The latest medical research on Interventional Radiology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about interventional radiology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Successful fusion versus pseudarthrosis after spinal instrumentation: a comprehensive imaging review.


Following spinal instrumentation and fusion, differentiating between successful arthrodesis and pseudoarthrosis on imaging can be challenging. Interpretation of such examinations requires understanding both the expected evolution of postoperative findings and the subtle indicators of pseudoarthrosis across multiple imaging modalities. Due to this level of intricacy, many clinicians lack familiarity with the subject beyond the more rudimentary concepts.

This review provides an in-depth overview of the imaging of the post-operative spine, with particular emphasis on differentiating between pseudoarthrosis and arthrodesis.

A comprehensive overview of imaging of the post-operative spine is given, including the most common imaging modalities utilized, the expected post-operative findings, imaging findings in pseudoarthrosis, and imaging definitions of fusion.

Differentiating between pseudoarthrosis and arthrodesis in the postoperative spine is complex, and requires a robust understanding of various findings across many different modalities.

Multicenter survey clarifying phrases in emergency radiology reports.

Emergency Radiology

Interactions between radiologists and emergency physicians are often diminished as imaging volume increases and more radiologists read off site. We explore how several commonly used phrasings are perceived by radiologists and emergency physicians to decrease ambiguity in reporting.

An anonymous survey was distributed to attendings and residents at seven academic radiology and emergency departments across the USA via a digital platform as well as to an email group consisting of radiologists across the country with an interest in quality assurance. Physicians were asked to assign a percent score to probabilistic phrases such as, "suspicious of," or "concerned for." Additional questions including, "how often the report findings are reviewed," "what makes a good radiology report," and "when is it useful to use the phrase 'clinical correlation are recommended.'" Median scores and confidence intervals were compared using an independent Student's T-test.

Generally, there was agreement between radiologists and emergency room physicians in how they interpret probabilistic phrases except for the phrases, "compatible with," and "subcentimeter liver lesions too small to characterize." Radiologists consider a useful report to answer the clinical question, be concise, and well organized. Emergency physicians consider a useful report to be concise, definitive or include a differential diagnosis, answer the clinical question, and recommend a next step. Radiologists and emergency physicians did not agree on the usefulness of the phrase, "clinical correlation recommended," in which radiologists found the phrase more helpful under particular circumstances.

The survey demonstrated a wide range of answers for probabilistic phrases for both radiologists and emergency physicians. While the medians and means of the two groups were often different by statistical significance, the actual percent difference was minor. These wide range of answers suggest that use of probabilistic phrases may sometimes lead to misinterpretation between radiologist and emergency room physician and should be avoided or defined if possible.

MRI findings differentiating tonsillar herniation caused by idiopathic intracranial hypertension from Chiari I malformation.


Some patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) have cerebellar tonsillar herniation ≥ 5 mm mimicking Chiari malformation I (CMI), which can result in misdiagnosis and unjustified treatment. Our purpose was to identify IIH patients with tonsillar herniation ≥ 5 mm (IIHTH) and compare with CMI patients to assess imaging findings that could distinguish the two conditions.

Ninety-eight patients with IIH, 81 patients with CMI, and 99 controls were retrospectively assessed. Two neuroradiologists blindly reviewed MR images. IIHTH patients were compared with CMI patients and controls regarding the extent of tonsillar herniation (ETH), bilateral transverse sinus stenosis (BTSS), hypophysis-sella ratio (HSR), and bilateral tortuosity of optic nerve (BTON).

13/98 (13.2%) IIH patients had tonsillar herniation ≥ 5 mm (IIHTH) and were significantly younger and had higher BMI compared with CMI patients and controls. ETH was significantly less in the IIHTH than CMI (6.5 ± 2.4 mm vs. 10.9 ± 4.4 mm; p < 0.001). BTSS and HSR < 0.5 were more common in IIHTH than CMI (p < 0.001 and p = 0.003, respectively). No differences were seen between CMI and controls. BTON was significantly more common in IIHTH compared to control (p = 0.01) but not to the CMI (p = 0.36). Sensitivity and specificity to differentiate IIHTH from CMI were 69.2% and 96.1% for BTSS and 69.2% and 75.3% for HSR < 0.5.

