The latest medical research on Anesthesiology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about anesthesiology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Anesthesia for Patients Undergoing Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy Procedures: A Review of the Literature.

Anesthesia and Analgesia

Idiopathic achalasia is a motility disorder of the esophagus with important implications on anesthesia and periprocedural management. As new and mo...

Voluntary Exercise Rescues the Spatial Memory Deficit Associated With Early Life Isoflurane Exposure in Male Rats.

Anesthesia and Analgesia

Early life anesthesia exposure results in long-term cognitive deficits in rats. Environmental enrichment consisting of social housing, a stimulating environment, and voluntary exercise can rescue this deficit. We hypothesized that exercise alone is sufficient to rescue the cognitive deficit associated with perinatal anesthesia.

Postnatal day 7 male rats (P7) underwent isoflurane (Iso) or sham exposure and were subsequently weaned at P21. They were then singly housed in a cage with a running wheel or a fixed wheel. After 3 weeks of exercise, animals underwent behavioral testing for spatial and recognition memory assessments. Animals were killed at various time points to accomplish either bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling or quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to quantify brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels.

Postweaning voluntary exercise rescued the long-term spatial memory deficit associated with perinatal Iso exposure. Iso-sedentary animals did not discriminate the goal quadrant, spending no more time than chance during the Barnes maze probe trial (1-sample t test, P = .524) while all other groups did (1-sample t test, PIso-exercise = .033; Pcontrol [Con]-sedentary = .004). We did not find a deficit in recognition memory tasks after Iso exposure as we observed previously. BrdU incorporation in the adult hippocampus of Iso-sedentary animals was decreased compared to sedentary controls (Tukey P = .005). Exercise prevented this decrease, with Iso-exercise animals having more proliferation than Iso-sedentary (Tukey P < .001). There was no effect of exercise or Iso on BDNF mRNA in either the cortex or hippocampus (cortex: FExercise[1,32] = 0.236, P = .631; FIso [1,32] = 0.038, P = .847; FInteraction [1,32] = 1.543, P = .223; and hippocampus: FExercise[1,33] = 1.186, P = .284; FIso [1,33] = 1.46, P = .236; FInteraction[1,33] = 1.78, P = .191).

Exercise restores BrdU incorporation and rescues a spatial memory deficit after early life anesthesia exposure. This demonstrates sufficiency of exercise alone in the context of environmental enrichment to recover a behavioral phenotype after a perinatal insult.

Beyond Anesthesia Toxicity: Anesthetic Considerations to Lessen the Risk of Neonatal Neurological Injury.

Anesthesia and Analgesia

Infants who undergo surgical procedures in the first few months of life are at a higher risk of death or subsequent neurodevelopmental abnormalitie...

Physicians Prescribe More Opioid Than Needed to Treat Pain in Children After Outpatient Urological Procedures: An Observational Cohort Study.

Anesthesia and Analgesia

The epidemic of nonmedical use of prescription opioids (NMUPOs) has been fueled in part by the availability of leftover, legitimately prescribed opioids. In children, outpatient urological procedures are among the most common surgeries performed, but data are lacking to guide appropriate postoperative opioid prescribing. The aim of this study was to compare the amount of prescribed opioid medication to the amount taken for acute pain after minor pediatric urological surgery and to determine the disposition of excess opioid. In addition, we explored whether distinct patient characteristics and procedure type influenced opioid prescribing and consumption.

Of the 139 families of pediatric patients enrolled, 115 were interviewed within 48 hours and/or 10-14 days of discharge to determine the amount of opioid prescribed and consumed, duration of treatment, and disposition of unconsumed opioid.

The most common procedures performed were circumcision (n = 58) and orchiopexy (n = 40). Most patients (98%) were male, and 77% were <8 years of age. All opioid prescriptions were for oxycodone dosed every 4 hours as needed (PRN). Median number of doses prescribed was 30 (interquartile range [IQR], 23-31; n = 138) for both respondents who reported doses remaining (IQR, 29-31; n = 83) and those who did not (IQR, 22-32; n = 55). Among those reporting doses remaining, median number of doses consumed was 4.2 (IQR, 0-14). Multivariable linear regression showed no significant association between doses consumed and patient age, type of procedure, discharge pain score, or use of adjuvant analgesics. Median duration of opioid therapy was 2 days (IQR, 0-5; n = 83) with each additional day of opioid use corresponding to an average increase in consumption of 2.3 doses (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-2.8). An estimated 75% (95% CI, 69%-81%) of opioid dispensed was not consumed, and 86% (72/83) of patients took ≤18 doses. Forty-four of 65 (68%) families reported receiving no disposal instructions for leftover opioid, and only 7 families disposed of leftover medication.

