximated between 95% and 97% at alternative cost-effectiveness thresholds held by decision-makers, and its net monetary benefit was positive. The findings remained robust against all the pre-planned sensitivity analyses.

This study shows that cemented HA is cost-effective compared with hydroxyapatite-coated uncemented HA in older adults with displaced intracapsular hip fractures. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2022;104-B(8):922-928.

Absorbable versus nonabsorbable sutures for the Krackow suture repair of acute Achilles tendon rupture: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

Bone Joint J

Although absorbable sutures for the repair of acute Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) have been attracting attention, the rationale for their use remains insufficient. This study prospectively compared the outcomes of absorbable and nonabsorbable sutures for the repair of acute ATR.

A total of 40 patients were randomly assigned to either braided absorbable polyglactin suture or braided nonabsorbable polyethylene terephthalate suture groups. ATR was then repaired using the Krackow suture method. At three and six months after surgery, the isokinetic muscle strength of ankle plantar flexion was measured using a computer-based Cybex dynamometer. At six and 12 months after surgery, patient-reported outcomes were measured using the Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS), visual analogue scale for pain (VAS pain), and EuroQoL five-dimension health questionnaire (EQ-5D).

Overall, 37 patients completed 12 months of follow-up. No difference was observed between the two groups in terms of isokinetic plantar flexion strength, ATRS, VAS pain, or EQ-5D. No re-rupture was observed in either group.

The use of absorbable sutures for the repair of acute ATR was not inferior to that of nonabsorbable sutures. This finding suggests that absorbable sutures can be considered for the repair of acute ATRs. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2022;104-B(8):938-945.

Epidemiology and characteristics of femoral periprosthetic fractures : data from the characteristics, outcomes and management of periprosthetic fracture service evaluation (COMPOSE) cohort study.

Bone Joint J

The aim of this study was to describe the demographic details of patients who sustain a femoral periprosthetic fracture (PPF), the epidemiology of PPFs, PPF characteristics, and the predictors of PPF types in the UK population.

This is a multicentre retrospective cohort study including adult patients presenting to hospital with a new PPF between 1 January 2018 and 31 December 2018. Data collected included: patient characteristics, comorbidities, anticoagulant use, social circumstances, level of mobility, fracture characteristics, Unified Classification System (UCS) type, and details of the original implant. Descriptive analysis by fracture location was performed, and predictors of PPF type were assessed using mixed-effects logistic regression models.

In total, 720 femoral PPFs from 27 NHS sites were included. PPF patients were typically elderly (mean 79.9 years (SD 10.6)), female (n = 455; 63.2%), had at least one comorbidity (n = 670; 93.1%), and were reliant on walking aids or bed-/chair-bound prior to admission (n = 419; 61.7%). The study population included 539 (74.9%) hip PPFs, 151 (21.0%) knee PPFs, and 30 (4.2%) dividing type PPFs. For hip (n = 407; 75.5%) and knee (n = 88; 58.3%) arthroplasty UCS B type fractures were most common. Overall, 556 (86.2%) were treated in the presenting hospital and 89 (13.8%) required transfer for treatment. Female sex was the only significant predictor of fracture type (A/B1/C type versus B2/B3) for femoral hip PPFs (odds ratio 0.61 (95% confidence interval 0.41 to 0.91); p = 0.014). Sex, residence type, primary versus revision implant PPF, implant fixation, and time between arthroplasty and PPF were not found to predict fracture type for hip PPFs.

This multicentre analysis describes patient and injury factors for patients presenting with femoral PPFs to centres across the UK. These patients are generally elderly and frail, comparable to those sustaining a hip fracture. These data can be useful in planning future services and clinical trials. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2022;104-B(8):987-996 .

Management and outcomes of femoral periprosthetic fractures at the hip : data from the characteristics, outcomes and management of periprosthetic fracture service evaluation (COMPOSE) cohort study.

Bone Joint J

The aim of this study was to describe the management and associated outcomes of patients sustaining a femoral hip periprosthetic fracture (PPF) in the UK population.

