The latest medical research on Anesthesiology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about anesthesiology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Giant brachial artery aneurysm as a rare complication of a dialysis shunt.

J Vasc Access

Our patient exhibited a large tumor on his right upper arm where his former dialysis access site had been. X-ray, Doppler ultrasound, and magnetic ...

Difficult Airway Society guidelines for awake tracheal intubation (ATI) in adults.

Anaesthesia

Awake tracheal intubation has a high success rate and a favourable safety profile but is underused in cases of anticipated difficult airway managem...

Guidelines on suicide amongst anaesthetists 2019.

Anaesthesia

Anaesthetists are thought to be at increased risk of suicide amongst the medical profession. The aims of the following guidelines are: increase awa...

Calculation of Confidence Intervals for Differences in Medians Between Groups and Comparison of Methods.

Anesthesia and Analgesia

Continuous data that are not normally distributed are typically presented in terms of median and interquartile range (IQR) for each group. High-qua...

A Cross-Sectional Survey to Determine the Prevalence of Burnout Syndrome Among Anesthesia Providers in Zambian Hospitals.

Anesthesia and Analgesia

Burnout is a psychological syndrome that results from chronic exposure to job stress. It is defined by a triad of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. In research, mostly from high-income countries, burnout is common in health care professionals, especially in anesthesiologists. Burnout can negatively impact patient safety, the physical and mental health of the anesthetist, and institutional efficiency. However, data on burnout for anesthesia providers in low- and middle-income countries are poorly described. This study sought to determine the prevalence of burnout syndrome among all anesthesia providers (physician and nonphysician) working in Zambian hospitals and to determine which sociodemographic and occupational factors were associated with burnout.

A questionnaire was sent to all Zambian anesthesia providers working in private and public hospitals. The questionnaire assessed burnout using the Maslach Burnout Inventory Human Services Survey, a validated 22-item survey widely used to measure burnout among health professionals. Sociodemographic and occupational factors postulated to be associated with burnout were also assessed.

Surveys were distributed to all 184 anesthesia providers in Zambia; 160 were returned. This resulted in a response rate representing 87% of all anesthesia providers in the country. Eighty-six percentage of respondents were nonphysician anesthesia providers. Burnout was present in 51.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 43.2-59.2) of participants. Logistic regression analysis revealed that "not having the right team to carry out work to an appropriate standard" (odds ratio, 2.91, 95% CI, 1.33-6.39; P = .008), and "being a nonphysician" (odds ratio, 3.4, 95% CI, 1.25-12.34; P = .019) were significantly associated with burnout in this population.

In a cross-sectional survey of anesthesia providers in Zambia, >50% of the respondents met the criteria for burnout. The risk was particularly high among nonphysician providers who typically work in isolated rural practice. Efforts to decrease burnout rates through policy and educational initiatives to increase the quantity and quality of training for anesthesia providers should be considered.

A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blinded Study of the Effect of Intravenous Ondansetron on the Effective Dose in 50% of Subjects of Prophylactic Phenylephrine Infusions for Preventing Spinal Anesthesia-Induced Hypotension During Cesarean Delivery.

Anesthesia and Analgesia

Ondansetron has been shown to reduce the incidence of hypotension and vasopressor requirement during spinal anesthesia for obstetric and nonobstetric surgery. However, the magnitude of this effect has not been fully quantified. In this parallel-group, randomized, double-blinded study, we determined the effective dose in 50% of subjects (ED50) of a prophylactic phenylephrine infusion for preventing hypotension in patients who received a single dose of intravenous ondansetron 4 mg or saline control before combined spinal-epidural anesthesia for elective cesarean delivery. ED50 values obtained were compared to estimate the effect of ondansetron versus placebo on vasopressor requirement.