For minor pediatric urological surgeries in young boys, a 3-day supply (18 doses) of opioid was sufficient to adequately treat acute postoperative pain in most patients. Adjusting opioid dispensing to align with consumption and better educating patients and families on opioid disposal can be used to potentially decrease availability of leftover opioids in homes and communities.

Guiding Opioid Administration by 3 Different Analgesia Nociception Monitoring Indices During General Anesthesia Alters Intraoperative Sufentanil Consumption and Stress Hormone Release: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.

Anesthesia and Analgesia

This pilot study investigated the effect of sufentanil titration by 3 different analgesia monitoring devices or clinical signs during general anesthesia.

Forty-eight patients undergoing radical retropubic prostatectomy with sevoflurane/sufentanil anesthesia were randomly assigned into 4 groups and received sufentanil guided either by 1 of 3 analgesia monitoring devices (Surgical Pleth Index [SPI], Pupillary Pain Index [PPI], Nociception Level [NoL]) or by clinical judgment (control). The primary end point was intraoperative sufentanil consumption. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol were measured at 4 time points during the day of surgery. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests and by mixed model and area under the curve (AUC) analyses for group comparisons and time effects of stress hormones.

The total amount of sufentanil administration (μg·kg·minute·10) differed between the groups (median [quartiles]: control = 5.6 [4.4-6.4], SPI = 7.2 [4.8-8.4], PPI = 2.0 [1.8-2.9], NoL = 3.8 [3.3-5.1]; PPI versus SPI, -5.1 [-6.6 to -1.3], P < .001; NoL versus SPI, -3.0 [-5.2 to 0.2], P = .024; control versus SPI, -1.6 [-3.7 to 1.7], P = .128; NoL versus PPI, 1.7 [0.6-3.4], P < .001; control versus PPI, 3.4 [2.0-4.6], P < .001; control versus NoL, 1.6 [-0.2 to 3.3], P = .017) (Hodges-Lehmann estimator [99% confidence interval {CI}], P values). The AUC analysis indicated differences among groups in cumulative ACTH levels (ng·liter·minute, natural logarithm (ln)-transformed data) of NoL versus PPI (-1.079 [-1.950 to -0.208], P = .001) and PPI versus SPI (1.192 [0.317-2.068], P= .001), as well as differences in cortisol levels (µg·liter·minute) for PPI versus SPI (46,710 [21,145-72,274], P < .001), NoL versus SPI (27,645 [3163-52,126], P = .003), and control versus SPI (31,824 [6974-56,675], P = .001) (differences in means [99% CI], P value). Secondary end points (postoperative recovery, pain level, and analgesia medication) showed no differences.

The type of analgesia nociception monitoring affected the total amount of sufentanil administered. Lower sufentanil doses in the PPI group were associated with an increased endocrine stress response. Titration by SPI caused no opioid reduction compared to the control but was associated with a reduced endocrine stress response.

Effect of Remote Ischemic Preconditioning in Patients Undergoing Hepatectomy With Portal Triad Clamping: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Anesthesia and Analgesia

Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is reported to reduce liver injury in patients undergoing hepatectomy for colorectal liver metastasis, but its role is unclear in hepatocellular carcinoma patients with portal triad clamping during hepatectomy.

In this prospective, randomized trial, 140 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing liver resection requiring portal triad clamping were randomized to a RIPC group or a control group. Patients in the RIPC group received RIPC (3 cycles of 5-minute ischemia and 5-minute reperfusion in right upper limb with cuff pressure at 30 kPa [225 mm Hg]) approximately 10 minutes after induction of anesthesia. In the control group, patients received sham RIPC (the cuff was not inflated). The primary outcome was the postoperative peak level of total bilirubin (TBIL) and was analyzed with the independent t test. Secondary outcomes were liver function test at postoperative days 1, 3, and 5; postoperative morbidity and mortality during the first month; and the length of postoperative hospital stay.

Data from 136 patients (69 in the RIPC group and 67 in the control group) were analyzed. The RIPC group had on average a 5.9 μmol lower peak level of TBIL than the control group; the mean difference is -5.9, and the 95% confidence interval (CI) reverses to -17.9 to 6.1. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in liver function test at postoperative days 1, 3, and 5; postoperative morbidity and mortality during the first month; and the length of postoperative hospital stay.