This was a multicentre retrospective cohort study including adult patients who presented to 27 NHS hospitals with 539 new PPFs between 1 January 2018 and 31 December 2018. Data collected included: management strategy (operative and nonoperative), length of stay, discharge destination, and details of post-treatment outcomes (reoperation, readmission, and 30-day and 12-month mortality). Descriptive analysis by fracture type was performed, and predictors of PPF management and outcomes were assessed using mixed-effects logistic regression.

In all, 417 fractures (77%) were managed operatively and 122 (23%) conservatively. The median time to surgery was four days (interquartile range (IQR) 2 to 7). Of those undergoing surgery, 246 (59%) underwent revision and/or fixation and 169 (41%) fixation alone. The surgical strategy used differed by Unified Classification System for PPF type, with the highest rate of revision in B2/B3 fractures (both 77%, 176/228 and 24/31, respectively) and the highest rate of fixation alone in B1- (55/78; 71%) and C-type (49/65; 75%) fractures. Cemented stem fixation (odds ratio (OR) 2.66 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.42 to 4.99); p = 0.002) and B2/B3 fracture type (OR 7.56 (95% CI 4.14 to 13.78); p < 0.001) were predictors of operative management. The median length of stay was 15 days (IQR 9 to 23), 12-month reoperation rate was 5.6% (n = 30), and 30-day readmission rate was 8.4% (n = 45). The 30-day and 12-month mortality rates were 5.2% (n = 28) and 21.0% (n = 113). Nonoperative treatment, older age, male sex, admission from residential or nursing care, and sustaining the PPF around a revision prosthesis were significant predictors of an increased 12-month mortality.

Femoral hip PPFs have mortality, reoperation, and readmission rates comparable with hip fracture patients. However, they have a longer wait for surgery, and surgical treatment is more complex. There is a need to create a national framework for data collection for this heterogeneous group of patients in order to understand the outcomes of different approaches to treatment. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2022;104-B(8):997-1008 .

One-year outcome of surgery compared with immobilization in a cast for adults with an undisplaced or minimally displaced scaphoid fracture : a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Bone Joint J

There has been an increasing use of early operative fixation for scaphoid fractures, despite uncertain evidence. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate up-to-date evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs), comparing the effectiveness of the operative and nonoperative treatment of undisplaced and minimally displaced (≤ 2 mm displacement) scaphoid fractures.

A systematic review of seven databases was performed from the dates of their inception until the end of March 2021 to identify eligible RCTs. Reference lists of the included studies were screened. No language restrictions were applied. The primary outcome was the patient-reported outcome measure of wrist function at 12 months after injury. A meta-analysis was performed for function, pain, range of motion, grip strength, and union. Complications were reported narratively.

Seven RCTs were included. There was no significant difference in function between the groups at 12 months (Hedges' g 0.15 (95% confidence interval -0.02 to 0.32); p = 0.082). The complication rate was higher in the operative group and involved more serious complications.

We found no difference in functional outcome at 12 months for fractures of the waist of the scaphoid with ≤ 2 mm displacement treated operatively or nonoperatively. The complication rate was higher with operative treatment. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2022;104-B(8):953-962.

A new prognostic nomogram for heterotopic ossification formation after elbow trauma : the Shanghai post-Traumatic Elbow Heterotopic Ossification Prediction (STEHOP) model.

Bone Joint J

Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a common complication after elbow trauma and can cause severe upper limb disability. Although multiple prognostic factors have been reported to be associated with the development of post-traumatic HO, no model has yet been able to combine these predictors more succinctly to convey prognostic information and medical measures to patients. Therefore, this study aimed to identify prognostic factors leading to the formation of HO after surgery for elbow trauma, and to establish and validate a nomogram to predict the probability of HO formation in such particular injuries.

