The latest medical research on Applied Dermatology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about applied dermatology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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A giant penis-like vulval soft fibroma in a case of external genital malformation.

J Cosmet Dermatol

Soft fibroma is a common benign skin tumour. The size varies from 1 to 10 mm, and giant soft fibromas were rare. Mostly, the appearances of soft fi...

Dermoscopic Evaluation of the Efficacy of Combination of topical spironolactone 5% and minoxidil 5% Solutions in the Treatment of Androgenetic Alopecia: A cross sectional- comparative study.

J Cosmet Dermatol

Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is a common chronic dermatological illness that affects both men and women.

To assess and compare dermoscopically the impact of a combination of topical minoxidil solution (5%) and topical spironolactone solution (5%) in treating AGA in both sexes.

one hundred and twenty patients diagnosed with AGA were divided into three groups; each group is composed of 40 patients. Group A (n=40) were treated with a 5% topical minoxidil solution, group B (n=40) were treated with a 5% topical spironolactone solution and group C (n=40) were treated with a 5% topical minoxidil and spironolactone combination.

Following initiation of treatment and at 6 weeks ( midterm) , reduction in all dermoscopic features was observed in all groups however it was not statistically significant except for vellus hair reduction ( p=0.033). On the other hand, upright regrowing hairs were insignificantly increased in all groups (p=1.088). The pattern of dermoscopic features remained to insignificantly decrease towards the end of 12 weeks treatment (full term) in all studied groups except for vellus hair that showed further significant reduction towards the end of the study (p = 0.011).

Both spironolactone as a 5% topical solution and minoxidil as a 5% topical solution might be used safely in a twice-daily dosage to treat AGA in both genders. Furthermore, combining them in a single topical dose form can boost efficacy and yield greater advantages.

Microliposuction and radiofrequency combined with the thread technique as a new method used in lower face lifting.

J Cosmet Dermatol

Minimally invasive facial rejuvenation is a popular and well-established treatment for patients seeking facial lifting.

The authors combined facial microliposuction, radiofrequency and thread lifting technology as a comprehensive treatment (LRT) for facial rejuvenation in a case series of 57 patients.

A total of 76 patients underwent surgery, and 75% completed 6 months of follow-up (57 patients); the patients were aged 26 to 51 (33.6 ± 4.5) years. All patients were followed up for hematoma within 1 week after the operation and for skin numbness and muscle paralysis at 1 week and 3 months postoperatively. Patient satisfaction with the postoperative aesthetic effects was analyzed by Face-QTM at 6 months after the operation.

The score for hematoma within 1 week was 1.21±0.33, scores for postoperative skin numbness within 1 week and 3 months were 2.06±0.51 and 1.17±0.32, respectively, and scores for postoperative muscle paralysis within 1 week and 3 months were 1.31±0.55 and 1.00 ± 0, respectively. Fifty-seven patients completed Face-QTM (score: 22.1±1.8, standard score: 82.2±14.8).

LRT is a minimally invasive method that can achieve a synergistic and satisfactory result for patients with mild to moderate facial skin sagging.

Fractional microneedle radiofrequency treatment for enlarged facial pores: A real-world retrospective observational study on 75 patients.

J Cosmet Dermatol

This study aimed to analyze the clinical results and influencing factors of the fractional microneedle radiofrequency (FMR) treatment for enlarged facial pores on different facial sites.

The clinical data of patients with enlarged facial pores who underwent FMR treatment from January 2019 to December 2020 were collected. The efficacy and complications of FMR for enlarged pores in different facial areas were retrospectively analyzed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to explore the clinical factors related to the efficacy of FMR after the first treatment session.

Totally, 75 patients with enlarged facial pores were included (full-face FMR for 45, nasal FMR for 58, frontal FMR for 45 and cheek FMR for 72 patients). All patients received more than 1 treatment session, 2 patients received 5 treatment sessions, and the mean number of FMR session was 1.7. The moderate to excellent improvement rates in patients with nasal, frontal and cheek enlarged pores after the first session were 13.8%, 8.9% and 11.1%, respectively. The improvement rate rose with the increasing number of treatment sessions. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that long pulse-width (300ms) was positively associated with clinical efficacy after the first session (OR=22.4, 95% CI [2.0-250.4], p=0.012), compared with the short pulse-width group (100-200ms). The main adverse effects after FMR were transient pain, erythema, and edema. A minority of patients developed acneiform eruption.

