The latest medical research on Interventional Radiology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about interventional radiology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Diffusional kurtosis imaging in differentiating nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy from acute optic neuritis.

Neuroradiology

We aimed to determine the feasibility of using DKI to characterize pathological changes in nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) and to differentiate it from acute optic neuritis (ON).

Orbital DKI was performed with a 3.0 T scanner on 75 patients (51 with NAION and 24 with acute ON) and 15 healthy controls. NAION patients were further divided into early and late groups. The mean kurtosis (MK), axial kurtosis (AK), radial kurtosis (RK), mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD) were calculated to perform quantitative analyses among groups; and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were also performed to determine their effectiveness of differential diagnosis. In addition, correlation coefficients were calculated to explore the correlations of the DKI-derived data with duration of disease.

The MK, RK, and AK in the affected nerves with NAION were significantly higher than those in the controls, while the trend of FA, RD, and AD was a decline; in acute ON patients, except for RD, which increased, all DKI-derived kurtosis and diffusion parameters were significantly lower than controls (all P < 0.008). Only AK and MD had statistical differences between the early and late groups. Except for MD (early group) and FA, all other DKI-derived parameters were higher in NAION than in acute ON; and parameters in the early group showed better diagnostic efficacy in differentiating NAION from acute ON. Correlation analysis showed that time was negatively correlated with MK, RK, AK, and FA and positively correlated with MD, RD, and AD (all P < 0.05).

DKI is helpful for assessing the specific pathologic abnormalities resulting from ischemia in NAION by comparison with acute ON. Early DKI should be performed to aid in the diagnosis and evaluation of NAION.

Automatic generation of conclusions from neuroradiology MRI reports through natural language processing.

Neuroradiology

The conclusion section of a radiology report is crucial for summarizing the primary radiological findings in natural language and essential for communicating results to clinicians. However, creating these summaries is time-consuming, repetitive, and prone to variability and errors among different radiologists. To address these issues, we evaluated a fine-tuned Text-To-Text Transfer Transformer (T5) model for abstractive summarization to automatically generate conclusions for neuroradiology MRI reports in a low-resource language.

We retrospectively applied our method to a dataset of 232,425 neuroradiology MRI reports in Spanish. We compared various pre-trained T5 models, including multilingual T5 and those newly adapted for Spanish. For precise evaluation, we employed BLEU, METEOR, ROUGE-L, CIDEr, and cosine similarity metrics alongside expert radiologist assessments.

The findings are promising, with the models specifically fine-tuned for neuroradiology MRI achieving scores of 0.46, 0.28, 0.52, 2.45, and 0.87 in the BLEU-1, METEOR, ROUGE-L, CIDEr, and cosine similarity metrics, respectively. In the radiological experts' evaluation, they found that in 75% of the cases evaluated, the conclusions generated by the system were as good as or even better than the manually generated conclusions.

The methods demonstrate the potential and effectiveness of customizing state-of-the-art pre-trained models for neuroradiology, yielding automatic MRI report conclusions that nearly match expert quality. Furthermore, these results underscore the importance of designing and pre-training a dedicated language model for radiology report summarization.

Use of the pRESET LITE thrombectomy device in combined approach for medium vessel occlusions: A multicenter evaluation.

Neuroradiology

Our purpose was to assess the efficacy and safety of the pRESET LITE stent retriever (Phenox, Bochum, Germany), designed for medium vessel occlusion (MeVO) in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients with a primary MeVO.

We performed a retrospective analysis of the MAD MT Consortium, an integration of prospectively maintained databases at 37 academic institutions in Europe, North America, and Asia, of AIS patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy with the pRESET LITE stent retriever for a primary MeVO. We subcategorized occlusions into proximal MeVOs (segments A1, M2, and P1) vs. distal MeVOs/DMVO (segments A2, M3-M4, and P2). We reviewed patient and procedural characteristics, as well as angiographic and clinical outcomes.