We found no evidence that RIPC can reduce postoperative liver injury after hepatectomy.

Special Report From the Society for the Advancement of Blood Management: The Choosing Wisely Campaign.

Anesthesia and Analgesia

Over 7 years ago, the American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation (ABIM) created the national Choosing Wisely campaign with the purpose of encou...

Quadratus lumborum block for analgesia after caesarean section: a randomised controlled trial.


Quadratus lumborum block has been shown to provide satisfactory analgesia after caesarean section performed under neuraxial anaesthesia. However, i...

Variation in the practice of tracheal intubation in Europe after traumatic brain injury: a prospective cohort study.


Traumatic brain injury patients frequently undergo tracheal intubation. We aimed to assess current intubation practice in Europe and identify varia...

Effect of Polyethylene-glycolated Carboxyhemoglobin on Renal Microcirculation in a Rat Model of Hemorrhagic Shock.


The optimal fluid for resuscitation of hemorrhagic shock (crystalloid, colloid, or hemoglobin-containing) and mitigation of acute kidney injury is unknown WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: In a rat model of hemorrhagic shock comparing fluid resuscitation with blood, diluted blood, hydroxyethyl starch, or polyethylene-glycolated carboxyhemoglobin, all fluids restored urine output and creatinine clearance, but only blood and diluted blood improved renal PO2Postresuscitation histologic renal tubular damage was increased compared with nonresuscitated rats but slightly less with blood, diluted blood, and polyethylene-glycolated carboxyhemoglobin compared with hydroxyethyl starchRestoration of circulatory hemodynamics and kidney microcirculatory PO2 was comparable with polyethylene-glycolated carboxyhemoglobin and balanced hydroxyethyl starch solution BACKGROUND:: Primary resuscitation fluid to treat hemorrhagic shock remains controversial. Use of hydroxyethyl starches raised concerns of acute kidney injury. Polyethylene-glycolated carboxyhemoglobin, which has carbon monoxide-releasing molecules and oxygen-carrying properties, was hypothesized to sustain cortical renal microcirculatory PO2 after hemorrhagic shock and reduce kidney injury.

Anesthetized and ventilated rats (n = 42) were subjected to pressure-controlled hemorrhagic shock for 1 h. Renal cortical PO2 was measured in exposed kidneys using a phosphorescence quenching method. Rats were randomly assigned to six groups: polyethylene-glycolated carboxyhemoglobin 320 mg · kg, 6% hydroxyethyl starch (130/0.4) in Ringer's acetate, blood retransfusion, diluted blood retransfusion (~4 g · dl), nonresuscitated animals, and time control. Nitric oxide and heme oxygenase 1 levels were determined in plasma. Kidney immunohistochemistry (histologic scores of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and tumor necrosis factor-α) and tubular histologic damages analyses were performed.

Blood and diluted blood restored renal PO2 to 51 ± 5 mmHg (mean difference, -18; 95% CI, -26 to -11; P < 0.0001) and 47 ± 5 mmHg (mean difference, -23; 95% CI, -31 to -15; P < 0.0001), respectively, compared with 29 ± 8 mmHg for hydroxyethyl starch. No differences between polyethylene-glycolated carboxyhemoglobin and hydroxyethyl starch were observed (33 ± 7 mmHg vs. 29 ± 8 mmHg; mean difference, -5; 95% CI, -12 to 3; P = 0.387), but significantly less volume was administered (4.5 [3.3-6.2] vs. 8.5[7.7-11.4] ml; mean rank difference, 11.98; P = 0.387). Blood and diluted blood increased the plasma bioavailability of nitric oxide compared with hydroxyethyl starch (mean rank difference, -20.97; P = 0.004; and -17.13; P = 0.029, respectively). No changes in heme oxygenase 1 levels were observed. Polyethylene-glycolated carboxyhemoglobin limited tubular histologic damages compared with hydroxyethyl starch (mean rank difference, 60.12; P = 0.0012) with reduced neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (mean rank difference, 84.43; P < 0.0001) and tumor necrosis factor-α (mean rank difference, 49.67; P = 0.026) histologic scores.

Polyethylene-glycolated carboxyhemoglobin resuscitation did not improve renal PO2 but limited tubular histologic damages and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin upregulation after hemorrhage compared with hydroxyethyl starch, whereas a lower volume was required to sustain macrocirculation.

Superior Trunk Block Provides Noninferior Analgesia Compared with Interscalene Brachial Plexus Block in Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgery.


