The latest medical research on Dermatology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about dermatology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Exploring the safety and effectiveness of subcutaneous autologous serum therapy versus conventional intramuscular autologous serum therapy in chronic urticaria: An observer-blind, randomized, controlled study.

Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology

Autologous serum therapy aims to supplement the existing pharmacotherapy in chronic urticaria by decreasing the antihistamine pill-burden and maintaining symptom-free interval. Subcutaneous autologous serum therapy further modifies the amount of serum (2 mL to 1 mL) and gauge of a needle (24G to 31G) to improve compliance and facilitate ease of application.

To assess clinical effectiveness and safety of subcutaneous autologous serum therapy versus conventional intramuscular autologous serum therapy and to compare the quality of life in the two treatment arms.

Institution-based, assessor-blind, prospective, randomized, parallel-group, active-controlled trial with 32 patients in each treatment arm and analyzed on a modified intention to treat principle. After baseline autologous serum skin test, autologous serum was injected as per randomization every week for 9 consecutive weeks.

Among the study population, conventional intramuscular autologous serum therapy and subcutaneous autologous serum therapy had a comparable duration of disease (P = 0.164, Mann-Whitney U test), autoreactive status (P = 0.796), urticaria total severity score (P = 0.637) and urticaria activity score summed up over 7 days (P = 0.982). Both urticaria activity score summed up over 7 days and total severity score along with antihistamine pill-burden reduced significantly (P < 0.001, Friedman's analysis of variance) in both subcutaneous autologous serum therapy and conventional intramuscular autologous serum therapy from first follow-up onwards (P < 0.05, Post hoc Dunn's test). Significant improvement was noted in patient's as well as physician's global assessment of disease activity improvement scale (P < 0.001, Friedman's analysis of variance). Intergroup analysis showed that there was no significant difference in urticaria activity score summed up over 7 days either at baseline (P = 0.982, Mann-Whitney U test) or at study end (P = 0.398, Mann-Whitney U test). Similar comparable results were found in the total severity score at the end of the study (P = 0.345, Mann-Whitney U test). Dermatology life quality index showed marked improvement with both types of treatment (P < 0.0001, Wilcoxon test), and the intergroup comparison showed comparable dermatology life quality index values (P = 0.994, Mann-Whitney U test). The pain score at the injection site was more with conventional intramuscular autologous serum therapy than subcutaneous autologous serum therapy (P = 0.0115, Mann-Whitney test). Younger age and lower baseline total severity scores were associated with a better therapeutic response. Baseline urticaria activity score added up over a period of 7 days and total severity scores and the diameter of lesions showed a positive correlation with response pattern.

Basophil histamine release assay not done. Logistics could not support follow-up beyond the end of treatment.

Subcutaneous autologous serum therapy is not inferior to conventional intramuscular autologous serum therapy with the additional advantage of less pain and operational feasibility.

Effect of Risankizumab on Patient-Reported Outcomes in Moderate to Severe Psoriasis: The UltIMMa-1 and UltIMMa-2 Randomized Clinical Trials.

JAMA Dermatology

Demonstrating the value of therapies from a patient's perspective is increasingly important for patient-centered care.

To compare patient-reported outcomes (PROs) with risankizumab vs ustekinumab and placebo in psoriasis symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQL), and mental health among patients with moderate to severe psoriasis.

The UltIMMa-1 and UltIMMa-2 studies were replicate 52-week phase 3, randomized, multisite, double-blind, placebo-controlled and active comparator-controlled trials conducted in 139 sites (including hospitals, academic medical centers, clinical research units, and private practices) globally in Asia-Pacific, Japan, Europe, and North America. Adults (≥18 years) with moderate to severe chronic plaque psoriasis with body surface area (BSA) involvement of 10% or more, Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) scores of 12 or higher, and static Physician's Global Assessment (sPGA) scores of 3 or higher were included.

In each trial, patients were randomly assigned (3:1:1) to 150 mg of risankizumab, 45 mg or 90 mg of ustekinumab (weight-based per label) for 52 weeks, or matching placebo for 16 weeks followed by risankizumab.

