The latest medical research on Diabetes Mellitus

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about diabetes mellitus gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Adherence and dropout in exercise-based interventions in childhood obesity: A systematic review of randomized trials.

Obesity Reviews

Our objective was to systematically examine the characteristics of exercise interventions on adherence and dropout in children and adolescents with...

Should carbohydrate-modified diets be the first option for weight loss in people with impaired glucose metabolism? A scoping review.

Obesity Reviews

While the "precision nutrition" movement is at an early stage of development, several investigations have compared low-fat versus carbohydrate (CHO...

Screening for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children and adolescents with obesity: A scoping review of national and international pediatric obesity and pediatric OSA management guidelines.

Obesity Reviews

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent complication that affects up to 60% of children and adolescents with obesity. It is associated with po...

Almond supplementation on appetite measures, body weight, and body composition in adults: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of 37 randomized controlled trials.

Obesity Reviews

Almond consumption has an inverse relationship with obesity and factors related to metabolic syndrome. However, the results of available clinical trials are inconsistent. Therefore, we analyzed the results of 37 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and evaluated the association of almond consumption with subjective appetite scores and body compositions.

Net changes in bodyweight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), fat mass (FM), body fat percent, fat-free mass (FFM), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and subjective appetite scores were used to calculate the effect size, which was reported as a weighted mean differences (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI).

This meta-analysis was performed on 37 RCTs with 43 treatment arms. The certainty in the evidence was very low for appetite indices, body fat percent, FFM, VAT, and WHR, and moderate for other parameters as assessed by the GRADE evidence profiles. Pooled effect sizes indicated a significant reducing effect of almond consumption on body weight (WMD: -0.45 kg, 95% CI: -0.85, -0.05, p = 0.026), WC (WMD: -0.66 cm, 95% CI: -1.27, -0.04, p = 0.037), FM (WMD: -0.66 kg, 95% CI: -1.16, -0.17, p = 0.009), and hunger score (WMD: -1.15 mm, 95% CI: -1.98, -0.32, p = 0.006) compared with the control group. However, almond did not have a significant effect on BMI (WMD: -0.20 kg m-2 , 95% CI: -0.46, 0.05, p = 0.122), body fat percent (WMD: -0.39%, 95% CI: -0.93, 0.14, p = 0.154), FFM (WMD: -0.06, 95% CI: -0.47, 0.34, p = 0.748), WHR (WMD: -0.04, 95% CI: -0.12, 0.02, p = 0.203), VAT (WMD: -0.33 cm, 95% CI: -0.99, 0.32), fullness (WMD: 0.46 mm, 95% CI: -0.95, 1.88), desire to eat (WMD: 0.98 mm, 95% CI: -4.13, 2.23), and prospective food consumption (WMD: 1.08 mm, 95% CI: -2.11, 4.28). Subgroup analyses indicated that consumption of ≥50 g almonds per day resulted in a significant and more favorable improvement in bodyweight, WC, FM, and hunger score. Body weight, WC, FM, body fat percent, and hunger scores were decreased significantly in the trials that lasted for ≥12 weeks and in the subjects with a BMI < 30 kg/m2 . Furthermore, a significant reduction in body weight and WC was observed in those trials that used a nut-free diet as a control group, but not in those using snacks and other nuts. The results of our analysis suggest that almond consumption may significantly improve body composition indices and hunger scores when consumed at a dose of ≥50 g/day for ≥12 weeks by individuals with a BMI < 30 kg/m2 .

However, further well-constructed randomized clinical trials are needed in order ascertain the outcome of our analysis.

Efficacy of information and communication technology interventions for the management of diabetes mellitus: An umbrella review and evidence map.

Obesity Reviews

We validated the quality of evidence and potential benefits of information and communication technology interventions on diabetes-related health outcomes.

We systematically searched PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Google Scholar, and CINAHL and manually searched the reference lists of the retrieved review articles from each database's inception to October 2022. Randomized controlled trials were included to determine the benefits of information and communication technology interventions on diabetes outcomes.