Interscalene nerve block is commonly used for shoulder surgery for anesthesia and postoperative analgesiaUnfortunately, interscalene blocks commonly result in hemidiaphragmatic paralysis WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: When interscalene block was compared with superior trunk block, less frequent hemidiaphragmatic paralysis was seen in the superior trunk block groupSuperior trunk block was noninferior to interscalene block in terms of pain scores for up to 24 h postoperatively, and superior trunk block patients were no less satisfied BACKGROUND:: Interscalene brachial plexus block of the C5-C6 roots provides highly effective postoperative analgesia after shoulder surgery but usually results in hemidiaphragmatic paresis. Injection around the superior trunk of the brachial plexus is an alternative technique that may reduce this risk. The authors hypothesized that the superior trunk block would provide noninferior postoperative analgesia compared with the interscalene block and reduce hemidiaphragmatic paresis.

Eighty patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery were randomized to receive a preoperative injection of 15 ml of 0.5% ropivacaine and 5 μg · ml epinephrine around either (1) the C5-C6 nerve roots (interscalene block group) or (2) the superior trunk (superior trunk block group). The primary outcome was pain intensity 24 h after surgery measured on an 11-point numerical rating score; the prespecified noninferiority limit was 1. Diaphragmatic function was assessed using both ultrasonographic measurement of excursion and incentive spirometry by a blinded investigator before and 30 min after block completion.

Seventy-eight patients completed the study. The pain score 24 h postoperatively (means ± SDs) was 1.4 ± 1.0 versus 1.2 ± 1.0 in the superior trunk block (n = 38) and interscalene block (n = 40) groups, respectively. The mean difference in pain scores was 0.1 (95% CI, -0.3 to 0.6), and the upper limit of the 95% CI was lower than the prespecified noninferiority limit. Analgesic requirements and all other pain measurements were similar between groups. Hemidiaphragmatic paresis was observed in 97.5% of the interscalene block group versus 76.3% of the superior trunk block group (P = 0.006); paresis was complete in 72.5% versus 5.3% of the patients, respectively. The decrease in spirometry values from baseline was significantly greater in the interscalene block group.

The superior trunk block provided noninferior analgesia compared with interscalene brachial plexus block for up to 24 h after arthroscopic shoulder surgery and resulted in significantly less hemidiaphragmatic paresis.

Accuracy of Physical Function Questions to Predict Moderate-Vigorous Physical Activity as Measured by Hip Accelerometry.


Functional capacity is thought to be an important part of preoperative assessment, but it is hard to assess without formal testingStandardized physical function questions might identify patients with adequate capacity (greater than or equal to 4 metabolic equivalents) WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: Results from standardized physical function questions and hip accelerometers were compared in 522 participantsPhysical function questions were sensitive but nonspecificOther approaches to assessing physical functional status should be considered BACKGROUND:: Functional capacity assessment is a core component of current perioperative cardiovascular evaluation and management guidelines for noncardiac surgery. The authors investigated the ability of standardized physical function questions to predict whether participants engaged in moderate physical activity as measured by hip accelerometers.

Participant responses to physical functioning questions and whether they engaged in moderate physical activity were extracted from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003 to 2004 and 2005 to 2006). Physical activity intensity was measured using hip accelerometers. Adult participants with at least one Revised Cardiac Risk Index condition were included in the analysis. Standardized physical function questions were evaluated using a classification and regression tree analysis. Training and test datasets were randomly generated to create and test the analysis.

Five hundred and twenty-two participants were asked the physical functioning questions and 378 of 522 (72.4%) had a bout of moderate-vigorous activity. Classification and regression tree analysis identified a "no difficulty" response to walking up 10 stairs and the ability to walk two to three blocks as the most sensitive questions to predict the presence of a 2-min bout of moderate activity. Participants with positive responses to both questions had a positive likelihood ratio of 3.7 and a posttest probability greater than 90% of a 2-min bout of moderate-vigorous activity. The sensitivity and specificity of positive responses to physical functioning questions in the pruned tree were 0.97 (95% CI, 0.94 to 0.98) and 0.16 (95% CI, 0.10 to 0.23) for training data, and 0.88 (95% CI, 0.75 to 0.96) and 0.10 (95% CI, 0.00 to 0.45) for the test data. Participants with at least one 2-min bout of moderate activity had a greater percentage of overall daily active time (35.4 ± 0.5 vs. 26.7 ± 1.2; P = 0.001) than those without.

Standardized physical function questions are highly sensitive but poorly specific to identify patients who achieve moderate physical activity. Additional strategies to evaluate functional capacity should be considered.