Integrated data from 2 trials were used to compare Psoriasis Symptom Scale (PSS) (total score and item scores for pain, redness, itchiness, and burning), Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), 5-level EuroQoL-5D (EQ-5D-5L), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), at baseline, week 16, and week 52.

A total of 997 patients with moderate to severe chronic plaque psoriasis were analyzed. Across all arms, the mean age was 47.2 to 47.8 years and 68.3% (136/199 for ustekinumab) to 73.0% (146/200 for placebo) were men. Patients' characteristics and PROs were comparable across all treatment arms at baseline (n = 598, 199, 200 for risankizumab, ustekinumab, and placebo, respectively). At week 16, a significantly greater proportion of patients treated with risankizumab than those treated with ustekinumab or placebo achieved PSS = 0, indicating no psoriasis symptoms (30.3% [181/598], 15.1% [30/199], 1.0% [2/200], both P < .001), and DLQI = 0 or 1 indicating no impact on skin-related HRQL (66.2%, 44.7%, 6.0%, P < .001). Significantly greater proportions of patients treated with risankizumab achieved minimally clinically important difference (MCID) than ustekinumab or placebo for DLQI (94.5% [516/546], 85.1% [149/175], 35.6% [64/180]; both P < .001), EQ-5D-5L (41.7% [249/597] vs 31.5% [62/197], P = .01; vs 19.0% [38/200], P < .001), and HADS (anxiety: 69.1% [381/551] vs 57.1% [104/182], P = .004; vs 35.9% [66/184], P < .001; depression: 71.1% [354/598] vs 60.4% [96/159], P = .01; vs 37.1% [59/159], P < .001). At week 52, improvements in patients treated with risankizumab compared with those treated with ustekinumab were sustained for PSS, DLQI, and EQ-5D-5L.

Risankizumab significantly improved symptoms of moderate to severe psoriasis, improved HRQL, and reduced psychological distress compared with ustekinumab or placebo. Identifiers: NCT02684370 (UltIMMa-1) and NCT02684357 (UltIMMa-2).

Contribution of Genetics to the Susceptibility to Hidradenitis Suppurativa in a Large, Cross-Sectional Dutch Twin Cohort.

JAMA Dermatology

Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic, inflammatory skin disease in which genetic factors are considered to play a role, with up to 38% of patients reporting a family history. Variations in the γ-secretase genes are found mainly in familial cases with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. These variations are rare in the general population with hidradenitis suppurativa, even in patients who report a family history of the disease.

To assess the heritability of hidradenitis suppurativa in a nationwide Dutch twin cohort.

In this cross-sectional study on self-reported hidradenitis suppurativa conducted from 2011 to 2016, data were collected from twins participating in the surveys of the nationwide Netherlands Twin Register. All complete twin pairs answering the question on hidradenitis suppurativa in the survey were included: 978 female monozygotic twin pairs and 344 male monozygotic twin pairs and 426 female dizygotic twin pairs, 167 male dizygotic twin pairs, and 428 dizygotic twin pairs of the opposite sex. Statistical analysis was performed from July to November 2019.

The main outcome is the proportion of susceptibility to hidradenitis suppurativa due to additive genetic factors (narrow-sense heritability), dominant genetic factors, common or shared environmental factors, or unshared or unique environmental factors. The main outcome was evaluated prior to data collection.

The prevalence of hidradenitis suppurativa among twin pairs was 1.2% (58 of 4686); the mean (SD) age was 32.7 (15.4) years. The narrow-sense heritability of hidradenitis suppurativa was 77% (95% CI, 54%-90%), with the remainder of the variance due to unshared or unique environmental factors based on an age-adjusted model combining additive genetic factors and unshared or unique environmental factors.

The high heritability found in this study suggests a stronger than previously assumed genetic basis of hidradenitis suppurativa. Environmental factors were also shown to contribute to the susceptibility to hidradenitis suppurativa, supporting a multifactorial cause of the disease. Moreover, the results of this study strongly support the need for a global genome-wide association study in the general population of patients with hidradenitis suppurativa.

The climate emergency: why should dermatologists care, and how can they act?

