The latest medical research on Adult Reconstructive Orthopaedics

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about adult reconstructive orthopaedics gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Analysis of modular taper fractures of the revision hip stem Prevision and comparison of the original and current taper design.

Bone Joint J

The risk of mechanical failure of modular revision hip stems is frequently mentioned in the literature, but little is currently known about the actual clinical failure rates of this type of prosthesis. The current retrospective long-term analysis examines the distal and modular failure patterns of the Prevision hip stem from 18 years of clinical use. A design improvement of the modular taper was introduced in 2008, and the data could also be used to compare the original and the current design of the modular connection.

We performed an analysis of the Prevision modular hip stem using the manufacturer's vigilance database and investigated different mechanical failure patterns of the hip stem from January 2004 to December 2022.

Two mechanical failure patterns were identified: fractures in the area of the distal fluted profile (distal stem fracture) and failure of the modular taper (modular fracture). A failure rate of 0.07% was observed for distal stem fracture, and modular fracture rates of 1.74% for the original and 0.013% for the current taper design.

A low risk of mechanical failure for both fracture types was observed compared to other known complications in revision hip arthroplasty. In addition, the data show that a design change did significantly reduce the risk of a modular fracture.

Postoperative hypotension following acute hip fracture surgery is a predictor of 30-day mortality.

Bone Joint J

Hip fractures are some of the most common fractures encountered in orthopaedic practice. We aimed to identify whether perioperative hypotension is a predictor of 30-day mortality, and to stratify patient groups that would benefit from closer monitoring and early intervention. While there is literature on intraoperative blood pressure, there are limited studies examining pre- and postoperative blood pressure.

We conducted a prospective observational cohort study over a one-year period from December 2021 to December 2022. Patient demographic details, biochemical results, and haemodynamic observations were taken from electronic medical records. Statistical analysis was conducted with the Cox proportional hazards model, and the effects of independent variables estimated with the Wald statistic. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were estimated with the log-rank test.

A total of 528 patients were identified as suitable for inclusion. On multivariate analysis, postoperative hypotension of a systolic blood pressure (SBP) < 90 mmHg two to 24 hours after surgery showed an increased hazard ratio (HR) for 30-day mortality (HR 4.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3 to 8.9); p < 0.001) and was an independent risk factor accounting for sex (HR 2.7 (95% CI 1.4 to 5.2); p = 0.003), age (HR 1.1 (95% CI 1.0 to 1.1); p = 0.016), American Society of Anesthesiologists grade (HR 2.7 (95% CI 1.5 to 4.6); p < 0.001), time to theatre > 24 hours (HR 2.1 (95% CI 1.1 to 4.2); p = 0.025), and preoperative anaemia (HR 2.3 (95% CI 1.0 to 5.2); p = 0.043). A preoperative SBP of < 120 mmHg was close to achieving significance (HR 1.9 (95% CI 0.99 to 3.6); p = 0.052).

Our study is the first to demonstrate that postoperative hypotension within the first 24 hours is an independent risk factor for 30-day mortality after hip fracture surgery. Clinicians should recognize patients who have a SBP of < 90 mmHg in the early postoperative period, and be aware of the increased mortality risk in this specific cohort who may benefit from a closer level of monitoring and early intervention.

Higher complication rates following primary total shoulder arthroplasty in patients presenting from areas of higher social deprivation.

Bone Joint J

The aim of this study was to characterize the influence of social deprivation on the rate of complications, readmissions, and revisions following primary total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA), using the Social Deprivation Index (SDI). The SDI is a composite measurement, in percentages, of seven demographic characteristics: living in poverty, with < 12 years of education, single-parent households, living in rented or overcrowded housing, households without a car, and unemployed adults aged < 65 years.

Patients aged ≥ 40 years, who underwent primary TSA between 2011 and 2017, were identified using International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 Clinical Modification and ICD-10 procedure codes for TSA in the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System database. Readmission, reoperation, and other complications were analyzed using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression controlling for SDI, age, ethnicity, insurance status, and Charlson Comorbidity Index.

A total of 17,698 patients with a mean age of 69 years (SD 9.6), of whom 57.7% were female, underwent TSA during this time and 4,020 (22.7%) had at least one complication. A total of 8,113 patients (45.8%) had at least one comorbidity, and the median SDI in those who developed complications 12 months postoperatively was significantly greater than in those without a complication (33 vs 38; p < 0.001). Patients from areas with higher deprivation had increased one-, three-, and 12-month rates of readmission, dislocation, humeral fracture, urinary tract infection, deep vein thrombosis, and wound complications, as well as a higher three-month rate of pulmonary embolism (all p < 0.05).

