The latest medical research on Adult Reconstructive Orthopaedics

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about adult reconstructive orthopaedics gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Hemiarthroplasty or total elbow arthroplasty for unreconstructable distal humeral fractures in patients aged over 65 years : a systematic review and meta-analysis of patient outcomes and complications.

Bone Joint J

Arthroplasty is being increasingly used for the management of distal humeral fractures (DHFs) in elderly patients. Arthroplasty options include total elbow arthroplasty (TEA) and hemiarthroplasty (HA); both have unique complications and there is not yet a consensus on which implant is superior. This systematic review asked: in patients aged over 65 years with unreconstructable DHFs, what differences are there in outcomes, as measured by patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), range of motion (ROM), and complications, between distal humeral HA and TEA?

A systematic review of the literature was performed via a search of MEDLINE and Embase. Two reviewers extracted data on PROMs, ROM, and complications. PROMs and ROM results were reported descriptively and a meta-analysis of complications was conducted. Quality of methodology was assessed using Wylde's non-summative four-point system. The study was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42021228329).

A total of 29 studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The mean Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (DASH) score was 19.6 (SD 7.5) for HA and 38 (SD 11.9) for TEA and the mean abbreviated version of DASH was 17.2 (SD 13.2) for HA and 24.9 (SD 4.8) for TEA. The Mayo Elbow Performance Score was the most commonly reported PROM across included studies, with a mean of 87 (SD 5.3) in HA and 88.3 (SD 5) in TEA. High complication rates were seen in both HA (22% (95% confidence interval (CI) 5 to 44)) and TEA (21% (95% CI 13 to 30), but no statistically significant difference identified.

This systematic review has indicated PROMs and ROM mostly favouring HA, but with a similarly high complication rate in the two procedures. However, due to the small sample size and heterogeneity between studies, strength of evidence for these findings is low. We propose further research in the form of a national randomized controlled trial. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2022;104-B(5):559-566.

Robotic arm-assisted versus manual unicompartmental knee arthroplasty : a systematic review and meta-analysis of the MAKO robotic system.

Bone Joint J

This systematic review aims to compare the precision of component positioning, patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), complications, survivorship, cost-effectiveness, and learning curves of MAKO robotic arm-assisted unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (RAUKA) with manual medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (mUKA).

Searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar were performed in November 2021 according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta--Analysis statement. Search terms included "robotic", "unicompartmental", "knee", and "arthroplasty". Published clinical research articles reporting the learning curves and cost-effectiveness of MAKO RAUKA, and those comparing the component precision, functional outcomes, survivorship, or complications with mUKA, were included for analysis.

A total of 179 articles were identified from initial screening, of which 14 articles satisfied the inclusion criteria and were included for analysis. The papers analyzed include one on learning curve, five on implant positioning, six on functional outcomes, five on complications, six on survivorship, and three on cost. The learning curve was six cases for operating time and zero for precision. There was consistent evidence of more precise implant positioning with MAKO RAUKA. Meta-analysis demonstrated lower overall complication rates associated with MAKO RAUKA (OR 2.18 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06 to 4.49); p = 0.040) but no difference in re-intervention, infection, Knee Society Score (KSS; mean difference 1.64 (95% CI -3.00 to 6.27); p = 0.490), or Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) score (mean difference -0.58 (95% CI -3.55 to 2.38); p = 0.700). MAKO RAUKA was shown to be a cost-effective procedure, but this was directly related to volume.

MAKO RAUKA was associated with improved precision of component positioning but was not associated with improved PROMs using the KSS and WOMAC scores. Future longer-term studies should report functional outcomes, potentially using scores with minimal ceiling effects and survival to assess whether the improved precision of MAKO RAUKA results in better outcomes. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2022;104-B(5):541-548.

Risk of revision based on timing of corticosteroid injection prior to shoulder arthroplasty.

Bone Joint J

Corticosteroid injections are often used to manage glenohumeral arthritis in patients who may be candidates for future total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) or reverse shoulder arthroplasty (rTSA). In the conservative management of these patients, corticosteroid injections are often provided for symptomatic relief. The purpose of this study was to determine if the timing of corticosteroid injections prior to TSA or rTSA is associated with changes in rates of revision and periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) following these procedures.

