The latest medical research on Anesthesiology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about anesthesiology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Acute Kidney Injury and Outcomes in Children Undergoing Noncardiac Surgery: A Propensity-Matched Analysis.

Anesthesia and Analgesia

Acute kidney injury (AKI) has been well documented in adults after noncardiac surgery and demonstrated to be associated with adverse outcomes. We report the prevalence of AKI after pediatric noncardiac surgery, the perioperative factors associated with postoperative AKI, and the association of AKI with postoperative outcomes in children undergoing noncardiac surgery.

Patients ≤18 years of age who underwent noncardiac surgery with serum creatinine during the 12 months preceding surgery and no history of end-stage renal disease were included in this retrospective observational study at a single tertiary academic hospital. Patients were evaluated during the first 7 days after surgery for development of any stage of AKI, according to Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. Patients were classified into stages of KDIGO AKI for the purposes of describing prevalence. For further analyses, patients were grouped into those who developed any stage of AKI postoperatively and those who did not. Additionally, the time point at which each patient was first diagnosed with stage I AKI or greater was also assessed. Pre-, intra-, and postoperative factors were compared between the 2 groups. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model was created to examine the time to first diagnosis of AKI using all nonredundant covariates. Analysis of the association of AKI with postoperative outcomes, mortality and 30-day readmission, was undertaken utilizing propensity score-matched controls and a multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model.

A total of 25,203 cases between 2013 and 2018 occurred; 8924 met inclusion criteria. Among this cohort, the observed prevalence of postoperative AKI was 3.2% (288 cases; confidence interval [CI], 2.9-3.6). The multivariable Cox model showed American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) status to be associated with the development of postoperative AKI. Several other factors, including intraoperative hypotension, were significantly associated with postoperative AKI in univariable models but found not to be significantly associated after adjustment. The multivariable Cox analyses with propensity-matched controls showed an estimated hazard ratio of 3.28 for mortality (CI, 1.71-6.32, P < .001) and 1.55 for 30-day readmission (CI, 1.08-2.23, P = .018) in children who developed AKI versus those who did not.

In children undergoing noncardiac surgery, postoperative AKI occurred in 3.2% of patients. Several factors, including intraoperative hypotension, were significantly associated with postoperative AKI in univariable models. After adjustment, only ASA status was found to be significantly associated with AKI in children after noncardiac surgery. Postoperative AKI was found to be associated with significantly higher rates of mortality and 30-day readmission in multivariable, time-varying models with propensity-matched controls.

The Effectiveness of High-Flow Nasal Oxygen During the Intraoperative Period: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Anesthesia and Analgesia

High-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO) is increasingly being used in intensive care units for management of hypoxemia and respiratory failure. However, the effectiveness of HFNO for preventing hypoxemia in the intraoperative period is unclear. The purpose of this systematic review was to compare patient oxygenation and end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2), between HFNO and conventional oxygenation, during the intraoperative period in surgical patients.

Standard databases were searched from inception to February 2020. Studies involving intraoperative use of HFNO with 1 of the 4 outcomes: (1) oxygen (O2) desaturation, (2) minimum O2 saturation, (3) safe apnea time, or (4) EtCO2 were included. Intraoperative period was divided into 2 phases: at induction with general anesthesia and during surgical procedure under sedation without tracheal intubation.

Eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs; 4 induction, 4 procedure, 2314 patients) were included for systematic review and meta-analyses. We found the risk of intraoperative O2 desaturation was lower in HFNO versus conventional oxygenation control group; at induction with an odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval [CI]) of 0.06 (0.01-0.59, P = .02), and during procedure, OR (95% CI) of 0.09 (0.05-0.18; P < .001). The minimum O2 saturation was higher in HFNO versus conventional oxygenation; at induction by a mean difference (MD) (95% CI) of 5.1% (3.3-6.9; P < .001), and during procedure, by a MD (95% CI) of 4.0% (1.8-6.2; P < .001). Safe apnea time at induction was longer in HFNO versus conventional oxygenation by a MD (95% CI) of 33.4 seconds (16.8-50.1; P < .001). EtCO2 at induction was not significantly different between HFNO and conventional oxygenation groups.