British Journal of Dermatology

Weather and climate exist on a massive scale: over the last 650,000 years, only seven glacial cycles have occurred. The end of the last ice age 12,...

International validation of the Bullous Pemphigoid Disease Area Index (BPDAI) severity score and calculation of cut-off values for defining mild, moderate and severe type of bullous pemphigoid.

British Journal of Dermatology

The Bullous-Pemphigoid-Disease-Area-Index (BPDAI) score has been proposed to provide an objective measure of bullous pemphigoid (BP) activity.

To calculate BPDAI cut-off values defining mild, moderate and severe BP, and to assess the inter-rater reliability, and the correlation with the number of daily new blisters, and anti-BP180 and anti-BP230 antibodies.

Severity scores were recorded by two blinded investigators. Anti-BP180 and anti-BP230 antibodies were measured using an ELISA assay. Cut-off values defining mild, moderate and severe subgroups were calculated based on the 25th and 75th percentiles of the BPDAI score.

Two-hundred-eighty-five BP patients were enrolled in 50 dermatology departments in Europe. Median BPDAI activity was 37.5 points [range=0-164]. Cut-off values corresponding to the first and third quartiles of the BPDAI score were 20 and 57, thus defining mild (≤ 19), moderate (≥ 20 and ≤ 56), and severe (≥ 57) BP. The median BPDAI score of patients with ≤10 daily new blisters was 26 (IQR=17-45 points), and that of patients with > 10 daily new blisters was 55 (IQR= 39-82 points). The BPDAI intraclass correlation coefficient measured at baseline was 0.97 and remained higher than 0.90 up to Month 6. The improvement of the BPDAI score was correlated with the absolute decrease of anti-BP180 ELISA value (Spearman's rank, r=0.34, p<0.0037), but not with anti-BP230 antibodies (r=0.17, p=0.15).

This study suggests cut-off values of 20-57 for BPDAI to distinguish mild, moderate and severe BP, and confirms that it is a robust tool to precisely assess BP severity.

Use of narrowband ultraviolet B (NBUVB) in paediatric psoriasis: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

Australasian Journal of Dermatology

Phototherapy is used commonly in adult psoriasis; however, there is little data on its use in the paediatric population. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on current available literature to review the safety and efficacy of NBUVB in paediatric psoriasis.

A systematic review and meta-analysis according to PRISMA guidelines. Meta-analysis of proportions was used to obtain efficacy, and meta-regression was used to explore the impact of treatment variables on efficacy.

We identified 10 prospective and retrospective studies for inclusion. From pooled data, we determined the efficacy of NBUVB in paediatric psoriasis to be 80% (CI 70%-88%). There was a positive association between the number of treatments and efficacy of NBUVB. There was no association between the cumulative dose and efficacy. Erythema was the most commonly described side effect. There were no studies of long-term safety of NBUVB in paediatric psoriasis. Limitations included that studies had small patient numbers and were observational in nature.

NBUVB is effective in the treatment of paediatric psoriasis with a good short-term safety profile. More studies are required to assess the influence of variables on efficacy and to elucidate the long-term safety profile of NBUVB in paediatric psoriasis.

Is there any association between psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis and thyroid autoimmunity?

Australasian Journal of Dermatology

Autoimmune diseases share a significant part of their genetic background and tend to coexist in the same patient. Some studies have investigated the possible association between autoimmune thyroiditis and psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis (PsA), with conflicting results. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis in psoriatic patients with (PsA) or without (PsC) joint involvement.

208 patients with psoriasis and/or PsA were recruited. These patients were divided into two groups: psoriasis patients (without PsA) (PsC group: 100 patients; mean age of 50.1 ± 11.7 years) and subjects with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA group: 108 subjects: mean age of 39.8 ± 10.8 years). Assessment of psoriasis severity was conducted using the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score. The diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis was made according to CASPAR criteria. All patients had thyroid evaluation through evaluation of thyroid function, thyroperoxidase antibodies and thyroid ultrasound examination.

A statistically significant difference was found between the prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis in the PsA group than the PsC group (25.9 vs 9.0 %; P = 0.018) with higher trends to hypothyroidism in the PsA group compared to the PsC group (13.9% vs 2.0%, P = 0.0018).

