The latest medical research on Dermatology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about dermatology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Recurrent headache and facial ecchymosis: a case of dermatitis artefacta? Reply from authors.

British Journal of Dermatology

We really appreciate your comment about our rare clinical case report. The first time we visited this patient we thought about the possibility of a...

A clinical, pathological and immunohistochemical series of 9 cases of primary cutaneous apocrine carcinomas of the head and neck.

Australasian Journal of Dermatology

Primary cutaneous apocrine carcinoma is a rare malignant adnexal skin tumour that can recur locally, spread to regional lymph nodes and metastatize to visceral organs. Wide dissemination and death from disease are much less common. The axilla is the most common site of presentation. It is infrequently reported in the head and neck region.

All cases diagnosed as primary cutaneous apocrine carcinoma of the head and neck were retrospectively collected from the archives of the Division of Pathological Anatomy, University of Florence from 1996 to 2016. There was no history or clinical evidence of breast cancer. Clinical data and follow-up were collected by the clinicians.

Nine cases were found, with a mean age of 76 years, ranging in size between 0.3 and 3.5 cm. Clinically, they were frequently mistaken for basal cell carcinomas. Histopathologically, all the tumours showed decapitation secretion, a tubular, solid or mixed (tubulo-papillary and solid-tubular) growth pattern and were predominantly classified as grade 2 tumours. GCDFP-15 and hormone receptors were variably expressed. HER2 and podoplanin were negative in all cases. In one case, spreading to regional lymph nodes was observed. No cases were associated with death due to the disease.

As immunohistochemical analysis lacks specificity in distinguishing primary cutaneous apocrine carcinoma from a cutaneous metastasis of breast carcinoma, detailed clinical history, breast examination, adequate treatment and follow-up are necessary to confirm a diagnosis of primary cutaneous apocrine carcinoma.

Associations of eczema phenotypes with emotional and behavioural problems from birth until school age. The Generation R Study.

British Journal of Dermatology

Eczema phenotypes and emotional and behavioural problems are highly prevalent in childhood, but their mutual relationship is not fully clear.

To examine the associations of eczema phenotypes with school-age emotional and behavioural problems, and the bidirectional associations of eczema and emotional and behavioural problems from birth until 10 years.

This study among 5,265 subjects was embedded in a prospective population-based cohort study. Never, early transient, mid-transient, late transient and persistent eczema phenotypes were identified based on parental-reported physician-diagnosed eczema from age 6 months until 10 years. Emotional (internalizing) and behavioural (externalizing) problems were measured repeatedly using the Child Behavior Checklist from age 1.5 to 10 years. Cross-lagged models were applied for bidirectional analyses.

All eczema phenotypes were associated with more internalizing problems and attentions problems at age 10 years, compared to never eczema (range Z-score difference (97% confidence interval): 0.14 (0.01,0.27) - 0.39 (0.18,0.60)). Children with early transient eczema had more aggressive behaviour symptoms at age 10 years (0.16 ( 0.04,0.27)). Bidirectional analysis showed that eczema at 0-2 years was associated with more internalizing and externalizing problems at ages 3-6 and 10 years, while reversely, only internalizing problems at 0-2 years was associated with an increased risk of eczema at age 10 years.

Eczema phenotypes are very modestly associated with more somatic symptoms and attention problems at school age. Early transient eczema is associated with more aggressive behaviour symptoms. Directional effects seem from early life eczema to later life internalizing and externalizing problems rather than reversely.

The Vulval Disease Quality of Life Index in women with vulval lichen sclerosus correlates with clinician and symptom scores.

Australasian Journal of Dermatology

The Vulval disease Quality of Life Index (VQLI) is a new tool that assesses the burden of vulval disease on quality of life (QoL). Our objective was to assess the correlation between VQLI score and clinician-rated severity scores, overall patient itch/discomfort, disease duration, sexual activity, and age, in vulval lichen sclerosus (VLS) at a vulval disorders clinic.