This systematic review and meta-analysis show that, in the intraoperative setting, HFNO compared to conventional oxygenation reduces the risk of O2 desaturation, increases minimum O2 saturation, and safe apnea time. HFNO should be considered for anesthesia induction and during surgical procedures under sedation without tracheal intubation in patients at higher risk of hypoxemia.

Macintosh Videolaryngoscope for Intubation in the Operating Room: A Comparative Quality Improvement Project.

Anesthesia and Analgesia

"Macintosh"-videolaryngoscopes (VLs) are VLs that allow both direct and indirect laryngoscopy for intubation. We describe the decision-making and implementation-processes that our hospital used regarding the choice of device. We compared the performances of 4 Macintosh-VLs both in direct and indirect laryngoscopy.

A quality-improvement-project for airway management aiming at implementing Macintosh-VL for all intubation procedures performed in the operating room, involving 4 Macintosh-VLs (McGrath-Mac, C-MAC-S, C-MAC-S-Pocket-Monitor [PM], and APA). Three consecutive steps were described: (1) direct laryngoscopy with Macintosh-VL, (2) indirect laryngoscopy with Macintosh-VL (intubation attempt with Macintosh-style blade in case of Cormack I or II), (3) intubation attempt with hyperangulated blade in case of Cormack III/IV or failure of Macintosh-style blade. The main end point was the need to move to step III and use a hyperangulated blade. A mixed-effects multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to compare devices on the main end point while considering site as a random effect. Comparison of means was performed using analysis of variance and Tukey's test for multiple comparisons (number of laryngoscopy attempts, numeric rate scale [NRS] difficulty of intubation and NRS user-friendliness). Comparison of percentages was performed using a χ test for the need to move to step III and a Kruskal-Wallis test for the quality of image (bad, passable, good, very good, excellent). A P value ≤.008 was considered statistically significant.

From May to September 2017, 589 patients were included. Using the McGrath-Mac (22/180 [12%]) was associated with less use of hyperangulated blade than using the C-MAC-S (39/132 [30%], odds ratio [OR] [99.2% confidence interval {CI}] 0.34 [0.16-0.77], P = .0005), the APA (35/138 [25%], OR [99.2% CI] 0.42 [0.19-0.93]; P = .004), but not the C-MAC-S-PM (29/139 [21%], OR [99.2% CI] 0.53 [0.23-1.2]; P = .04).Overall, the number of intubation attempts was significantly lower using the McGrath Mac than the C-MAC-S or the C-MAC-S-PMVLs. Subjective appreciation of intubation difficulty and user-friendliness of the devices showed respectively lower and higher NRS scores for the McGrath-Mac compared to the other devices, whereas subjective assessment of image quality showed higher quality for the C-MAC-S and C-MAC-S-PM compared to the APA or McGrath-Mac.

Among 4 single-use Macintosh-VLs, glottic visualization in direct and indirect laryngoscopy with the Macintosh-style blade was significantly improved with the McGrath-Mac compared to other Macintosh-VLs, leading to a less frequent need to resort to the hyperangulated blade and reduced overall number of intubation attempts.

First-Year Results of the American Board of Anesthesiology's Objective Structured Clinical Examination for Initial Certification.

Anesthesia and Analgesia

In 2018, the American Board of Anesthesiology (ABA) became the first US medical specialty certifying board to incorporate an Objective Structured C...

Trends and Outcomes in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Scoliosis Repair: A Population-Based Study.

Anesthesia and Analgesia

Although surgery represents the only definitive treatment for congenital scoliosis, comprehensive information regarding trends in perioperative complications, particularly in the pediatric setting, is lacking. We sought to identify trends in and factors associated with perioperative complications following pediatric scoliosis surgery.

In this retrospective cohort study, patients below the age of 21 years undergoing a scoliosis repair procedure were identified from the Premier Healthcare database (2006-2016). The primary outcomes of interest were any complication, cardiopulmonary complications, blood transfusions, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, length of stay (LOS), and cost of hospitalization. Trends in these outcomes over time were analyzed. Multivariable logistic regression models were run to identify factors associated with each of the perioperative outcomes.