Between September 2016 and December 2021, 227 patients were included (50% female, median age 78 [65-84] years), of whom 161 (71%) suffered proximal MeVO and 66 (29%) distal MeVO. Using a combined approach in 96% of cases, successful reperfusion of the target vessel (mTICI 2b/2c/3) was attained in 85% of proximal MeVO and 97% of DMVO, with a median of 2 passes (IQR: 1-3) overall. Periprocedural complications rate was 7%. Control CT at day 1 post-MT revealed a hemorrhagic transformation in 63 (39%) patients with proximal MeVO and 24 (36%) patients with DMVO, with ECASS-PH type hemorrhagic transformations occurring in 3 (1%) patients. After 3 months, 58% of all MeVO and 63% of DMVO patients demonstrated a favorable outcome (mRS 0-2).

Mechanical thrombectomy using the pRESET LITE in a combined approach with an aspiration catheter appears effective for primary medium vessel occlusions across several centers and physicians.

Removing outliers from the normative database improves regional atrophy detection in single-subject voxel-based morphometry.

Neuroradiology

Single-subject voxel-based morphometry (VBM) compares an individual T1-weighted MRI to a sample of normal MRI in a normative database (NDB) to detect regional atrophy. Outliers in the NDB might result in reduced sensitivity of VBM. The primary aim of the current study was to propose a method for outlier removal ("NDB cleaning") and to test its impact on the performance of VBM for detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD).

T1-weighted MRI of 81 patients with biomarker-confirmed AD (n = 51) or FTLD (n = 30) and 37 healthy subjects with simultaneous FDG-PET/MRI were included as test dataset. Two different NDBs were used: a scanner-specific NDB (37 healthy controls from the test dataset) and a non-scanner-specific NDB comprising 164 normal T1-weighted MRI from 164 different MRI scanners. Three different quality metrics based on leave-one-out testing of the scans in the NDB were implemented. A scan was removed if it was an outlier with respect to one or more quality metrics. VBM maps generated with and without NDB cleaning were assessed visually for the presence of AD or FTLD.

Specificity of visual interpretation of the VBM maps for detection of AD or FTLD was 100% in all settings. Sensitivity was increased by NDB cleaning with both NDBs. The effect was statistically significant for the multiple-scanner NDB (from 0.47 [95%-CI 0.36-0.58] to 0.61 [0.49-0.71]).

NDB cleaning has the potential to improve the sensitivity of VBM for the detection of AD or FTLD without increasing the risk of false positive findings.

The impact of image contrast, resolution and reader expertise on black hole identification in Multiple Sclerosis.

Neuroradiology

In the neuroradiological work-up of Multiple Sclerosis (MS), the detection of "black holes" (BH) represent an information of undeniable importance. Nevertheless, different sequences can be used in clinical practice to evaluate BH in MS. Aim of this study was to investigate the possible impact of different sequences, resolutions, and levels of expertise on the intra- and inter-rater reliability identification of BH in MS.

Brain MRI scans of 85 MS patients (M/F = 22/63; mean age = 36.0 ± 10.2 years) were evaluated in this prospective single-center study. The acquisition protocol included a 3 mm SE-T1w sequence, a 1 mm 3D-GrE-T1w sequence from which a resliced 3 mm sequence was also obtained. Images were evaluated independently by two readers of different expertise at baseline and after a wash-out period of 30 days. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated as an index of intra and inter-reader reliability.

For both readers, the intra-reader ICC analysis showed that the 3 mm SE-T1w and 3 mm resliced GrE-T1w images achieved an excellent performance (both with an ICC ≥ 0.95), while 1 mm 3D-GrE-T1w scans achieved a moderate one (ICC < 0.90). The inter-reader analysis showed that each of the three sequences achieved a moderate performance (all ICCs < 0.90).

The 1 mm 3D-GrE-T1w sequence seems to be prone to a greater intra-reader variability compared to the 3 mm SE-T1w, with this effect being driven by the higher spatial resolution of the first sequence. To ensure reliability levels comparable with the standard SE-T1w in BH count, an assessment on a 3 mm resliced GrE-T1w sequence should be recommended.

Usefulness of pituitary high-resolution 3D MRI with deep-learning-based reconstruction for perioperative evaluation of pituitary adenomas.

Neuroradiology

To evaluate the diagnostic value of T1-weighted 3D fast spin-echo sequence (CUBE) with deep learning-based reconstruction (DLR) for depiction of pituitary adenoma and parasellar regions on contrast-enhanced MRI.

