The latest medical research on Anesthesiology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about anesthesiology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Comparison of alteplase and urokinase for pharmacomechanical thrombolysis of clotted hemodialysis access.

The journal of vascular access

Percutaneous pharmacomechanical thrombolysis is increasingly used to salvage thrombosed hemodialysis access. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of alteplase compared to urokinase in percutaneous pharmacomechanical thrombolysis clotted access.

Records of patients who underwent pharmacomechanical thrombolysis at Interventional Nephrology Suite in a tertiary teaching hospital from 1 January 2016 to 31 December 2016 were reviewed. Technical and clinical success rates, thrombosis-free and cumulative survivals, procedure time, and radiation dose imparted to patients were compared for pharmacomechanical thrombolysis with urokinase versus alteplase.

A total of 122 incident patients underwent pharmacothrombolysis (n = 53 for urokinase, n = 69 for alteplase) during the study period. The mean dose of urokinase and alteplase used was 176,897 ± 73,418 units and 3.7 ± 0.8 mg, respectively. Pharmacomechnical thrombolysis using urokinase versus alteplase has similar technical success rate (98.1% vs 97.1%, p = 0.599), clinical success rate (88.7% vs 97.1%, p = 0.068), complication rate (9.4% vs 13.0%, p = 0.373), and primary patency rates at 3 months (57.1% vs 70.1%, p = 0.106). Thrombosis-free survivals of the vascular access were 113.2 (35.3, 196) days versus 122 (84, 239) days (p = 0.168). Cumulative survivals were 239 (116, 320) vs 213 (110.5, 316.5) days (p = 0.801). Procedure time, fluoroscopy time, skin dose, and dose were significantly lower for pharmacomechanical thrombolysis using alteplase compared to urokinase (p = 0.045, p < 0.0001, p = 0.006, p = 0.001, respectively). Stenting was found to be associated with successful dialysis following thrombolysis on univariate analysis (odds ratio: 9.167, 95% confidence interval: 1.391-19.846, p = 0.021), although this was no longer significant in multivariate analysis (p = 0.078).

Alteplase is an effective and safe alternative to urokinase for pharmacomechanical thrombolysis of clotted vascular access.

Survey of non-tunneled temporary hemodialysis catheter clinical practice and training.

The journal of vascular access

Nephrologists are placing fewer non-tunneled temporary hemodialysis catheters. Requiring competence for nephrology fellow graduation is controversial.

Anonymous, online survey of all graduates from a single, military nephrology training program (n = 81; 1985-2017) and all US Nephrology program directors (n = 150).

Graduate response and completion rates were 59% and 100%, respectively; 93% agreed they had been adequately trained; 58% (26/45) place non-tunneled temporary hemodialysis catheters, independent of academic practice or time in practice, but 12/26 did ⩽5/year and 23/26 referred some or all. The most common reason for continuing non-tunneled temporary hemodialysis catheter placement was that it is an essential emergency procedure (92%). The single most significant barrier was time to do the procedure (49%). Program director response and completion rates were 50% and 79%, respectively. The single most important barrier to fellow competence was busyness of the service (36%), followed by disinterest (21%); 55% believed that non-tunneled temporary hemodialysis catheter insertion competence should be required, with 81% indicating it was an essential emergency procedure. The majority of graduates and program directors agreed that simulation training was valuable; 76% of programs employ simulation. Graduates who had simulation training and program directors with ⩽20 years of practice were significantly more likely to agree that simulation training was necessary.

Of the graduate respondents from a single training program, 58% continue to place non-tunneled temporary hemodialysis catheters; 55% of program directors believe non-tunneled temporary hemodialysis catheter procedural competence should be required. Graduates who had non-tunneled temporary hemodialysis catheter simulation training and younger program directors consider simulation training necessary. These findings should be considered in the discussion of non-tunneled temporary hemodialysis catheter curriculum requirements.

Supraspinal Mechanisms of Spinal Cord Stimulation for Modulation of Pain: Five Decades of Research and Prospects for the Future.


The field of spinal cord stimulation is expanding rapidly, with new waveform paradigms asserting supraspinal sites of action. The scope of treatmen...

Major Adverse Cardiac Events and Mortality Associated with Electroconvulsive Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.


WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: BACKGROUND:: Cardiac events after electroconvulsive therapy have been reported sporadically, but a systematic assessment of the risk is missing. The goal of this study was to obtain a robust estimate of the incidence of major adverse cardiac events in adult patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy.

Systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that investigated electroconvulsive therapy and reported major adverse cardiac events and/or mortality. Endpoints were incidence rates of major adverse cardiac events, including myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolism, acute heart failure, and cardiac arrest. Additional endpoints were all-cause and cardiac mortality. The pooled estimated incidence rates and 95% CIs of individual major adverse cardiac events and mortality per 1,000 patients and per 1,000 electroconvulsive therapy treatments were calculated.