Sixty parturients were randomly assigned to receive ondansetron (group O) or saline control (group C) 10 minutes before positioning for induction of spinal anesthesia. A prophylactic phenylephrine infusion was used to prevent hypotension. The first patient in each group received a phenylephrine infusion at the rate of 0.5 µg/kg/min. The infusion rate for each subsequent patient was varied with increments or decrements of 0.05 µg/kg/min based on the response of the previous patient, and the effective dose of the phenylephrine infusion for preventing hypotension in 50% of patients (ED50) was calculated for each group and compared using up-down sequential analysis. Probit regression was applied as a backup and sensitivity analysis was used to compare ED50 values for phenylephrine between groups by comparing calculated relative mean potency.

The ED50 (mean [95% confidence interval (CI)]) of the rate of phenylephrine infusion was lower in group O (0.24 µg/kg/min [0.10-0.38 µg/kg/min]) compared with group C (0.32 µg/kg/min [0.14-0.47 µg/kg/min]) (P < .001). The total consumption of phenylephrine (mean ± standard deviation [SD]) until delivery was lower in group O (316.5 ± 25.9 µg) than in group C (387.7 ± 14.7 µg, P = .02). The estimate of relative median potency for phenylephrine for group O versus group C was 0.74 (95% CI, 0.37-0.95).

Under the conditions of this study, intravenous ondansetron 4 mg reduced the ED50 of a prophylactic phenylephrine infusion by approximately 26% in patients undergoing cesarean delivery under combined spinal-epidural anesthesia.

Trends in Central Venous Catheter Insertions by Anesthesia Providers: An Analysis of the Medicare Physician Supplier Procedure Summary From 2007 to 2016.

Anesthesia and Analgesia

Central line insertion is a core skill for anesthesiologists. Although recent technical advances have increased the safety of central line insertion and reduced the risk of central line-associated infection, noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring and improved intravenous access techniques have also reduced the need for perioperative central venous access. We hypothesized that the number of central lines inserted by anesthesiologists has decreased over the past decade. To test our hypothesis, we reviewed the Medicare Physician Supplier Procedure Summary (PSPS) database from 2007 to 2016.

Claims for central venous catheter placement were identified in the Medicare PSPS database for nontunneled and tunneled central lines. Pulmonary artery catheter insertion was included as a nontunneled line claim. We stratified line insertion claims by specialty for Anesthesiology (including Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists and Anesthesiology Assistants), Surgery, Radiology, Pulmonary/Critical Care, Emergency Physicians, Internal Medicine, and practitioners who were not anesthesia providers such as Advanced Practice Nurses (APNs) and Physician Assistants (PAs). Utilization rates per 10,000 Medicare beneficiaries were then calculated by specialty and year. Time-based trends were analyzed using Joinpoint linear regression, and the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) was calculated.

Between 2007 and 2016, total claims for central venous catheter insertions of all types decreased from 440.9 to 325.3 claims/10,000 beneficiaries (AAPC = -3.4, 95% confidence interval [CI], -3.6 to -3.2: P < .001). When analyzed by provider specialty and year, the number of nontunneled line insertion claims fell from 43.1 to 15.9 claims/10,000 (AAPC = -7.1; -7.3 to -7.0: P < .001) for surgeons, from 21.3 to 18.5 claims/10,000 (AAPC = -2.5; -2.8 to -2.1: P < .001) for radiologists, and from 117.4 to 72.7 claims/10,000 (AAPC = -5.2; 95% CI, -6.3 to -4.0: P < .001) for anesthesia providers. In contrast, line insertions increased from 18.2 to 26.0 claims/10,000 (AAPC = 3.2; 2.3-4.2: P < .001) for Emergency Physicians and from 3.2 to 9.3 claims/10,000 (AAPC = 6.0; 5.1-6.9: P < .001) for PAs and APNs who were not anesthesia providers. Among anesthesia providers, the share of line claims made by nurse anesthetists increased by 14.5% over the time period.

We observed a 38.3% decrease in claims for nontunneled central lines placed by anesthesiologists from 2007 to 2016. These findings have implications for anesthesiology resident training and maintenance of competence among practicing clinicians. Further research is needed to clarify the effect of decreasing line insertion numbers on line insertion competence among anesthesiologists.

Trials and Tribulations of Viscoelastic-Based Determination of Fibrinogen Concentration.