Beyond medical complications, we found that patients with increased social deprivation had higher rates of humeral fracture and dislocation following primary TSA. The large sample size of this study, and the outcomes that were measured, add to the literature greatly in comparison with other large database studies involving TSA. These findings allow orthopaedic surgeons practising in under-served or low-volume areas to identify patients who may be at greater risk of developing complications.

Migration and clinical outcomes of a novel cementless hydroxyapatite-coated titanium acetabular shell: two-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial using radiostereometric analysis.

Bone Joint J

The objective of this study was to compare the two-year migration and clinical outcomes of a new cementless hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated titanium acetabular shell with its previous version, which shared the same geometrical design but a different manufacturing process for applying the titanium surface.

Overall, 87 patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) were randomized to either a Trident II HA or Trident HA shell, each cementless with clusterholes and HA-coating. All components were used in combination with a cemented Exeter V40 femoral stem. Implant migration was measured using radiostereometric analysis (RSA), with radiographs taken within two days of surgery (baseline), and at three, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. Proximal acetabular component migration was the primary outcome measure. Clinical scores and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) were collected at each follow-up.

Mean proximal migrations at three, 12, and 24 months were 0.08 mm (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.03 to 0.14), 0.11 mm (95% CI 0.06 to 0.16), and 0.14 mm (95% CI 0.09 to 0.20), respectively, in the Trident II HA group, versus 0.11 mm (95% CI 0.06 to 0.16), 0.12 mm (95% CI 0.07 to 0.17), and 0.14 mm (95% CI 0.09 to 0.19) in the Trident HA group (p = 0.875). No significant differences in translations or rotations between the two designs were found in any other direction. Clinical scores and PROMs were comparable between groups, except for an initially greater postoperative improvement in Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Symptoms score in the Trident HA group (p = 0.033).

The Trident II clusterhole HA shell has comparable migration with its predecessor, the Trident hemispherical HA cluster shell, suggesting a similar risk of long-term aseptic loosening.

Positive outcome reporting in orthopaedic literature.

Bone Joint J

Perthes' disease (PD) is a relatively rare syndrome of idiopathic osteonecrosis of the proximal femoral epiphysis. Treatment for Perthes' disease is controversial due to the many options available, with no clear superiority of one treatment over another. Despite having few evidence-based approaches, many patients with Perthes' disease are managed surgically. Positive outcome reporting, defined as reporting a study variable producing statistically significant positive (beneficial) results, is a phenomenon that can be considered a proxy for the strength of science. This study aims to conduct a systematic literature review with the hypothesis that positive outcome reporting is frequent in studies on the treatment of Perthes' disease.

We conducted a systematic review of all available abstracts associated with manuscripts in English or with English translation between January 2000 and December 2021, dealing with the treatment of Perthes' disease. Data collection included various study characteristics, surgical versus non-surgical management, treatment modality, mean follow-up time, analysis methods, and clinical recommendations.

Our study included 130 manuscripts. Overall, 110 (85%) reported positive (beneficial) results, three (2%) reported negative results, and 17 (13%) reported no significant difference. Despite only 10/130 studies (8%) having a testable hypothesis, 71 (55%) recommended the use of their studied treatment methods for the patients, five (4%) made recommendations against the use of the studied treatment modality, and 54 (42%) did not make any recommendations.

The overall rate for positive outcomes among included manuscripts regarding different treatment methods for Perthes' disease (85%) is higher than the 74% positive outcome rate found among studies for other surgically treated disorders and significantly higher than most scientific literature. Despite the lack of testable hypotheses, most manuscripts recommended their studied treatment method as a successful option for managing patients solely based on the reporting of retrospective data.

Central band interosseus membrane reconstruction for longitudinal instability injuries of the forearm.

Bone Joint J

Acute and chronic injuries of the interosseus membrane can result in longitudinal instability of the forearm. Reconstruction of the central band of the interosseus membrane can help to restore biomechanical stability. Different methods have been used to reconstruct the central band, including tendon grafts, bone-ligament-bone grafts, and synthetic grafts. This Idea, Development, Exploration, Assessment, and Long-term (IDEAL) phase 1 study aims to review the clinical results of reconstruction using a synthetic braided cross-linked graft secured at either end with an Endobutton to restore the force balance between the bones of the forearm.

An independent retrospective review was conducted of a consecutive series of 21 patients with longitudinal instability injuries treated with anatomical central band reconstruction between February 2011 and July 2019. Patients with less than 12 months' follow-up or who were treated acutely were excluded, leaving 18 patients in total. Preoperative clinical and radiological assessments were compared with prospectively gathered data using range of motion and the abbreviated version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (QuickDASH) functional outcome score.