Data were collected from a national insurance database from January 2006 to December 2017. Patients who underwent shoulder corticosteroid injection within one year prior to ipsilateral TSA or rTSA were identified and stratified into the following cohorts: < three months, three to six months, six to nine months, and nine to 12 months from time of corticosteroid injection to TSA or rTSA. A control cohort with no corticosteroid injection within one year prior to TSA or rTSA was used for comparison. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to determine the association between specific time intervals and outcomes.

In total, 4,252 patients were included in this study. Among those, 1,632 patients (38.4%) received corticosteroid injection(s) within one year prior to TSA or rTSA and 2,620 patients (61.6%) did not. On multivariate analysis, patients who received corticosteroid injection < three months prior to TSA or rTSA were at significantly increased risk for revision (odds ratio (OR) 2.61 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.77 to 3.28); p < 0.001) when compared with the control cohort. However, there was no significant increase in revision risk for all other timing interval cohorts. Notably, Charlson Comorbidity Index ≥ 3 was a significant independent risk factor for all-cause revision (OR 4.00 (95% CI 1.40 to 8.92); p = 0.036).

There is a time-dependent relationship between the preoperative timing of corticosteroid injection and the incidence of all-cause revision surgery following TSA or rTSA. This analysis suggests that an interval of at least three months should be maintained between corticosteroid injection and TSA or rTSA to minimize risks of subsequent revision surgery. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2022;104-B(5):620-626.

Additional operations after surgery for lumbar disc prolapse : indications, type of surgery, and long-term follow-up of primary operations performed from 2007 to 2008.

Bone Joint J

Lumbar disc prolapse is a frequent indication for surgery. The few available long-term follow-up studies focus mainly on repeated surgery for recurrent disease. The aim of this study was to analyze all reasons for additional surgery for patients operated on for a primary lumbar disc prolapse.

We retrieved data from the Swedish spine register about 3,291 patients who underwent primary surgery for a lumbar disc prolapse between January 2007 and December 2008. These patients were followed until December 2020 to record all additional lumbar spine operations and the reason for them.

In total, 681 of the 3,291 patients (21%) needed one or more additional operations. More than three additional operations was uncommon (2%; 15/906). Overall, 906 additional operations were identified during the time period, with a mean time to the first of these of 3.7 years (SD 3.6). The most common reason for an additional operation was recurrent disc prolapse (47%; 426/906), followed by spinal stenosis or degenerative spondylolisthesis (19%; 176/906), and segmental pain (16%; 145/906). The most common surgical procedures were revision discectomy (43%; 385/906) and instrumented fusion (22%; 200/906). Degenerative spinal conditions other than disc prolapse became a more common reason for additional surgery with increasing length of follow-up. Most patients achieved the minimally important change (MIC) for the patient-reported outcomes after the index surgery. After the third additional spinal operation, only 20% (5/25) achieved the MIC in terms of leg pain, and 29% (7/24) in terms of the EuroQol five-dimension index questionnaire visual analogue scale.

More than one in five patients operated on for a lumbar disc prolapse underwent further surgery during the 13-year follow-up period. Recurrent disc prolapse was the most common reason for additional surgery, followed by spinal stenosis and segmental pain. This study shows that additional operations after primary disc surgery are needed more frequently than previously reported, and that the outcome profoundly deteriorates after the second additional operation. The findings from this study can be used in the shared decision-making process. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2022;104-B(5):627-632.

Intraoperative pressure sensors improve soft-tissue balance but not clinical outcomes in total knee arthroplasty: a multicentre randomized controlled trial.

Bone Joint J

Intraoperative pressure sensors allow surgeons to quantify soft-tissue balance during total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The aim of this study was to determine whether using sensors to achieve soft-tissue balance was more effective than manual balancing in improving outcomes in TKA.

A multicentre randomized trial compared the outcomes of sensor balancing (SB) with manual balancing (MB) in 250 patients (285 TKAs). The primary outcome measure was the mean difference in the four Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score subscales (ΔKOOS4) in the two groups, comparing the preoperative and two-year scores. Secondary outcomes included intraoperative balance data, additional patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), and functional measures.