Ten meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials were included, with 37 unique outcomes encompassing 379 studies and >70,000 participants across 47 countries and six continents. Information and communication technology intervention was associated with reduced HbA1c levels in patients with type 1 (moderate certainty), type 2 (moderate certainty), and gestational diabetes (low certainty) and showed potential benefits for type 2 diabetes, demonstrating a reduction in systolic blood pressure (high certainty), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (low certainty), and body weight (low certainty), whereas those for gestational diabetes demonstrated a reduction in fasting (low certainty) and 2-h postprandial blood glucose levels (low certainty).

This umbrella review and evidence map revealed varying evidence on the potential benefits of information and communication technology interventions for diabetes-related outcomes. Our results demonstrate these interventions to be novel treatment options for policymakers and physicians to establish personalized health strategies.

Randomized controlled trials comparing gastric bypass, gastric band, and sleeve gastrectomy: A systematic review examining validity and applicability to wider clinical practice.

Obesity Reviews

Consideration of how applicable the results of surgical trials are to clinical practice is important to inform decision-making. Randomized controll...

Use of online food retail platforms throughout the COVID-19 pandemic and associated diet-related chronic disease risk factors: A systematic review of emerging evidence.

Obesity Reviews

Food accessibility was considerably impacted by restrictions during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, leading to growth in the onli...

Views, perceptions, and experiences of type 2 diabetes or weight management programs among minoritized ethnic groups living in high-income countries: A systematic review of qualitative evidence.

Obesity Reviews

Prevalence of both obesity and type 2 diabetes can be higher in patients from certain ethnic groups, yet uptake and adherence to current support within these groups is lower, leading to widening health inequalities in high-income countries.

The main objective of this study is to understand the views, perceptions, and experiences of and barriers and facilitators in relation to the uptake and adherence to weight management and type 2 diabetes programs in minoritized ethnic groups in high-income countries.

CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, Academic Search Complete, and PubMed were searched for English language studies undertaken in community-dwelling adults residing in high-income countries, who are from a minoritized ethnic group within the country of study.

Seventeen studies were synthesized using the JBI System for the Unified Management of the Assessment and Review of Information. From these studies, 115 findings were retrieved, and seven key themes were identified: (1) family health status and program education, (2) social support, (3) challenges, (4) cultural beliefs, (5) increased awareness and dietary changes, (6) impact of psychological evaluations, and (7) considerations for future.

Nutritional considerations for type 2 diabetes mellitus and weight management programs in high-income countries should include social, habitual, economic, and conceptual components, which should include consideration of local ethnic and cultural norms and building community relationships while creating culturally tailored programs.

Sustainable diets and risk of overweight and obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Obesity Reviews

Sustainable diets are gaining interest as a possible approach to tackle climate change and the global extent of obesity. Yet, the association betwe...

Public and dental teams' views about weight management interventions in dental health settings: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Obesity Reviews

Collaborative approaches across healthcare to address obesity are needed but intervention in dental settings is not widely implemented. Here we sys...

Drivers and facilitators of weight stigma among preconception, pregnant, and postpartum women: A systematic review.

Obesity Reviews

Women in the preconception, pregnant, or postpartum period are susceptible to weight stigma, particularly due to the risk of excess weight gain dur...

The association of weight loss from anti-obesity medications or bariatric surgery and apnea-hypopnea index in obstructive sleep apnea.

Obesity Reviews

Weight loss is recommended for individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and overweight or obesity, but there is limited evidence to guide the selection of weight management strategies for patients who do not lose sufficient weight with diet and lifestyle changes. We evaluated the relationship between weight loss caused by pharmacologic or surgical interventions and subsequent improvement in OSA by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI).

PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL, and EMBASE were searched for randomized trials comparing pharmacologic or surgical obesity interventions to usual care, placebo, or no treatment in adults with OSA. The association between percentage weight loss and AHI change between randomization and last follow-up was evaluated using meta-regression.

CRD42022378853.

Ten eligible trials (n = 854 patients) were included. Four (n = 211) assessed bariatric surgery, and 6 (n = 643) assessed pharmacologic interventions over a median follow-up of 13 months (interquartile range 6-26 months). The linear best estimate of the change in AHI is 0.45 events per hour (95% Confidence Interval 0.18 to 0.73 events per hour) for every 1% body weight lost.

Weight loss caused by medication or surgery caused a proportionate improvement of the AHI. Providers could consider extrapolating from this relationship when advising patients of the expected effects of other pharmacologic or surgical interventions without direct evidence in OSA.