A retrospective case note review, including consecutive women with VLS who attended the clinic between April and October 2018. Outcome measures include the VQLI score, clinician-rated severity score, and patient symptom score.

A total of 109 women with VLS were included. On multivariable analysis, there was evidence of a positive relationship between VQLI scores and the total clinician-rated score (mean increase in VQLI score per unit increase in clinician score 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.31, 2.38; P = 0.01); the relationship was stronger for the cutaneous component. There was little evidence for relationships of the VQLI with the patient's age, sexual activity or time since onset of symptoms. There was strong evidence for a positive relationship between VQLI score and overall itch/discomfort score (mean increase 2.38, 95% CI 1.88, 2.88; P < 0.001). New and follow-up data were obtained on sequential visits for 12 women, among whom the VQLI score dropped a mean -2.75 points between visits (95% CI -6.05, 0.55; P = 0.094).

The clinician-rated severity correlates with the impact of VLS on QoL. The VQLI captures information included in a patient itch/discomfort score, which can be easily incorporated into routine assessment.

Prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver and liver fibrosis in patients with moderate-severe psoriasis: A cross-sectional cohort study.

Australasian Journal of Dermatology

Several studies have reported that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is more frequent in patients with psoriasis, but few have reviewed the presence of liver fibrosis in those patients.

Cross-sectional cohort, single-centre study, continuously selecting all patients with moderate-severe psoriasis seen at the Psoriasis Unit of a Tertiary Hospital. The grade of liver steatosis was assessed using liver ultrasound, and the quantity of liver fibrosis was graded using a transitional vibration-controlled elastography (Fibroscan®).

A total of 71 patients (66.2% male) were included, with an average age of 46.6 years old. The maximum historical PASI average was 14.4 while the baseline PASI average at the time of the study was 2. A third (36%) of patients met the criteria for metabolic syndrome 52% of patients had steatosis; being male, having metabolic syndrome comorbidities, elevated AST/ALT enzymes, dyslipidemia and high initial PASI were significantly related. 14% of patients had moderate liver fibrosis (≥7.6 KPa). In 30% of them, no ultrasound liver steatosis was observed.

Elastography may be a useful tool along with ultrasound to evaluate liver disease in patients with psoriasis.

Cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis in a diabetic patient: A case report.

Australasian Journal of Dermatology

Phaeohyphomycosis, caused by opportunistic rare fungi, has increasingly been reported in diabetic and immunosuppressed patients. Pyrenochaeta ungui...

Incidence of Myocardial Infarction and Cerebrovascular Accident in Patients With Hidradenitis Suppurativa.

JAMA Dermatology

Although hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is associated with several cardiovascular risk mediators, information on the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and cerebrovascular accident (CVA) in this population is sparse.

To compare risk of MI, CVA, and composite disease (MI or CVA) in patients with HS, stratified by use of biologic agents, with controls without HS.

A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted between January 1, 1999, and April 1, 2019, using a demographically heterogeneous population-based sample of over 56 million unique patients. Individuals with HS (n = 49 862) and without HS (n = 1 421 223) were identified using electronic health records data.

The primary outcome was incidence of composite MI or CVA.

Of the 49 862 patients with HS, 37 981 were women (76.2%), 29 711 were white (59.6%), and mean (SD) age was 38.3 (13.3) years. Crude incidence rate of composite disease was 6.6 (95% CI, 6.3-7.0) per 1000 person-years in patients with HS compared with 6.8 (95% CI, 6.7-6.8) per 1000 person-years in controls. In patients with HS, crude incidence rates were 2.9 (95% CI, 2.6-3.1) per 1000 person-years for MI alone and 4.1 (95% CI, 3.9-4.4) per 1000 person-years for CVA alone compared with 3.2 (95% CI, 3.18-3.25) per 1000 person-years for MI alone in control patients and 4.1 (95% CI, 4.0-4.1) per 1000 person-years for CVA alone in control patients. In adjusted analysis, patients with HS had a 23% increased risk of composite disease (hazard ratio [HR], 1.23; 95% CI, 1.17-1.30; P < .001) and a similar increase in the risk of MI alone (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.12-1.32; P < .001) and CVA alone (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.14-1.31; P < .001) compared with control patients. The relative difference in composite MI or CVA risk between patients with HS and controls was highest among younger patients HR in subgroup aged 18-29 years: 1.67; 95% CI, 1.37-2.03).