Anesthesia and Analgesia

Acquired fibrinogen deficiency is a major determinant of severe bleeding in different clinical conditions, including cardiac surgery, trauma, postp...

Association Between Perioperative Hypotension and Delirium in Postoperative Critically Ill Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Analysis.

Anesthesia and Analgesia

Postoperative delirium is common in critically ill patients, with a reported incidence of 11%-43%, and is associated with significant morbidity and cost. Perioperative hypotension and consequent brain hypoperfusion may contribute. We, therefore, tested the hypotheses that intraoperative and postoperative hypotension are associated with critical care delirium.

We included 1083 postoperative patients who were admitted directly from an operating room to the surgical intensive care unit. Delirium was assessed with the Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Unit patients at 12-hour intervals. We used a confounder-adjusted Cox proportional hazard survival model to assess the association between the amount of intraoperative hypotension, which was measured as the time-weighted average of mean arterial pressure <65 mm Hg, and delirium while in critical care. Thereafter, we used a Cox model with the lowest mean arterial pressure on each intensive care day as a time-varying covariate to assess the relationship between critical care hypotension and delirium, adjusted for confounders and amount of intraoperative hypotension.

Three hundred seventy-seven (35%) patients had delirium within the first 5 postoperative days in the surgical intensive care unit. Intraoperative hypotension was moderately associated with higher odds of postoperative delirium. The adjusted hazard ratio associated with 1 mm Hg increase in time-weighted average of mean arterial pressure <65 mm Hg was 1.11 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.20; P = .008). Postoperatively, a 10 mm Hg reduction in the lowest mean pressure on each day in the critical care unit was significantly associated with a higher hazard of delirium, with an adjusted hazard ratio 1.12 (95% CI, 1.04-1.20; P = .003).

Both intraoperative and postoperative hypotension are associated with delirium in postoperative critical care patients. The extent to which these relationships are causal remains unknown, but to the extent that they are, hypotension prevention may help reduce delirium and should be studied in prospective clinical trials.

Learning from the law. A review of 21 years of litigation for nerve injury following central neuraxial blockade in obstetrics.

Anaesthesia

Medicolegal claims for neurological injury following the use of central neuraxial blockade in childbirth represent the second most common claim aga...

Short-term safety and effectiveness of sugammadex for surgical patients with end-stage renal disease: a two-centre retrospective study.

Anaesthesia

Sugammadex is a novel reversal agent for aminosteroid neuromuscular blocking drugs, especially rocuronium. Given its renal excretion, sugammadex is...

Effect of tunneled and nontunneled peripherally inserted central catheter placement: A randomized controlled trial.

J Vasc Access

To compare the effect of tunneled and nontunneled peripherally inserted central catheter placement under B-mode ultrasound.

A single center, randomized, controlled, nonblinded, prospective trial was conducted in Guangzhou, China, between July 2018 and May 2019. A total of 174 participants were randomized to the experimental group (tunneled peripherally inserted central catheter) or the control group (nontunneled peripherally inserted central catheter) and were followed until extubation. Basic characteristics, peripherally inserted central catheter characteristics, the incidence of complications, and the costs of peripherally inserted central catheter placement and maintenance were collected. Data were analyzed by intention-to-treat.

A total of 168 of the participants had successful peripherally inserted central catheter placements (85/87, 97.7% in the experimental group and 83/87, 95.4% in the control group, P = 0.682). Compared to the control group, the experimental group had a lower incidence of complications during the placement (18.4% vs 32.2%, P = 0.036), a lower incidence of wound oozing (27.6% vs 57.5%, P < 0.001), a lower incidence of medical adhesive-related skin injury (9.2% vs 25.3%, P = 0.005), a lower incidence of venous thrombosis (1.1% vs 9.2%, P = 0.034), a lower incidence of catheter dislodgement (1.1% vs 9.2%, P = 0.034), and lower costs of peripherally inserted central catheter maintenance at 1, 2, and 3 months (P < 0.05).

Tunneled peripherally inserted central catheter may be recommended for good effectiveness.