After screening of 2,641 publications and full-text assessment of 284 studies, the data of 82 studies were extracted (total n = 106,569 patients; n = 786,995 electroconvulsive therapy treatments). The most commonly reported major adverse cardiac events were acute heart failure, arrhythmia, and acute pulmonary edema with an incidence (95% CI) of 24 (12.48 to 46.13), 25.83 (14.83 to 45.00), and 4.92 (0.85 to 28.60) per 1,000 patients or 2.44 (1.27 to 4.69), 4.66 (2.15 to 10.09), and 1.50 (0.71 to 3.14) per 1,000 electroconvulsive therapy treatments. All-cause mortality was 0.42 (0.11 to 1.52) deaths per 1,000 patients and 0.06 (0.02 to 0.23) deaths per 1,000 electroconvulsive therapy treatments. Cardiac death accounted for 29% (23 of 79) of deaths.

Major adverse cardiac events and death after electroconvulsive therapy are infrequent and occur in about 1 of 50 patients and after about 1 of 200 to 500 electroconvulsive therapy treatments.

Predictors of venous stenosis or occlusion following first transvenous cardiac device implantation: Prospective observational study.

The journal of vascular access

Venous stenosis or occlusion related to an intracardiac device is a well-known complication of that procedure. There are numerous studies tried to determine predictors of venous stenosis or occlusion; however, most of them investigate the venous system prior to device upgrade, generator replacement, or transvenous lead extraction. Therefore, we aimed to assess the prevalence and determine the predictors of venous stenosis or occlusion following first transevnous cardiac device implantation.

Observational, prospective study included 71 consecutive patients admitted for first transvenous cardiac device implantation. All patients were followed up for 6 months after operation.

Implanted device systems comprised cardioverter defibrillator (n = 26), single-chamber or dual-chamber pacemakers (n = 34), and biventricular pacemakers (n = 11); 88.5% of implantable cardioverter defibrillator leads were single-coils and 11.5% were dual-coils. The incidence of venous stenosis or occlusion within 6-month follow-up was 21.1%. Multivariate logistic regression showed that only diabetes or prediabetes (p = 0.033, odds ratio: 0.17, 95% confidence interval: 0.04-0.87), prolonged procedure time (p = 0.046, odds ratio: 4.54, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-20.12), and perioperative complications (p = 0.021, odds ratio: 7.04, 95% confidence interval: 1.35-36.85) were predictors of venous stenosis or occlusion.

Prolonged implantation time (>60 min) and perioperative complications are associated with an increased risk of venous stenosis or occlusion, whereas diabetes and prediabetes significantly reduce the risk of venous stenosis or occlusion.

Weeding Out the Problem: The Impact of Preoperative Cannabinoid Use on Pain in the Perioperative Period.

Anesthesia and analgesia

The recreational and medical use of cannabinoids has been increasing. While most studies and reviews have focused on the role of cannabinoids in the management of acute pain, no study has examined the postoperative outcomes of surgical candidates who are on cannabinoids preoperatively. This retrospective cohort study examined the impact of preoperative cannabinoid use on postoperative pain scores and pain-related outcomes in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery.

Outcomes of patients who had major orthopedic surgery at our hospital between April 1, 2015 and June 30, 2017 were reviewed. Data were obtained from Networked Online Processing of Acute Pain Information, a locally developed database for our Acute Pain Service. Propensity score matching was used to balance baselines variables including age, sex, type of surgery, history of depression or anxiety, and perioperative use of regional anesthesia between patients who reported use of cannabinoids and those not on this substance. Intensity of pain with movement in the early postoperative period (defined as up to 36 hours after surgery) was the primary outcome of this study. The secondary outcomes (all in early postoperative period) were pain at rest, opioid consumption, incidence of pruritus, nausea and vomiting, sedation, delirium, constipation, impairment of sleep and physical activity, patient satisfaction with analgesia, and the length of Acute Pain Service follow-up.

A total of 3793 patients were included in the study. Of these, 155 patients were identified as being on cannabinoids for recreational or medical indications in the preoperative period. After propensity score matching, we compared data from 155 patients who were on cannabinoids and 155 patients who were not on cannabinoids. Patients who were on preoperative cannabinoids had higher pain numerical rating score (median [25th, 75th percentiles]) at rest (5.0 [3.0, 6.1] vs 3.0 [2.0, 5.5], P = .010) and with movement (8.0 [6.0, 9.0] vs 7.0 [3.5, 8.5], P = .003), and a higher incidence of moderate-to-severe pain at rest (62.3% vs 45.5%, respectively, P = .004; odds ratio, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.25-3.14) and with movement (85.7% vs 75.2% respectively, P = .021; odds ratio, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.10-3.57) in the early postoperative period compared to patients who were not on cannabinoids. There was also a higher incidence of sleep interruption in the early postoperative period for patients who used cannabinoids.

This retrospective study with propensity-matched cohorts showed that cannabinoid use was associated with higher pain scores and a poorer quality of sleep in the early postoperative period in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery.