This study confirms that FMR is safe and effective in improving enlarged facial pores. The pulse width is associated with the improvement of nasal enlarged pores.

Ligularia fischeri Ethanol Extract: An Inhibitor of Alpha-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone-Stimulated Melanogenesis in B16F10 Melanoma Cells.

J Cosmet Dermatol

Ligularia fischeri is a perennial herb isolated from plants of the Asteraceae family. Ligularia fischeri is distributed throughout Korea, Japan, eastern Siberia, and China.

To examine the intracellular inhibitory effect of Ligularia fischeri ethanol extract on melanin synthesis and expression of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1 and 2. In addition, we analyzed the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor in alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-stimulated B16F10 melanoma cells.

To assess the inhibition of melanogenesis in alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-stimulated B16F10 melanoma cells, the expression of melanogenesis-related genes was investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, while western blotting was performed to determine protein expression levels.

We confirmed that the ethanol extract of Ligularia fischeri inhibited melanin synthesis in vitro by decreasing tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1 and 2 expression. Furthermore, we revealed that tyrosinase expression was regulated by the suppression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor expression and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation. The ethanol extract of Ligularia fischeri inhibited melanogenesis by activating extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation and suppressing microphthalmia-associated transcription factor and tyrosinase expression.

Ligularia fischeri ethanol extract may be used as an effective skin whitening agent in functional cosmetics.

Filler injections in the pre-auricular space: Be aware of the parotid gland.

J Cosmet Dermatol

Two cases and a video are presented, showing how filler injections may very easily be delivered inside the parotid gland. This may go unnoticed by ...

Dynamic ultrasound evaluation of body fillers and biostimulators in the buttocks of fresh-frozen specimen.

J Cosmet Dermatol

Ultrasound imaging is a useful tool to study the injection of fillers and biostimulators in the body.

Sonographically evaluate real-time injections of fillers and biostimulators and describe their behavior in the subcutaneous tissue of the buttocks of fresh-frozen specimen METHODS: injection of two brands of high-density hyaluronic acid (HA), one brand of Calcium hydroxyapatite (CaHA), one brand of hybrid injectable (CaHa + HA), one brand of Polycaprolactone (PCL) and three brands of Poly-L-Lactic acid (PLLA) were performed in the subcutaneous tissue of the gluteal region under ultrasonography visualization on a fresh-frozen specimen. Videos during injection and static images immediately after injection were obtained. The sonographic aspects of the substances and their dispersion and interaction with the surrounding tissues were described.

real-time ultrasound showed different dispersion patterns of the two brands of HA, CaHA, hybrid injectable (CaHa + HA) and the three brands of PLLA. The sonographic aspects among the brands of PLLA were also different.

The dynamic ultrasound evaluation of the injection of HA, CaHA, hybrid injectable (CaHa + HA), PCL and PLLA in a fresh-frozen specimen shed some light on their aspects and dispersion pattern in the buttock. If these patterns are confirmed in further studies in vivo, there will be a positive impact on the selection and development of safer and more effective techniques to enhance buttock contour.

Systemic immunotherapy for the treatment of warts: A literature review.

J Cosmet Dermatol

Immunotherapy has emerged as a critical therapeutic tool for the treatment of warts. Immunotherapy for warts is currently restricted to recalcitran...

Dermoscopy aids in differentiating primary cutaneous amyloidosis and post inflammatory hyperpigmentation: A clinico-dermoscopic-histopathological study.

J Cosmet Dermatol

Primary cutaneous amyloidosis (PCA) and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) are common causes of cutaneous hyperpigmentation that are usually diagnosed clinically. However, their presentations are sometimes atypical, and their differentiation is difficult. Dermoscopy is a valuable diagnostic tool for pigmented diseases that might aid in their diagnosis.