We evaluated 24 patients with pituitary adenoma or residual tumor using CUBE with and without DLR, 1-mm slice thickness 2D T1WI (1-mm 2D T1WI) with DLR, and 3D spoiled gradient echo sequence (SPGR) as contrast-enhanced MRI. Depiction scores of pituitary adenoma and parasellar regions were assigned by two neuroradiologists, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was calculated.

CUBE with DLR showed significantly higher scores for depicting pituitary adenoma or residual tumor compared to CUBE without DLR, 1-mm 2D T1WI with DLR, and SPGR (p < 0.01). The depiction score for delineation of the boundary between adenoma and the cavernous sinus was higher for CUBE with DLR than for 1-mm 2D T1WI with DLR (p = 0.01), but the difference was not significant when compared to SPGR (p = 0.20). CUBE with DLR had better interobserver agreement for evaluating adenomas than 1-mm 2D T1WI with DLR (Kappa values, 0.75 vs. 0.41). The CNR of the adenoma to the brain parenchyma increased to a ratio of 3.6 (obtained by dividing 13.7, CNR of CUBE with DLR, by 3.8, that without DLR, p < 0.01). CUBE with DLR had a significantly higher CNR than SPGR, but not 1-mm 2D T1WI with DLR.

On the contrast-enhanced MRI, compared to CUBE without DLR, 1-mm 2D T1WI with DLR and SPGR, CUBE with DLR improves the depiction of pituitary adenoma and parasellar regions.

Abdominal computed tomography scoring systems and experienced radiologists in the radiological diagnosis of small bowel and mesenteric injury.

Emergency Radiology

Blunt bowel and/or mesenteric injury requiring surgery presents a diagnostic challenge. Although computed tomography (CT) imaging is standard following blunt trauma, findings can be nonspecific. Most studies have focused on the diagnostic value of CT findings in identifying significant bowel and/or mesenteric injury (sBMI). Some studies have described scoring systems to assist with diagnosis. Little attention, has been given to radiologist interpretation of CT scans. This study compared the discriminative ability of scoring systems (BIPS and RAPTOR) with radiologist interpretation in identifying sBMI.

We conducted a retrospective chart review of trauma patients with suspected sBMI. CT images were reviewed in a blinded fashion to calculate BIPS and RAPTOR scores. Sensitivity and specificity were compared between BIPS, RAPTOR, and the admission CT report with respect to identifying sBMI.

One hundred sixty-two patients were identified, 72 (44%) underwent laparotomy and 43 (26.5%) had sBMI. Sensitivity and specificity were: BIPS 49% and 87%, AUC 0.75 (0.67-0.81), P < 0.001; RAPTOR 46% and 82%, AUC 0.72 (0.64-0.79), P < 0.001; radiologist impression 81% and 71%, AUC 0.82(0.75-0.87), P < 0.001. The discriminative ability of the radiologist impression was higher than RAPTOR (P = 0.04) but not BIPS (P = 0.13). There was not a difference between RAPTOR vs. BIPS (P = 0.55).

Radiologist interpretation of the admission CT scan was discriminative of sBMI. Although surgical vigilance, including evaluation of the CT images and patient, remains fundamental to early diagnosis, the radiologist's impression of the CT scan can be used in clinical practice to simplify the approach to patients with abdominal trauma.

Accuracy of automated segmentation and volumetry of acute intracerebral hemorrhage following minimally invasive surgery using a patch-based convolutional neural network in a small dataset.

Neuroradiology

In cases of acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) volume estimation is of prognostic and therapeutic value following minimally invasive surgery (MIS). The ABC/2 method is widely used, but suffers from inaccuracies and is time consuming. Supervised machine learning using convolutional neural networks (CNN), trained on large datasets, is suitable for segmentation tasks in medical imaging. Our objective was to develop a CNN based machine learning model for the segmentation of ICH and of the drain and volumetry of ICH following MIS of acute supratentorial ICH on a relatively small dataset.

Ninety two scans were assigned to training (n = 29 scans), validation (n = 4 scans) and testing (n = 59 scans) datasets. The mean age (SD) was 70 (± 13.56) years. Male patients were 36. A hierarchical, patch-based CNN for segmentation of ICH and drain was trained. Volume of ICH was calculated from the segmentation mask.