There was no significant difference in ΔKOOS4 between the two groups at two years (mean difference 0.4 points (95% confidence interval (CI) -4.6 to 5.4); p = 0.869), and multiple regression found that SB was not associated with a significant ΔKOOS4 (0.2-point increase (95% CI -5.1 to 4.6); p = 0.924). There were no significant differences between groups in other PROMs. Six-minute walking distance was significantly increased in the SB group (mean difference 29 metres; p = 0.015). Four-times as many TKAs were unbalanced in the MB group (36.8% MB vs 9.4% SB; p < 0.001). Irrespective of group assignment, no differences were found in any PROM when increasing ICPD thresholds defined balance.

Despite improved quantitative soft-tissue balance, the use of sensors intraoperatively did not differentially improve the clinical or functional outcomes two years after TKA. These results question whether a more precisely balanced TKA that is guided by sensor data, and often achieved by more balancing interventions, will ultimately have a significant effect on clinical outcomes. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2022;104-B(5):604-612.

No difference in outcome or migration but greater loss of bone mineral density with the Collum Femoris Preserving stem compared with the Corail stem: a randomized controlled trial with five-year follow-up.

Bone Joint J

The aim of this study was to compare the mid-term patient-reported outcome, bone remodelling, and migration of a short stem (Collum Femoris Preserving; CFP) with a conventional uncemented stem (Corail).

Of 81 patients who were initially enrolled, 71 were available at five years' follow-up. The outcomes at two years have previously been reported. The primary outcome measure was the clinical result assessed using the Oxford Hip Score (OHS). Secondary outcomes were the migration of the stem, measured using radiostereometric analysis (RSA), change of bone mineral density (BMD) around the stem, the development of radiolucent lines, and additional patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs).

There were no statistically significant differences between the groups regarding PROMs (median OHS (CFP 45 (interquartile range (IQR) 35 to 48); Corail 45 (IQR 40 to 48); p = 0.568). RSA showed stable stems in both groups, with little or no further subsidence between two and five years. Resorption of the femoral neck was evident in nine patients in the CFP group and in none of the 15 Corail stems with a collar that could be studied. Dual X-ray absorbiometry showed a significantly higher loss of BMD in the proximal Gruen zones in the CFP group (mean changes in BMD: Gruen zone 1, CFP -9.5 (95% confidence interval (CI) -14.8 to -4.2), Corail 1.0 (95% CI 3.4 to 5.4); Gruen zone 7, CFP -23.0 (95% CI -29.4 to -16.6), Corail -7.2 (95% CI -15.9 to 1.4). Two CFP stems were revised before two years' follow-up due to loosening, and one Corail stem was revised after two years due to chronic infection.

The CFP stem has a similar clinical outcome and subsidence pattern when compared with the Corail stem. More pronounced proximal stress-shielding was seen with the CFP stem, suggesting diaphyseal fixation, and questioning its femoral neck-sparing properties in the long term. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2022;104-B(5):581-588.

Cervical transforaminal epidural steroid injections for radicular pain : a systematic review.

Bone Joint J

Cervical radiculopathy is a significant cause of pain and morbidity. For patients with severe and poorly controlled symptoms who may not be candidates for surgical management, treatment with transforaminal epidural steroid injections (CTFESI) has gained widespread acceptance. However, a paucity of high-quality evidence supporting their use balanced against perceived high risks of the procedure potentially undermines the confidence of clinicians who use the technique. We undertook a systematic review of the available literature regarding CTFESI to assess the clinical efficacy and complication rates of the procedure.

OVID, MEDLINE, and Embase database searches were performed independently by two authors who subsequently completed title, abstract, and full-text screening for inclusion against set criteria. Clinical outcomes and complication data were extracted, and a narrative synthesis presented.

Six studies (three randomized controlled trials and three non-randomized observational studies; 443 patients) were included in the final review. The aggregate data support the efficacy of CTFESI in excess of the likely minimal clinically important difference. No major complications were described.

There is increasing evidence supporting the efficacy of CTFESI. Concerns regarding the occurrence of catastrophic complications, widely shared in the case report and anecdotal literature, were not found when reviewing the best available evidence. However, the strength of these findings remains limited by the lack of highly powered high-level studies and the heterogeneity of the studies available. Further high-quality studies are recommended to address the issues of efficacy and safety with CTFESI. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2022;104-B(5):567-574.