To describe the characteristic dermoscopic features of PCA and PIH together with histopathological correlation, and to differentiate between these conditions in a non-invasive way.

Fifty-two patients with PCA (n=26) and PIH (n=26) were enrolled. A detailed history, skin examination, dermoscopic examination using handheld and video dermoscopy, and histopathological evaluation were performed.

A statistically significant difference could be detected between PCA and PIH in terms of the duration of the disease (p = 0.027), symmetry (p = 0.044), rippling (p <0.001) and back affection (p = 0.048). On dermoscopic examination, central hubs were seen more in the PCA group (p<0.001) with different patterns of peripheral pigmentation. Histopathologically, the number of melanophages per high-power field was significantly higher in the PCA group (p = 0.013).

The results of this study shed the light on the potential of dermoscopy as a non-invasive diagnostic tool in differentiating between doubtful cases of PCA and PIH.

Five-point liquid rhinoplasty: Results from a retrospective analysis of a novel standardized technique and considerations on safety.

J Cosmet Dermatol

Nonsurgical aesthetic improvement of the nose with hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers is becoming increasingly popular but comes with important safety considerations.

To assess the safety and effectiveness of the standardized 'five-point liquid rhinoplasty' approach.

This was a retrospective, single-center analysis of consecutive adult patients undergoing nonsurgical aesthetic treatment of the nose. All had one of three main indications (insufficient nasal projection, nasal hump, or deep glabella) and were injected using HA fillers with high elastic modulus. Treatments were given using some or all of the injection points of the 'five-point liquid rhinoplasty' technique: P1 (nasal tip, 0.2-0.3 mL supracartilaginous); P2 (nasal root, 0.1-0.2 mL supraperiostal); P3 (cartilaginous dorsum, 0.1-0.2 mL supracartilaginous/supraperiostal); P4 (subnasal, 0.1-0.2 mL supraperiostal); and P5 (nasal alar, 0.1-0.2 mL per side supraperiostal). The risk of complications was minimized by injecting deep and staying in the midline as far as possible.

Twenty patients were enrolled (n=15 female [75%]; mean age: 37.8 ± 11.7 years). The mean volume of filler used was 0.66 ± 0.35 mL per patient. Nineteen subjects (95%) said they were 'very satisfied' with results, and the physician was also 'very satisfied' with outcomes in 19 patients (95%). Two individuals experienced hematoma, which was managed conservatively; there were no other significant complications.

The 'five-point liquid rhinoplasty' is a simple and effective method designed to maximize safety. It offers a good alternative to surgery in selected patients.

Unraveling the relation between vitiligo, Interleukin 17, and Serum Amyloid A.

J Cosmet Dermatol

There is debate concerning the precise etiopathogenesis of vitiligo. According to certain theories, a series of inflammatory responses that mediate the loss of melanocytes are caused by both cellular and humoral immune responses. It has also been demonstrated that Interleukin 17 (IL-17) promotes melanocyte death and inhibits melanogenesis through different mechanisms. Serum Amyloid A (SAA) levels are over-expressed in autoimmune diseases. Th17 cytokines are regulated by serum amyloid A proteins.

To measure serum levels of IL-17 and SAA in vitiligo patients aiming to explain their possible role in disease pathogenesis and the other aim is to correlate their levels with disease activity and severity.

This study included sixty vitiligo patients and forty healthy age and sex controls. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure serum levels of SAA and IL-17.

This study revealed significant increase in levels of serum IL-17 and SAA in patients than controls (p<0.05). Both markers showed significant positive correlations with VASI score and duration of vitiligo, only IL-17 showed statistically significant positive correlation with VIDA scores. Patients with vitiligo showed a statistically significant positive connection between serum IL-17 levels and SAA. (Rho=0.992, P-Value < 0.05).

Increased serum level of IL-17 and SAA in vitiligo patients together with their positive relation to vitiligo severity and the duration of the disease show that these two markers play a key role in the vitiligo development.

Dermoscopic findings and histopathological correlation in large cell acanthoma.

Australasian Journal of Dermatology

Since large cell acanthoma (LCA) has many overlapping clinical and histopathological features with other epidermal pigmented tumours, an additional...