Evidence Review Conducted for the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Safety Program for Improving Surgical Care and Recovery: Focus on Anesthesiology for Hip Fracture Surgery.

Anesthesia and analgesia

Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols represent patient-centered, evidence-based, multidisciplinary care of the surgical patient. Althou...

Family Caregiving and Cancer Pain Management.

Anesthesia and analgesia

Family caregivers are centrally involved in cancer pain management, especially for patients with advanced disease. This issue is becoming ever more...

Association of Preoperative Serum Chloride Levels With Mortality and Morbidity After Noncardiac Surgery: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Anesthesia and analgesia

Postoperative hyperchloremia is known to be related to increases in mortality and morbidity after surgery. However, the relationship between preoperative hyperchloremia and hypochloremia and postoperative mortality and morbidity is not well established. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between preoperative hyperchloremia or hypochloremia, as assessed using preoperative serum chloride tests, and 90-day mortality and morbidity after noncardiac surgery.

In this retrospective cohort study, we reviewed the medical records of patients >20 years of age who underwent noncardiac surgery between January 2010 and December 2016. Patients were categorized into one of the following groups on the basis of the results of serum chloride testing performed within 1 month before surgery: normochloremia, 97-110 mmol·L; hyperchloremia, >110 mmol·L; and hypochloremia, <97 mmol·L. The primary end point of this study was the difference in postoperative 90-day mortality among the preoperative serum chloride groups. The secondary end point was the difference in postoperative acute kidney injury incidence among the preoperative serum chloride groups.

A total of 106,505 patients were included in the final analysis (2147 were allocated to the preoperative hypochloremia group and 617 to the hyperchloremia group). Multivariable Cox regression analysis revealed significantly increased 90-day mortality in the hypochloremia (hazard ratio, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.16-1.84; P = .001) and hyperchloremia (hazard ratio, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.13-2.73; P = .013) groups when compared with the normochloremia group. In addition, multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed a 1.83-fold increased odds of acute kidney injury in the preoperative hypochloremia group when compared with the normochloremia group (odds ratio, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.53-2.19; P < .001).

Preoperative hypochloremia and hyperchloremia were related to increased 90-day mortality after noncardiac surgery. In addition, preoperative hypochloremia was related to an increased risk for postoperative acute kidney injury.

Validation of a Simple Tool for Electronic Documentation of Behavioral Responses to Anesthesia Induction.

Anesthesia and analgesia

Anxiety and distress behaviors during anesthesia induction are associated with negative postoperative outcomes for pediatric patients. Documenting behavioral responses to induction is useful to evaluate induction quality at hospitals and to optimize future anesthetics for returning patients, but we lack a simple tool for clinical documentation. The Induction Compliance Checklist is a tool for grading induction behaviors that is well validated for research purposes, but it is not practical for routine documentation in busy clinical practice settings. The Child Induction Behavioral Assessment tool was developed to provide a simple and easy to use electronic tool for clinical documentation of induction behaviors. The aim of this study was to test the Child Induction Behavioral Assessment tool's concurrent validity with the Induction Compliance Checklist and the interrater reliability.

This prospective, observational study included 384 pediatric patients undergoing anesthesia inhalation induction. Concurrent validity with the Induction Compliance Checklist and interrater reliability of the Child Induction Behavioral Assessment were evaluated. Two researchers alternated scoring the Induction Compliance Checklist. The 2 researchers independently scored the Child Induction Behavioral Assessment. The anesthesia clinician caring for the patient also independently scored the Child Induction Behavioral Assessment by completing their routine documentation in the patient's medical record. Two age groups were evaluated (ages 1-3 and 4-12 years old).

Clinicians' and researchers' Child Induction Behavioral Assessment scores demonstrated a strong correlation with the Induction Compliance Checklist (P < .0001). There was an excellent agreement between the 2 researchers' Child Induction Behavioral Assessment scores for the younger and older age groups, respectively (Kappa [95% CI] = 0.97 (0.94-0.99); K = 0.94 (0.89-0.99)]. The agreement between the researchers and the 117 clinicians who documented Child Induction Behavioral Assessment assessments in the medical record was good overall (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.70), with fair agreement with the 1- to 3-year-old patients (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.56) and good agreement for the 4- to 12-year-old patients (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.74).

The Child Induction Behavioral Assessment scale is a simple and practical electronic tool used to document pediatric behavioral responses to anesthesia inductions. This study provides evidence of the tool's validity and reliability for inhalation inductions. Future research is needed at other hospitals to confirm validity.

New Strategies to Expand and Optimize Heart Donor Pool: Ex Vivo Heart Perfusion and Donation After Circulatory Death: A Review of Current Research and Future Trends.

Anesthesia and analgesia

Heart transplantation remains the definitive management for end-stage heart failure refractory to medical therapy. While heart transplantation case...

Statistical Process Control: No Hits, No Runs, No Errors?

Anesthesia and analgesia

A novel intervention or new clinical program must achieve and sustain its operational and clinical goals. To demonstrate successfully optimizing he...