Monitoring the lifetime risk of revision knee arthroplasty over a decade : a population-level analysis of Australian national registry data.

Bone Joint J

This study aimed to describe the use of revision knee arthroplasty in Australia and examine changes in lifetime risk over a decade.

De-identified individual-level data on all revision knee arthroplasties performed in Australia from 2007 to 2017 were obtained from the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry. Population data and life tables were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. The lifetime risk of revision surgery was calculated for each year using a standardized formula. Separate calculations were undertaken for males and females.

In total, 43,188 revision knee arthroplasty procedures were performed in Australia during the study period, with a median age at surgery of 69 years (interquartile range (IQR) 62 to 76). In 2017, revision knee arthroplasty rates were highest for males aged 70 to 79 years (102.9 procedures per 100,000 population). Lifetime risk of revision knee arthroplasty for females increased slightly from 1.61% (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.53% to 1.69%) in 2007 to 2.22% (95% CI 2.13% to 2.31%) in 2017. A similar pattern was evident for males, with a lifetime risk of 1.43% (95% CI 1.36% to 1.51%) in 2007 and 2.02% (95% CI 1.93% to 2.11%) in 2017. A decline in procedures performed for loosening/lysis (from 41% in 2007 to 24% in 2017) and pain (from 14% to 9%) was evident, while infection became an increasingly common indication (from 19% in 2007 to 29% in 2017).

Well-validated national registry data can help us understand the epidemiology of revision knee arthroplasty, including changing clinical indications. Despite a small increase over a decade, the lifetime risk of revision knee arthroplasty in Australia is low at one in 45 females and one in 50 males. These methods offer a population-level approach to quantifying revision burden that can be used for ongoing national surveillance and between-country comparisons. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2022;104-B(5):613-619.

Liner malseating is rare with two modular dual-mobility designs.

Bone Joint J

The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of liner malseating in two commonly used dual-mobility (DM) designs. Secondary aims included determining the risk of dislocation, survival, and clinical outcomes.

We retrospectively identified 256 primary total hip arthroplasties (THAs) that included a DM component (144 Stryker MDM and 112 Zimmer-Biomet G7) in 233 patients, performed between January 2012 and December 2019. Postoperative radiographs were reviewed independently for malseating of the liner by five reviewers. The mean age of the patients at the time of THA was 66 years (18 to 93), 166 (65%) were female, and the mean BMI was 30 kg/m2 (17 to 57). The mean follow-up was 3.5 years (2.0 to 9.2).

Three liners (1.2%) were malseated, including two MDMs (1.4%) and one G7 (0.9%). No clinical consequence was identified from malseating. The five-year survival free of dislocation was 97.1%, including two DM and one intraprosthetic dislocation. The five-year survival free of revision was 95.4%, with seven revisions. The mean Harris Hip Scores increased from 46 (24 to 69) preoperatively to 81 (40 to 100) at two years postoperatively (p < 0.001).

The incidence of DM liner malseating after primary THA was low, with no known clinical consequences at mid-term follow-up. Malseating is not exclusive of design, and these findings emphasize the importance of careful evaluation of the liner after impaction to avoid this complication. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2022;104-B(5):598-603.

Five-year outcomes for patients sustaining severe fractures of the lower limb : mid-term results from the Wound management for Open Lower Limb Fracture (WOLLF) trial.

Bone Joint J

The aim of this study was to report the outcomes of patients with severe open fractures of the lower limb in the five years after they took part in the Wound management for Open Lower Limb Fracture (WOLLF) trial.

The WOLLF trial compared standard dressings to negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) applied at the end of the first surgical wound debridement, and patients were followed-up for 12 months. At 12 months, 170 of the original 460 participants agreed to take part in this medium-term follow-up study. Patients reported their Disability Rating Index (DRI) (0 to 100, where 100 is total disability) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) using the EuroQol five-dimension three-level health questionnaire (EQ-5D-3L) annually by self-reported questionnaire. Further surgical interventions related to the open fracture were also recorded.