The presence of BTSS and/or HSR < 0.5 in patients with ETH ≥ 5 mm should suggest further evaluation to exclude IIH before considering CMI surgery.

Natural history of MRI brain volumes in patients with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 3: a sensitive imaging biomarker.


Grey matter (GM) atrophy due to neuronal loss is a striking feature of patients with CLN3 disease. A precise and quantitative description of disease progression is needed in order to establish an evaluation tool for current and future experimental treatments. In order to develop a quantitative marker to measure brain volume outcome, we analysed the longitudinal volumetric development of GM, white matter (WM) and lateral ventricles and correlated those with the clinical course.

One hundred twenty-two MRI scans of 35 patients (21 females; 14 males; age 15.3 ± 4.8 years) with genetically confirmed CLN3 disease were performed. A three-dimensional T1-weighted sequence was acquired with whole brain coverage. Volumetric segmentation of the brain was performed with the FreeSurfer image analysis suite. The clinical severity was assessed by the Hamburg jNCL score, a disease-specific scoring system.

The volumes of supratentorial cortical GM and supratentorial WM, cerebellar GM, basal ganglia/thalamus and hippocampus significantly (r =  - 0.86 to - 0.69, p < 0.0001) decreased with age, while the lateral ventricle volume increased (r = 0.68, p < 0.0001). Supratentorial WM volume correlated poorer with age (r =  - 0.56, p = 0.0001). Supratentorial cortical GM volume showed the steepest (4.6% (± 0.2%)) and most uniform decrease with strongest correlation with age (r =  - 0.86, p < 0.0001). In addition, a strong correlation with disease specific clinical scoring existed for the supratentorial cortical GM volume (r = 0.85, p =  < 0.0001).

Supratentorial cortical GM volume is a sensitive parameter for assessment of disease progression even in early and late disease stages and represents a potential reliable outcome measure for evaluation of experimental therapies.

Multiple hypointense veins on susceptibility weighted imaging as a promising biomarker of impaired cerebral hemodynamics in chronic steno-occlusive disease: a multiparametric MRI study.


Patients with steno-occlusive arterial disease may develop cerebral hypoperfusion with possible neurologic sequelae. The aim of the study is to verify the possible role of SWI, as a marker of cerebral hypoperfusion, in the identification of patient subgroups with significant chronic occlusions/stenoses at risk of critical cerebral hypoperfusion.

We retrospectively identified 37 asymptomatic patients with chronic intra-extracranial occlusion/stenosis of the anterior circulation from a prospective brain MRI register between 2016 and 2020. All patients underwent 3 Tesla MRI. The imaging protocol included the following: SWI, 3D-FLAIR, DWI sequences, and 3D-TOF MRA. SWI findings were graded for the presence of asymmetric intracranial cortical veins (grades 1 to 4). The presence of collateralization was assessed with concomitant multiphase-CTA. FLAIR was evaluated for the presence of distal hyperintense vessels (DHVs), a described marker of flow impairment, and possible collateralization. Cerebral blood flow and arterial transit artifacts (ATAs) were evaluated at pCASL in 29 patients.

SWI showed multiple hypointense vessels (MHVs) in 22/37 patients in the cerebral hemisphere ipsilateral to vessel occlusion/stenosis. SWI-MHV grade 1 was found in 15 patients (40.5%), grade 2 in 18 patients (48.7%), and grade 3 in 3 patients (8.1%); in one patient, SWI was graded as 4 (2.7%). A significant relationship was found among MHV, DHV, collaterals, ATAs, and hypoperfused areas on pCASL and with patients' previous neurological symptoms.

SWI-MVH correlates with chronic cerebral flow impairment and is related to hypoperfusion and collateralization. It may help identify a subgroup of patients benefitting from revascularization.

Prospective assessment of aneurysmal rupture risk scores in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage: a multicentric cohort.