In the full cohort of 9351 scoliosis patients, 17% experienced any complication, 12% of which were cardiopulmonary in nature, 42% required blood transfusions, and 62% were admitted to the ICU. Median LOS was 5 days (interquartile range [IQR], 4-6) and median cost was $56,375 (IQR, $40,053-$76,311). Annual incidence of complications and blood transfusions as well as LOS and cost decreased significantly throughout the study period. The most consistently observed factors associated with complications were younger age, high comorbidity burden, low institutional case volume, and hospital teaching status.

Although the incidence of the studied adverse outcomes in scoliosis surgery has decreased over time, this study shows it remains relatively high (17%). The associations demonstrated help clarify factors associated with complications and may be useful in guiding interventions to improve outcomes.

Transversus Abdominis Plane Block With Liposomal Bupivacaine for Pain After Cesarean Delivery in a Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial.

Anesthesia and Analgesia

In women undergoing cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia with intrathecal morphine, transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block with bupivacaine hydrochloride (HCl) may not improve postsurgical analgesia. This lack of benefit could be related to the short duration of action of bupivacaine HCl. A retrospective study reported that TAP block with long-acting liposomal bupivacaine (LB) reduced opioid consumption and improved analgesia following cesarean delivery. Therefore, we performed a prospective multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial examining efficacy and safety of TAP block with LB plus bupivacaine HCl versus bupivacaine HCl alone.

Women (n = 186) with term pregnancies undergoing elective cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia were randomized (1:1) to TAP block with LB 266 mg plus bupivacaine HCl 50 mg or bupivacaine HCl 50 mg alone. Efficacy was evaluated in a protocol-compliant analysis (PCA) set that was defined a priori. The primary end point was total postsurgical opioid consumption (oral morphine equivalent dosing [MED]) through 72 hours. Pain intensity was measured using a visual analog scale. Adverse events (AEs) after treatment were recorded through day 14.

Total opioid consumption through 72 hours was reduced with LB plus bupivacaine HCl versus bupivacaine HCl alone (least squares mean [LSM] [standard error (SE)] MED, 15.5 mg [6.67 mg] vs 32.0 mg [6.25 mg]). This corresponded to an LSM treatment difference of -16.5 mg (95% confidence interval [CI], -30.8 to -2.2 mg; P = .012). The area under the curve of imputed pain intensity scores through 72 hours supported noninferiority of LB plus bupivacaine HCl versus bupivacaine HCl alone (LSM [SE], 147.9 [21.13] vs 178.5 [19.78]; LSM treatment difference, -30.6; 95% CI, -75.9 to 14.7), with a prespecified noninferiority margin of 36 (P = .002). In an analysis of all treated patients, including those not meeting criteria for inclusion in the PCA, there was no difference in postsurgical opioid consumption between groups. In the LB plus bupivacaine HCl group, 63.6% of patients experienced an AE after treatment versus 56.2% in the bupivacaine HCl-alone group. Serious AEs after treatment were rare (≈3% in both groups).

TAP block using LB plus bupivacaine HCl as part of a multimodal analgesia protocol incorporating intrathecal morphine resulted in reduced opioid consumption after cesarean delivery in the PCA set. Results suggest that with correct TAP block placement and adherence to a multimodal postsurgical analgesic regimen, there is an opioid-reducing benefit of adding LB to bupivacaine TAP blocks after cesarean delivery (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03176459).

Invasiveness of Treatment Is Gender Dependent in Intensive Care: Results From a Retrospective Analysis of 26,711 Cases.

Anesthesia and Analgesia

Health care and outcome of critically ill patients are marked by gender-related differences. Several studies have shown that male patients in intensive care units (ICU) more often receive mechanical ventilation, dialysis, pulmonary arterial catheterization (PAC), and central venous catheterization (CVC). We investigated gender-related differences in ICU treatment and mortality.