Of the 18 patients (nine male, nine female) who met the inclusion criteria, the median follow-up was 8.5 years (interquartile range (IQR) 5.6 to 10). Their mean age was 49 years (SD 11). The mean extension improved significantly from 38° (SD 15°) to 24° (SD 9°) (p = 0.027), with a mean flexion-extension arc change from 81° (SD 27°) to 93° (SD 30°) (p = 0.172) but with no forearm rotational improvement (p = 0.233) at latest follow-up. The QuickDASH functional score improved significantly from 80 (SD 14) to 52 (SD 26) following reconstruction (p = 0.031), but generally the level of disability remains high. Radiological assessment showed no progression of proximal migration of the radius, with a stable interbutton distance and ulnar variance from immediate postoperative radiograph to the latest follow-up.

Central band interosseus membrane reconstruction using a synthetic braided cross-linked graft can improve patient-rated arm function and range of motion, but significant functional deficits remain in patients with chronic injuries.

Acetabular retroversion: functional or anatomical?

Bone Joint J

The aim of this study is to evaluate whether acetabular retroversion (AR) represents a structural anatomical abnormality of the pelvis or is a functional phenomenon of pelvic positioning in the sagittal plane, and to what extent the changes that result from patient-specific functional position affect the extent of AR.

A comparative radiological study of 19 patients (38 hips) with AR were compared with a control group of 30 asymptomatic patients (60 hips). CT scans were corrected for rotation in the axial and coronal planes, and the sagittal plane was then aligned to the anterior pelvic plane. External rotation of the hemipelvis was assessed using the superior iliac wing and inferior iliac wing angles as well as quadrilateral plate angles, and correlated with cranial and central acetabular version. Sagittal anatomical parameters were also measured and correlated to version measurements. In 12 AR patients (24 hips), the axial measurements were repeated after matching sagittal pelvic rotation with standing and supine anteroposterior radiographs.

Acetabular version was significantly lower and measurements of external rotation of the hemipelvis were significantly increased in the AR group compared to the control group. The AR group also had increased evidence of anterior projection of the iliac wing in the sagittal plane. The acetabular orientation angles were more retroverted in the supine compared to standing position, and the change in acetabular version correlated with the change in sagittal pelvic tilt. An anterior pelvic tilt of 1° correlated with 1.02° of increased cranial retroversion and 0.76° of increased central retroversion.

This study has demonstrated that patients with symptomatic AR have both an externally rotated hemipelvis and increased anterior projection of the iliac wing compared to a control group of asymptomatic patients. Functional sagittal pelvic positioning was also found to affect AR in symptomatic patients: the acetabulum was more retroverted in the supine position compared to standing position. Changes in acetabular version correlate with the change in sagittal pelvic tilt. These findings should be taken into account by surgeons when planning acetabular correction for AR with periacetabular osteotomy.

Comparison of survival prediction models for bone metastases of the extremities following surgery.

Bone Joint J

This study aimed to compare the performance of survival prediction models for bone metastases of the extremities (BM-E) with pathological fractures in an Asian cohort, and investigate patient characteristics associated with survival.

This retrospective cohort study included 469 patients, who underwent surgery for BM-E between January 2009 and March 2022 at a tertiary hospital in South Korea. Postoperative survival was calculated using the PATHFx3.0, SPRING13, OPTIModel, SORG, and IOR models. Model performance was assessed with area under the curve (AUC), calibration curve, Brier score, and decision curve analysis. Cox regression analyses were performed to evaluate the factors contributing to survival.

The SORG model demonstrated the highest discriminatory accuracy with AUC (0.80 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.76 to 0.85)) at 12 months. In calibration analysis, the PATHfx3.0 and OPTIModel models underestimated survival, while the SPRING13 and IOR models overestimated survival. The SORG model exhibited excellent calibration with intercepts of 0.10 (95% CI -0.13 to 0.33) at 12 months. The SORG model also had lower Brier scores than the null score at three and 12 months, indicating good overall performance. Decision curve analysis showed that all five survival prediction models provided greater net benefit than the default strategy of operating on either all or no patients. Rapid growth cancer and low serum albumin levels were associated with three-, six-, and 12-month survival.

State-of-art survival prediction models for BM-E (PATHFx3.0, SPRING13, OPTIModel, SORG, and IOR models) are useful clinical tools for orthopaedic surgeons in the decision-making process for the treatment in Asian patients, with SORG models offering the best predictive performance. Rapid growth cancer and serum albumin level are independent, statistically significant factors contributing to survival following surgery of BM-E. Further refinement of survival prediction models will bring about informed and patient-specific treatment of BM-E.

Robotic trials in arthroplasty surgery.

Bone Joint J

Total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA, TKA) are largely successful procedures; however, both have variable outcomes, resulting in some patients bein...

Diagnostic challenges in low-grade central osteosarcoma.

Bone Joint J

Low-grade central osteosarcoma (LGCOS), a rare type of osteosarcoma, often has misleading radiological and pathological features that overlap with those of other bone tumours, thereby complicating diagnosis and treatment. We aimed to analyze the clinical, radiological, and pathological features of patients with LGCOS, with a focus on diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes.