In a large prospective multicentric European cohort, we aimed to evaluate whether the PHASES, UCAS, and ELPASS scores in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage would have predicted a high risk of aneurysmal rupture or growth.

Academic centers treating patients with intracranial aneurysms were invited to prospectively collect de-identified data from all patients admitted at their institution for a subarachnoid hemorrhage-related to intracranial aneurysmal rupture between January 1 and March 31, 2021 through a trainee-led research collaborative network. Each responding center was provided with an electronic case record form (CRF) which collected all the elements of the PHASES, ELAPSS, and UCAS scores.

A total of 319 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were included at 17 centers during a 3-month period. One hundred eighty-three aneurysms (57%) were less than 7 mm. The majority of aneurysms were located on the anterior communicating artery (n = 131, 41%). One hundred eighty-four patients (57%), 103 patients (32%), and 58 (18%) were classified as having a low risk of rupture or growth, according to the PHASES, UCAS, and ELAPSS scores, respectively.

In a prospective study of European patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, we showed that 3 common risk-assessment tools designed for patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms would have not identified most patients to be at high or intermediate risk for rupture, questioning their use for decision-making in the setting of unruptured aneurysms.

Pediatric trauma and the role of the interventional radiologist.

Emergency Radiology

While interventional radiologists occupy a critical role in adult trauma management, the role of interventionalist in pediatric trauma continues to evolve. The indications for transarterial embolization (TAE) are significantly different in pediatric patients in whom non-operative management (NOM) has a much more prominent role than in adults. Contrast extravasation on imaging may not require acute surgical or interventional management as it would in an adult. There are also areas in which pediatric interventional radiology is increasingly useful such as pelvic TAE in failed management, or splenic embolization to treat bleeding without the loss of splenic function inherent to surgical splenectomy. The rapid evolution of techniques and devices in pediatric patients is also changing what interventions are possible in pediatric trauma management which necessitates frequent reassessment of the guidelines and interventional radiology's role in caring for these patients.

This review seeks to consolidate the recent literature to describe the evolving role of the interventional radiologist in pediatric trauma management.

Predictors of Therapy Response in Chronic Aphasia: Building a Foundation for Personalized Aphasia Therapy.

Journal of Stroke

Chronic aphasia, a devastating impairment of language, affects up to a third of stroke survivors. Speech and language therapy has consistently been...

Endovascular Treatment for Posterior Circulation Stroke: Ways to Maximize Therapeutic Efficacy.

Journal of Stroke

The efficacy of endovascular treatment (EVT) in patients with posterior circulation stroke has not been proven. Two recent randomized controlled tr...

Association of Lipids, Lipoproteins, and Apolipoproteins with Stroke Subtypes in an International Case Control Study (INTERSTROKE).

Journal of Stroke

The association of dyslipidemia with stroke has been inconsistent, which may be due to differing associations within etiological stroke subtypes. We sought to determine the association of lipoproteins and apolipoproteins within stroke subtypes.

Standardized incident case-control STROKE study in 32 countries. Cases were patients with acute hospitalized first stroke, and matched by age, sex and site to controls. Concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1), and apoB were measured. Non-HDL-C was calculated. We estimated multivariable odds ratio (OR) and population attributable risk percentage (PAR%). Outcome measures were all stroke, ischemic stroke (and subtypes), and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).

Our analysis included 11,898 matched case-control pairs; 77.3% with ischemic stroke and 22.7% with ICH. Increasing apoB (OR, 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 1.14 per standard deviation [SD]) and LDL-C (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.10 per SD) were associated with an increase in risk of ischemic stroke, but a reduced risk of ICH. Increased apoB was significantly associated with large vessel stroke (PAR 13.4%; 95% CI, 5.6 to 28.4) and stroke of undetermined cause. Higher HDL-C (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.72 to 0.78 per SD) and apoA1 (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.66 per SD) were associated with ischemic stroke (and subtypes). While increasing HDL-C was associated with an increased risk of ICH (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.27 per SD), apoA1 was associated with a reduced risk (OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.75 to 0.85 per SD). ApoB/A1 (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.32 to 1.44 per SD) had a stronger magnitude of association than the ratio of LDL-C/HDL-C (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.21 to 1.31 per SD) with ischemic stroke (P<0.0001).