This multicentre case-control study comprised 200 patients with post-traumatic elbow HO and 229 patients who had elbow trauma but without HO formation between July 2019 and December 2020. Features possibly associated with HO formation were obtained. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression model was used to optimize feature selection. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was applied to build the new nomogram: the Shanghai post-Traumatic Elbow Heterotopic Ossification Prediction model (STEHOP). STEHOP was validated by concordance index (C-index) and calibration plot. Internal validation was conducted using bootstrapping validation.

Male sex, obesity, open wound, dislocations, late definitive surgical treatment, and lack of use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were identified as adverse predictors and incorporated to construct the STEHOP model. It displayed good discrimination with a C-index of 0.80 (95% confidence interval 0.75 to 0.84). A high C-index value of 0.77 could still be reached in the internal validation. The calibration plot showed good agreement between nomogram prediction and observed outcomes.

The newly developed STEHOP model is a valid and convenient instrument to predict HO formation after surgery for elbow trauma. It could assist clinicians in counselling patients regarding treatment expectations and therapeutic choices. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2022;104-B(8):963-971.

Artificial intelligence for image analysis in total hip and total knee arthroplasty : a scoping review.

Bone Joint J

Total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are common orthopaedic procedures requiring postoperative radiographs to confirm implant positioning and identify complications. Artificial intelligence (AI)-based image analysis has the potential to automate this postoperative surveillance. The aim of this study was to prepare a scoping review to investigate how AI is being used in the analysis of radiographs following THA and TKA, and how accurate these tools are.

The Embase, MEDLINE, and PubMed libraries were systematically searched to identify relevant articles. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for scoping reviews and Arksey and O'Malley framework were followed. Study quality was assessed using a modified Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies tool. AI performance was reported using either the area under the curve (AUC) or accuracy.

Of the 455 studies identified, only 12 were suitable for inclusion. Nine reported implant identification and three described predicting risk of implant failure. Of the 12, three studies compared AI performance with orthopaedic surgeons. AI-based implant identification achieved AUC 0.992 to 1, and most algorithms reported an accuracy > 90%, using 550 to 320,000 training radiographs. AI prediction of dislocation risk post-THA, determined after five-year follow-up, was satisfactory (AUC 76.67; 8,500 training radiographs). Diagnosis of hip implant loosening was good (accuracy 88.3%; 420 training radiographs) and measurement of postoperative acetabular angles was comparable to humans (mean absolute difference 1.35° to 1.39°). However, 11 of the 12 studies had several methodological limitations introducing a high risk of bias. None of the studies were externally validated.

These studies show that AI is promising. While it already has the ability to analyze images with significant precision, there is currently insufficient high-level evidence to support its widespread clinical use. Further research to design robust studies that follow standard reporting guidelines should be encouraged to develop AI models that could be easily translated into real-world conditions. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2022;104-B(8):929-937.

The effectiveness of leucocyte-poor platelet-rich plasma injections on symptomatic early osteoarthritis of the knee: the PEAK randomized controlled trial.

Bone Joint J

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) intra-articular injections may provide a simple and minimally invasive treatment for early-stage knee osteoarthritis (OA). This has led to an increase in its adoption as a treatment for knee OA, although there is uncertainty about its efficacy and benefit. We hypothesized that patients with early-stage symptomatic knee OA who receive multiple PRP injections will have better clinical outcomes than those receiving single PRP or placebo injections.

A double-blinded, randomized placebo-controlled trial was performed with three groups receiving either placebo injections (Normal Saline), one PRP injection followed by two placebo injections, or three PRP injections. Each injection was given one week apart. Outcomes were prospectively collected prior to intervention and then at six weeks, three months, six months, and 12 months post-intervention. Primary outcome measures were Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and EuroQol five-dimension five-level index (EQ-5D-5L). Secondary outcomes included visual analogue scale for pain and patient subjective assessment of the injections.

A total of 102 patients were recruited. The follow-up period was 12 months, at intervals of six weeks, 12 weeks, six months, and 12 months. KOOS-Total significantly improved in all groups at these time intervals compared to pre-injection. There was an improvement in EQ-5D-5L index scores in saline and single injection groups, but not in the multiple injection group. Comparison of treatment groups showed no additional beneficial effect of single or multiple PRP injections above that displayed in the saline injection group. Subjective patient satisfaction and recommendation of treatment received demonstrated a similar pattern in all the groups. There was no indication of superiority of either single or multiple PRP injections compared to saline injections.