We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 49 patients with LGCOS (Broder's grade 1 to 2) treated between January 1985 and December 2017 in a single institute. We examined the presence of malignant features on imaging (periosteal reaction, cortical destruction, soft-tissue invasion), the diagnostic accuracy of biopsy, surgical treatment, and oncological outcome.

Based on imaging, 35 of 49 patients (71.4%) exhibited malignant features. Overall, 40 of 49 patients (81.6%) had undergone a biopsy before en-bloc resection: 27 of 40 patients (67.5%) were diagnosed on the first biopsy, which was more accurate when carried out by open rather than needle biopsy (91.3% vs 35.3% diagnostic accuracy, respectively; p < 0.001). Of the 40 patients treated by en-bloc resection, surgical margins were wide in 38 (95.0%) and marginal in two (5.0%). Furthermore, nine of 49 patients (18.4%) underwent curettage (intralesional margin) without previous biopsy. All patients with a positive margin developed local recurrence. Distant metastases occurred in five of 49 patients (10.2%). The mean five-year overall survival (OS) and distant relapse-free survival (D-RFS) were 89.3% (SD 5.1%) and 85.7% (SD 5.5%), respectively. Univariate analysis showed that the occurrence of distant metastasis was a poor prognostic factor for OS (hazard ratio 11.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.92 to 69.17; p < 0.001). Local recurrence was a poor prognostic factor for D-RFS (HR 8.72, 95% CI 1.69 to 45.0; p = 0.002).

The diagnosis of LGCOS can be challenging because it may present with non-malignant features and has a low diagnostic accuracy on biopsy. If precisely diagnosed, LGCOS can be successfully treated by surgical excision with wide margins.

Wait-and-scan: an alternative for curettage in atypical cartilaginous tumours of the long bones.

Bone Joint J

Due to its indolent clinical behaviour, the treatment paradigm of atypical cartilaginous tumours (ACTs) in the long bones is slowly shifting from intralesional resection (curettage) and local adjuvants, towards active surveillance through wait-and-scan follow-up. In this retrospective cohort study performed in a tertiary referral centre, we studied the natural behaviour of ACT lesions by active surveillance with MRI. Clinical symptoms were not considered in the surveillance programme.

The aim of this study was to see whether active surveillance is safe regarding malignant degeneration and local progression. In total, 117 patients were evaluated with MRI assessing growth, cortical destruction, endosteal scalloping, periosteal reaction, relation to the cortex, and perilesional bone marrow oedema. Patients received up to six follow-up scans.

At the time of the first follow-up MRI, 8% of the lesions showed growth (n = 9), 86% remained stable (101), and 6% decreased in size (n = 7). During the third follow-up, with a mean follow-up time of 60 months (SD 23), 24 patients were scanned, of whom 13% had lesions that had grown and 13% lesions that had decreased in size. After 96 months (SD 37), at the sixth follow-up MRI, 100% of the lesions remained stable. None of the lesions showed malignant progression and although some lesions grew in size (mean 1 mm (SD 0.8)), no malignant progression occurred.

We conclude that active surveillance with MRI is safe for ACTs in the long bones in the short- and mid-term follow-up.

Cost-effectiveness analysis of a pragmatic randomized trial evaluating surgical reconstruction versus rehabilitation in patients with long-standing anterior cruciate ligament injury.

Bone Joint J

The aim of this study was to estimate the incremental use of resources, costs, and quality of life outcomes associated with surgical reconstruction compared to rehabilitation for long-standing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in the NHS, and to estimate its cost-effectiveness.

A total of 316 patients were recruited and randomly assigned to either surgical reconstruction or rehabilitation (physiotherapy but with subsequent reconstruction permitted if instability persisted after treatment). Healthcare resource use and health-related quality of life data (EuroQol five-dimension five-level health questionnaire) were collected in the trial at six, 12, and 18 months using self-reported questionnaires and medical records. Using intention-to-treat analysis, differences in costs, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) between treatment arms were estimated adjusting for baseline differences and following multiple imputation of missing data. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was estimated as the difference in costs divided by the difference in QALYs between reconstruction and rehabilitation.

At 18 months, patients in the surgical reconstruction arm reported higher QALYs (0.052 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.012 to 0.117); p = 0.177) and higher NHS costs (£1,017 (95% CI 557 to 1,476); p < 0.001) compared to rehabilitation. This resulted in an ICER of £19,346 per QALY with the probability of surgical reconstruction being cost-effective of 51% and 72% at a willingness-to-pay threshold of £20,000 and £30,000 per QALY, respectively.

Surgical reconstruction as a management strategy for patients with long-standing ACL injury is more effective, but more expensive, at 18 months compared to rehabilitation management. In the UK setting, surgical reconstruction is cost-effective.