This retrospective, single-center study analyzed adult ICU patients admitted to the University Medical Center Regensburg between January 2010 and December 2017. Illness severity was measured with the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) at ICU admission. We evaluated the intensity of ICU treatment according to the implementation of tracheostomy and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). We then assessed gender-related differences in the duration of mechanical ventilation and other invasive monitoring (PAC) and treatment methods (CVC, endotracheal intubation rate, and dialysis). ICU treatment and mortality data were obtained from an electronic data capture system. After adjusting for age, reason for hospitalization, and SAPS II score, we assessed the influence of gender on the intensity of ICU treatment using multivariable logistic regression. Odds ratios (OR) for the logistic regression models and incidence rate ratios (IRR) for the negative binomial regression models were calculated as effect estimates together with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). A P value of <.05 was considered significant.

The study analyzed 26,711 ICU patients (64.8% men). The ICU mortality rate was 8.8%. Illness severity, ICU, and hospital mortality did not differ by gender. Women were older than men (62.6 vs 61.3 years; P < .001) at ICU admission. After multivariable adjustment, men were more likely to undergo tracheostomy (OR = 1.39 [1.26-1.54]), ECMO (OR = 1.37 [1.02-1.83]), dialysis (OR = 1.29 [1.18-1.41]), and PAC insertion (OR = 1.81 [1.40-2.33]) and had a longer duration of mechanical ventilation than women (IRR = 1.07 [1.02-1.12]). The frequency of endotracheal intubation (OR = 1.04 [0.98-1.11]) and placement of CVC (OR = 1.05 [0.98-1.11]) showed no gender-specific differences. Of ICU nonsurvivors, men were more likely to undergo tracheostomy (20.1% vs 15.3%; P = .004) and dialysis (54% vs 46.4%; P < .001) than women and had a longer duration of mechanical ventilation (6.3 vs 5.4 days; P = .015).

After adjustment for severity of disease and outcome, ICU treatment differs between men and women. Men were more likely than women to undergo tracheostomy and ECMO.

Utilization Patterns of Perioperative Neuromuscular Blockade Reversal in the United States: A Retrospective Observational Study From the Multicenter Perioperative Outcomes Group.

Anesthesia and Analgesia

Following the introduction of sugammadex to the US clinical practice, scarce data are available to understand its utilization patterns. This study aimed to characterize patient, procedure, and provider factors associated with sugammadex administration in US patients.

This retrospective observational study was conducted across 24 Multicenter Perioperative Outcomes Group institutions in the United States with sugammadex on formulary at the time of the study. All American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I-IV adults undergoing noncardiac surgery from 2014 to 2018 receiving neuromuscular blockade (NMB) were eligible. The study established 3 periods based on the date of first documented sugammadex use at each institution: the presugammadex period, 0- to 6-month transitional period, and 6+ months postsugammadex period. The primary outcome was reversal using sugammadex during the postsugammadex period-defined as 6 months after sugammadex was first utilized at each institution. A multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression model controlling for institution was developed to assess patient, procedure, and provider factors associated with sugammadex administration.

A total of 934,798 cases met inclusion criteria. Following the 6-month transitional period, sugammadex was used on average in 40.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 39.8-40.2) of cases receiving NMB. Multivariable analysis demonstrated sugammadex use to be associated with train-of-four count of 0-1 (adjusted odds ratio = 4.06; 95% CI, 33.83-4.31) or 2 (2.45; 2.29-2.62) vs 3-4 twitches before reversal; the amount of NMB administered (3.01; 2.88-3.16) for the highest effective dose 95 quartile compared to the lowest quartile; advanced age (1.83; 1.71-1.95) compared to age <41; male sex (1.36; 1.32-1.39) compared to female sex; major thoracic surgery (1.26; 1.13-1.39); congestive heart failure (1.17, 1.07-1.28); and ASA III or IV (1.13; 1.10-1.16) versus ASA I or II.

Our data demonstrate broad early clinical adoption of sugammadex following Food and Drug Administration approval. Sugammadex is used preferentially in cases with higher degrees of NMB before reversal and in patients with greater burden of comorbidities and known risk factors for residual blockade or pulmonary complications.

Guideline on anaesthesia and sedation in breastfeeding women 2020: Guideline from the Association of Anaesthetists.