The best performing model achieved a Dice similarity coefficient of 0.86 and 0.91 for the ICH and drain respectively. Automated ICH volumetry yielded high agreement with ground truth (Intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.94 [95% CI: 0.91, 0.97]). Average difference in the ICH volume was 1.33 mL.

Using a relatively small dataset, originating from different CT-scanners and with heterogeneous voxel dimensions, we applied a patch-based CNN framework and successfully developed a machine learning model, which accurately segments the intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and the drains. This provides automated and accurate volumetry of the bleeding in acute ICH treated with minimally invasive surgery.

"Rule out appendicitis": a Canadian emergency radiology perspective on medicolegal risks, imaging pitfalls, and strategies to improve care.

Emergency Radiology

We provide a unique Canadian perspective on the medicolegal risks associated with imaging acute appendicitis, incorporating data requested from the...

Investigation of the effects of Gamma Knife radiosurgery on optic pathways using diffusion tensor MRI within the first year after treatment.

Neuroradiology

To investigate the radiation-induced effects of Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for sellar-parasellar tumors on optic pathways using DTI parameters within the first year after treatment.

Twenty-five patients with sellar-parasellar tumors underwent MRI before and 3 months after GKRS, including T1WI, DTI, T2WI. Moreover, 21 patients underwent follow-up DTI 6-8 months after radiosurgery. ROIs were set on optic nerves, optic radiations, and control localizations; DTI parameters for each were calculated. Pre- and post-radiosurgery differences in DTI values were statistically compared and assessed with respect to tumor size changes.

Following GKRS, DTI parameters, notably ADC, FA, and RD, showed statistically significant changes in optic nerves and anterior optic radiations. DTI changes were more significant in the group of cases with tumor shrinkage. In this group, DTI of the anterior optic radiations further deteriorated 3 months post-GKRS, whereas acute changes in DTI parameters of the optic nerves resolved within 6-8 months. DTI of central and posterior optic radiations did not differ significantly following radiosurgery; 6-8 months after radiosurgery, visual function was stable in 14 (56%) patients and improved in 11 (44%), showing no correlation with tumor size changes or DTI parameters.

White Matter (WM) injury in the optic pathways can be induced by Gamma Knife radiosurgery targeted to sellar and parasellar tumors. Following GKRS, microstructural abnormalities occurred in the optic radiations as well as the optic nerves within the first post-treatment year. Our findings could support modifications to radiosurgical treatment strategies to minimize the risk of permanent WM injury.

Expanded experience with cardiovascular black blood cinematic rendering.

Emergency Radiology

Black blood cinematic rendering (BBCR) is a newly described preset for cinematic rendering, which creates photorealistic displays from volumetric d...

Analysis of the initial orbital MRI in aquaporin-4 antibody-positive optic neuritis (AQP4-ON): lesion location and lesion length can be predictive of visual prognosis.

Neuroradiology

Despite mounting evidence indicating that aquaporin-4 antibody-positive optic neuritis (AQP4-ON) presents a less favorable prognosis than other types of optic neuritis, there exists substantial heterogeneity in the prognostic outcomes within the AQP4-ON cohort. Considering the persistent debate over the role of MRI in assessing the prognosis of optic neuritis, we aim to investigate the correlation between the MRI appearance and long-term visual prognosis in AQP4-ON patients.

We retrospectively reviewed the ophthalmological and imaging data of AQP4-ON patients admitted to our Neuro-ophthalmology Department from January 2015 to March 2018, with consecutive follow-up visits for a minimum of 3 years.

A total of 51 AQP4-ON patients (59 eyes) meeting the criteria were enrolled in this research. After assessing the initial orbital MR images of each patient at the first onset, we observed the involvement of the canalicular segment (p < 0.001), intracranial segment (p = 0.004), optic chiasm (p = 0.009), and the presence of LEON (p = 0.002) were significantly different between recovery group and impairment group. For quantitative measurement, the length of the lesions is significantly higher in the impairment group (20.1 ± 9.3 mm) than in the recovery group (12.5 ± 5.3 mm) (p = 0.001).

AQP4-ON patients with involvement of canalicular, intracranial segment and optic chiasm of the optic nerve, and the longer range of lesions threaten worse vision prognoses. Timely MR examination during the initial acute phase can not only exclude the intracranial or orbital mass lesions but also indicate visual prognosis in the long term.