Patients with HS appear to have an increased risk of MI and CVA. Early management of modifiable cardiovascular risk mediators may be warranted in patients with HS.

Age-Specific Incidence of Melanoma in the United States.

JAMA Dermatology

Melanoma is epidemiologically linked to UV exposure, particularly childhood sunburn. Public health campaigns are increasing sun-protective behavior in the United States, but the effect on melanoma incidence is unknown.

To examine the incidence of melanoma in the United States and whether any age-specific differences are present.

Observational, population-based registry data were extracted on July 3, 2018, from the combined National Program of Cancer Registries-Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results United States Cancer Statistics database for 2001-2015. Deidentified data for 988 103 cases of invasive melanoma, with International Classification of Diseases for Oncology histologic categorization codes 8720 to 8790, were used for analysis. Data analysis was performed from July 1, 2018, to March 1, 2019.

The annual rates of melanoma in pediatric, adolescent, young adult, and adult age groups were determined. Analyses were stratified by sex, and incidence rates were age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population. Annual percentage change (APC) in incidence rate was calculated over the most recent decade for which data were available (2006-2015) using the weighted least squares method.

In 2015, 83 362 cases of invasive melanoma were reported in the United States, including 67 in children younger than 10 years, 251 in adolescents (10-19 years), and 1973 in young adults (20-29 years). Between 2006 and 2015, the overall incidence rate increased from 200.1 to 229.1 cases per million person-years. In adults aged 40 years or older, melanoma rates increased by an APC of 1.8% in both men (95% CI, 1.4%-2.1%) and women (95% CI, 1.4%-2.2%). In contrast, clinically and statistically significant decreases were seen in melanoma incidence for adolescents and young adults. Specifically, incidence rates decreased by an APC of -4.4% for male adolescents (95% CI, -1.7% to -7.0%), -5.4% for female adolescents (95% CI, -3.3% to -7.4%), -3.7% for male young adults (95% CI, -2.5% to -4.8%), and -3.6% for female young adults (95% CI, -2.8% to -4.5%). Data on skin pigmentation and sun protection history were unavailable; similar trends were observed with data limited to non-Hispanic whites. Young adult women appeared to have twice the risk of melanoma as young adult men.

The incidence of invasive melanoma in the United States appeared to decrease in adolescents and young adults from 2006 to 2015, and this finding contrasted with increases in older populations. These incidence trends suggest that public health efforts may be favorably influencing melanoma incidence in the United States.

T cell polarization differs in various stages of discoid lupus erythematosus skin.

British Journal of Dermatology

The clinical presentation and pathology of discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) varies by stage. Erythematous scaly papules and plaques characterize t...

Systematic review and meta-analysis on the use of probiotic supplementation in pregnant mother, breastfeeding mother and infant for the prevention of atopic dermatitis in children.

Australasian Journal of Dermatology

Probiotic supplementation may decrease the risk of allergic disease; however, there are differences between studies, such as the type of probiotic,...

Risk of tuberculosis with anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha therapy in patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis in Indian population.

Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology

Anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of inflammatory diseases, such as psoriasis and psoriatic a...

Recurrent headache and facial ecchymosis: a case of dermatitis artefacta?

British Journal of Dermatology

I read the case recently published as an image gallery in the Journal about a 22 year-old woman, who developed transient and relapsing facial ecchy...