There was no evidence of a difference in patient-reported disability, HRQoL, or the need for further surgery between patients treated with NPWT versus standard dressings at five years. Considering the combined results for all participants, there was a small but statistically significant change in DRI scores over time (1.6 units per year; p = 0.005), but no evidence that EQ-5D-3L scores changed significantly during years two to five (p = 0.551).

This study shows that the high levels of disability and reduced HRQoL reported by patients 12 months after severe open fractures of the lower limb persist in the medium term, with little evidence of improvement between years two and five. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2022;104-B(5):633-639.

Access to hip arthroplasty and rates of complications in different socioeconomic groups : a review of 111,000 patients in a universal healthcare system.

Bone Joint J

Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is one of the most successful surgical procedures. The objectives of this study were to define whether there is a correlation between socioeconomic status (SES) and surgical complications after elective primary unilateral THA, and investigate whether access to elective THA differs within SES groups.

We conducted a retrospective, population-based cohort study involving 202 hospitals in Ontario, Canada, over a 17-year period. Patients were divided into income quintiles based on postal codes as a proxy for personal economic status. Multivariable logistic regression models were then used to primarily assess the relationship between SES and surgical complications within one year of index THA.

Of 111,359 patients who underwent elective primary THA, those in the lower SES groups had statistically significantly more comorbidities and statistically significantly more postoperative complications. While there was no increase in readmission rates within 90 days, there was a statistically significant difference in the primary and secondary outcomes including all revisions due (with a subset of deep wound infection and dislocation). Results showed that those in the higher SES groups had proportionally more cases performed than those in lower groups. Compared to the highest SES quintile, the lower groups had 61% of the number of hip arthroplasties performed.

Patients in lower socioeconomic groups have more comorbidities, fewer absolute number of cases performed, have their procedures performed in lower-volume centres, and ultimately have higher rates of complications. This lack of access and higher rates of complications is a "double hit" to those in lower SES groups, and indicates that we should be concentrating efforts to improve access to surgeons and hospitals where arthroplasty is routinely performed in high numbers. Even in a universal healthcare system where there are no penalties for complications such as readmission, there seems to be an inequality in the access to THA. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2022;104-B(5):589-597.

Bone grafting for scaphoid nonunion surgery : a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Bone Joint J

The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the rates of union for vascularized versus non-vascularized grafting techniques in the operative management of scaphoid nonunion. Secondary aims were to determine the effect of the fixation techniques used, the source of grafting, as well as the influence of fracture location (proximal pole) and avascular necrosis (AVN).

A search of PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase was performed in June 2021 using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses statement and registered using the PROSPERO International prospective register of systematic reviews. The primary outcome was union rate.

There were 78 studies that met the inclusion criteria with a total of 7,671 patients (87.8% male, 12.2% female). The mean age was 27.9 years (SD 3.8) and the mean follow-up was 30.9 months (SD 25.9). The mean union rate was 88.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 85.0 to 92.5) for non-vascularized grafts versus 87.5% (95% CI 82.8 to 92.2) for vascularized grafts (p = 0.685). Pooled analysis of trial data alone found a mean union rate of 82.4% (95% CI 66.9% to 97.9%) for non-vascularized grafts and 89.4% (95% CI 84.1% to 94.7%) for vascularized grafts (p = 0.780). No significant difference was observed in union rates between any of the fixation techniques used in the studies (p = 0.502). Distal radius and iliac crest graft source had comparable mean union rates (86.9% (95% CI 83.1 to 90.7) vs 87.6% (95% CI 82.2 to 92.9); p = 0.841). Studies that excluded patients with both proximal pole fractures and AVN (n = 14) had a mean union rate of 96.5% (95% CI 94.2 to 98.9) that was significantly greater than the mean union rate of 86.8% (95% CI 83.2 to 90.4) observed in the remaining studies (p < 0.001).

Current evidence suggests vascularized bone grafting does not yield significantly superior results to non-vascularized grafting in scaphoid nonunion management. However, potential selection bias lessens the certainty of these findings. The fixation type or source of the graft used was not found to influence union rates either. Sufficiently designed and powered prospective randomized controlled trials in this area are needed. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2022;104-B(5):549-558.