The pattern and magnitude of association of lipoproteins and apolipoproteins with stroke varies by etiological stroke subtype. While the directions of association for LDL, HDL, and apoB were opposing for ischemic stroke and ICH, apoA1 was associated with a reduction in both ischemic stroke and ICH. The ratio of apoB/A1 was the best lipid predictor of ischemic stroke risk.

Causal Relations between Exposome and Stroke: A Mendelian Randomization Study.

Journal of Stroke

To explore the causal relationships of elements of the exposome with ischemic stroke and its subtypes at the omics level and to provide evidence for stroke prevention.

We conducted a Mendelian randomization study between exposure and any ischemic stroke (AIS) and its subtypes (large-artery atherosclerotic disease [LAD], cardioembolic stroke [CE], and small vessel disease [SVD]). The exposure dataset was the UK Biobank involving 361,194 subjects, and the outcome dataset was the MEGASTROKE consortium including 52,000 participants.

We found that higher blood pressure (BP) (systolic BP: odds ratio [OR], 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.04; diastolic BP: OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.05; pulse pressure: OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.06), atrial fibrillation (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.25), and diabetes (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.18) were significantly associated with ischemic stroke. Importantly, higher education (OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.79) decreased the risk of ischemic stroke. Higher systolic BP (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.10), pulse pressure (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.14), diabetes (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.45), and coronary artery disease (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.25 to 2.00) could cause LAD. Atrial fibrillation could cause CE (OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.71 to 2.11). For SVD, higher systolic BP (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.07), diastolic BP (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.12), and diabetes (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.36) were causal factors.

The study revealed elements of the exposome causally linked to ischemic stroke and its subtypes, including conventional causal risk factors and novel protective factors such as higher education.

Etiology-Related Outcome of Endovascular Therapy in Posterior Circulation Stroke Compared to Anterior Circulation Stroke.

Journal of Stroke

We investigated the impact of stroke etiology on the endovascular treatment (EVT) procedure and clinical outcome of posterior circulation stroke (PCS) patients with EVT compared to anterior circulation stroke (ACS) patients.

We retrospectively analyzed ischemic stroke patients who underwent EVT between January 2012 and December 2020. Enrolled ACS and PCS patients were compared according to etiologies (intracranial arterial steno-occlusion [ICAS-O], artery-to-artery embolic occlusion [AT-O], and cardioembolic occlusion [CA-O]). EVT procedure and favorable clinical outcomes at 3 months (modified Rankin Scale 0-2) were compared between the ACS and PCS groups for each etiology.

We included 419 patients (ACS, 346; PCS, 73) including 88 ICAS-O (ACS, 67; PCS, 21), 66 AT-O (ACS, 50; PCS, 16), and 265 CA-O (ACS, 229; PCS, 36) patients in the study. The onset-to-recanalization time was longer in the PCS group than in the ACS group (median 628.0 minutes vs. 421.0 minutes, P=0.01). In CA-O patients, the door-to-puncture time was longer, whereas the puncture-to-recanalization time was shorter in the PCS group than in the ACS group. The proportions of successful recanalization and favorable clinical outcomes were similar between the ACS and PCS groups for all three etiologies. Low baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores and absence of intracerebral hemorrhage at follow-up imaging were associated with favorable clinical outcomes in both groups, whereas successful recanalization (odds ratio, 11.74; 95% confidence interval, 2.60 to 52.94; P=0.001) was only associated in the ACS group.

The proportions of successful recanalization and favorable clinical outcomes were similar among all three etiologies between PCS and ACS patients who underwent EVT. Initial baseline NIHSS score and absence of hemorrhagic transformation were related to favorable outcomes in the PCS and ACS groups, whereas successful recanalization was related to favorable outcomes only in the ACS group.