The higher prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis in the PsA group may be due to an immune dysfunction pathway in patients with psoriatic arthritis with a higher risk to develop other autoimmune diseases. This evidence confirms that psoriatic arthritis is an autoimmune disease with an overactive immune system that can involve multiple organs. Thyroid function evaluation should be part of the clinical and laboratory examination of patients with psoriatic arthritis.

Effectiveness of water as the neutralising agent for glycolic acid peels in skin phototypes IV-V.

Australasian Journal of Dermatology

The aim of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of water as a substitute for sodium bicarbonate plus solution in the neutralisation process o...

Metformin Therapy for Acne in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

American Journal of Clinical Dermatology

Acne is one of the cutaneous manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). There is limited evidence on metformin use for treatment of acne in PCOS patients.

Our aim was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of metformin for treatment of PCOS-related acne.

On November 23, 2019, we searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Embase databases for human clinical studies in any language. The keywords included 'acne' and 'polycystic ovary syndrome' combined with 'metformin,' 'biguanide,' or 'glucophage.' We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomized controlled trials (NRCTs), and open-label studies on patients with PCOS treated with metformin. We calculated standardized mean differences (SMDs) for acne scores and odds ratios (ORs) for presence of acne, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Quality assessment was performed using the Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias instrument for RCTs. NRCTs and open-label studies were assessed using the adapted methodological index for nonrandomized studies (MINORS).

We included 51 studies on 2405 PCOS patients. Metformin as adjuvant therapy led to greater improvement of acne scores than the same therapy without metformin (SMD - 0.256; 95% CI - 0.439 to - 0.074). Pooling pre- and post-metformin therapy data showed significant decrease of acne scores after metformin use (SMD - 0.712; 95% CI - 0.949 to - 0.476). Presence of acne decreased significantly after metformin treatment (OR 0.362; 95% CI 0.271 to 0.485).

For PCOS patients, metformin as stand-alone or adjuvant therapy was associated with improvement of acne. More randomized controlled trials are needed to validate these results.

PROSPERO registration number CRD42020159656.

Aetiology and pathogenesis of hidradenitis suppurativa.

British Journal of Dermatology

Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder. Patients develop inflamed nodules and abscesses and, at later stages of disease, ...

Commentary on Dermoscopy as a complementary tool for positive margin demarcation on the Mohs' map.

Australasian Journal of Dermatology

Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) is a technique that allows removal of complex or ill-defined skin cancer, combining tissue preservation and complet...

Comparison of Grenz ray and photodynamic therapy for field treatment of actinic keratoses on the forearm: A case series.

Australasian Journal of Dermatology

Actinic Keratosis is an intraepidermal neoplasm that represents the second most common reason for dermatologic visits in the United States. Sustained clearance with existing therapies is highly variable.

To assess the effects of combination and monotherapy with photodynamic therapy (PDT), grenz ray therapy, and PDT with microneedling (microchannel skin system) for actinic damage of the dorsal forearms and hands.

Full ethics approval was obtained through a Human Subjects Committee. Four patients with diffuse actinic field damage on their forearms and hands were recruited for the study. The dorsal forearm and hand from the elbow to the metacarpophalangeal joint were divided into four equal sections. Section 1 was treated with PDT. Section 2 was treated with grenz ray. Section 3 was treated with PDT plus microneedling. Section 4 was treated with grenz ray and PDT with microneedling. Lesion counts were recorded with transparent grids, photographed and evaluated by the same investigator at baseline, 1, 2, 3 and 6 months.

At month 6 post treatment, lesion counts, as a per cent reduction from baseline, were 91.7% in section 1 (PDT); 97.3% in section 2 (grenz ray); 92.9% in section 3 (PDT + microneedle); and 93.9% in section 4 (grenz ray + PDT + microneedle).

The greatest reduction occurred in the grenz ray monotherapy section and the second greatest reduction in the grenz ray, PDT, microneedling section. Further research on the efficacy of grenz ray therapy for field treatment of actinic keratosis of the forearms and hands is needed.