Anaesthesia

Breastfeeding has many health benefits for the mother and infant. Women who are breastfeeding may require anaesthesia or sedation. Concerns regardi...

Contribution of inflow artery to observed flow in a vascular access: A computational fluid dynamic modeling study of an arteriovenous fistula circuit.

J Vasc Access

The volume of blood flowing through the vascular access is an important parameter necessary to provide adequate dialysis for a functional arteriovenous fistula. Higher blood flows are seen in arteriovenous access that receive inflow from larger arteries such as brachial or axillary compared to those based on medium-caliber radial or ulnar arteries. We hypothesized that an anatomic difference in the length and the diameter of the artery is an important determinant of the flow volume in arteriovenous fistula created at different anatomic locations.

Using computational fluid dynamics, we evaluated the contribution of the length and diameter of inflow artery on simulations performed with geometric models constructed to represent arteriovenous fistula circuits. Lengths and diameters of the inflow artery were altered to mimic arteriovenous fistula created at various locations of the upper extremity with standard and variant anatomy.

Models of arteriovenous fistula created with variable lengths and diameters of the inflow artery suggest that the length of the vessel has an inverse linear relationship and the diameter has a direct linear relationship to flow volume.

Computational fluid dynamic modeling of arteriovenous fistula can be used to understand the physiologic basis of clinical observations of function. Evaluation of the effect of inflow artery length and diameter helps explain the higher flows seen in arteriovenous fistula created using large caliber arteries for inflow. Computational fluid dynamic modeling helps operators understand the contributions of inflow artery in access function and can guide anastomotic site selection.

Prevalence of and factors associated with difficult peripheral venipuncture in adult surgical patients.

J Vasc Access

To determine the prevalence of difficult venous access in adult patients admitted to a surgical unit.

This observational prospective cohort study included 235 patients from a Brazilian hospital. Clinical data were collected by direct observation and analyzed by descriptive, inferential statistics, and multiple binomial logistic regressions. Odds ratios were also calculated.

Most of the patients (66.4%) were men and self-reported as white (59.2%). The prevalence of difficult intravenous access was 32.8%. Predictors of peripheral intravenous cannula insertion failure were history of difficult intravenous access and nonvisibility of the vein.

History of difficult intravenous access and a nonvisible venous network were significant predictors of peripheral cannula insertion failure in adults undergoing clinical surgery. The prevalence of difficult intravenous access was 32.8%.

Arterial percutaneous angioplasty in hemodialysis access: Endovascular treatment of hand ischemia.

J Vasc Access

Hemodialysis access-induced distal ischemia consists of symptomatic extremity malperfusion after vascular access creation. It is usually caused by discordant vascular resistance, with arteriovenous shunting of a high blood volume from arterial into venous system and subsequent hand hypoperfusion. Less often, hemodialysis access-induced distal ischemia is caused by arterial stenosis. In these cases, access frequently has normal/low flow, radial pulse is usually absent and not recoverable with vascular access digital compression, diabetes is often present, and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty can be critical for access and limb salvage.

Retrospective study conducted between June 2011 and February 2018 of patients with vascular access submitted to arterial percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for limb-threatening ischemia.

Twenty-nine patients were referred for arterial angiography after hemodialysis access-induced distal ischemia diagnosis and physical examination or ultrasound findings suggestive of arterial disease. In 11 patients, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty was not technically feasible. Among 18 treated patients, 83.3% had diabetes and 60% had skin ulcerations. Target arteries were radial (11), brachial (7), axillar (2), ulnar (2), and subclavian (1). Clinical success, defined as arteriovenous maintenance and wound healing/pain resolution, was observed in 12 patients (66.7%). Concomitant procedures included adjuvant banding (n = 2) and finger amputation (n = 1), and one reintervention was performed. No intra- or postoperative complications were reported.

Hemodialysis access-induced distal ischemia is a serious complication of hemodialysis vascular access, with multifactorial etiology. Correct and timely diagnosis is crucial for maintaining access and limb salvage. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty is a minimally invasive procedure that may be effective and long-lasting in carefully selected patients with ischemic complaints.