There is no evidence that single or multiple PRP had any additional beneficial effect compared to saline injection up to 12 months, follow-up after treatment of early stage symptomatic OA of the knee. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2022;104-B(6):663-671.

Elbow hemiarthroplasty with a 3D-printed megaprosthesis for defects of the distal humerus or proximal ulna after tumour resection : a preliminary report.

Bone Joint J

The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of application of a 3D-printed megaprosthesis with hemiarthroplasty design for defects of the distal humerus or proximal ulna following tumour resection.

From June 2018 to January 2020, 13 patients with aggressive or malignant tumours involving the distal humerus (n = 8) or proximal ulna (n = 5) were treated by en bloc resection and reconstruction with a 3D-printed megaprosthesis with hemiarthroplasty, designed in our centre. In this paper, we summarize the baseline and operative data, oncological outcome, complication profiles, and functional status of these patients.

Preparation of the prosthesis was a mean of 8.0 days (SD 1.5), during which time no patients experienced tumour progression. The mean operating time and intraoperative blood loss were 158.1 minutes (SD 67.6) and 176.9 ml (SD 187.8), respectively. All of the prostheses were implanted successfully. During a mean follow-up of 25.7 months (SD 7.8), no patients died, but four had complications (two superficial wound problems, one temporary palsy of radial nerve, and one dislocation). No aseptic loosening, structural failure, infection, heterotopic ossification, or degenerative arthritis was seen in this study. The mean flexion of the elbow was 119.6° (SD 15.9°) and the mean extension lag was 11.9° (SD 13.8°). The mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society 93 score and Mayo Elbow Performance Score were 28.4 (SD 0.9) and 97.7 (SD 4.4), respectively.

The custom-made, 3D-printed megaprosthesis with hemiarthroplasty is a feasible option for functional reconstruction after resection of a tumour in the distal humerus or proximal ulna. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2022;104-B(6):747-757.

Incidence and quality of care for open fractures in England between 2008 and 2019 : a cohort study using data collected by the Trauma Audit and Research Network.

Bone Joint J

This study estimated trends in incidence of open fractures and the adherence to clinical standards for open fracture care in England.

Longitudinal data collected by the Trauma Audit and Research Network were used to identify 38,347 patients with open fractures, and a subgroup of 12,170 with severe open fractures of the tibia, between 2008 and 2019 in England. Incidence rates per 100,000 person-years and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Clinical care was compared with the British Orthopaedic Association Standards for Trauma and National Major Trauma Centre audit standards.

In total, 60% of all open fractures occurred in males; the median age was 48 years (interquartile range (IQR) 29 to 68). Between 2012 and 2019, the overall incidence in England was 6.94 per 100,000 person-years. In males, the highest incidence observed was in those aged 20 to 29 years (11.50 per 100,000 person-years); in females, incidence increased with age, peaking at 32.11/100,000 person-years at 90 years of age and over. Among those with severe open fractures of the tibia, there was a bimodal distribution in males, peaking at 20 to 29 years (3.71/100,000 person-years) and greater than 90 years of age (2.84/100,000 person-years) respectively; among females, incidence increased with age to a peak of 9.91/100,000 person years at 90 years of age and over. There has been variable improvement with time in the clinical care standards for patients with severe open fractures of the tibia. The median time to debridement was 13.0 hours (IQR 6.4 to 20.9); almost two-thirds of patients underwent definitive soft-tissue coverage within 72 hours from 2016 to 2019.

This is the first time the incidence of all open fractures has been studied using data from a national audit in England. While most open fractures occurred in young males, the incidence increased with age in females to a much greater level than observed in older males. The degree of missing data in the national audit is startling, and limits the certainty of inferences drawn concerning open fracture care. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2022;104-B(6):736-746.