The latest medical research on Dermatology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about dermatology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Osteoblasts contribute to a protective niche that supports melanoma cell proliferation and survival.

Pigment Cell and Melanoma Research

Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer; a primary driver of this high level of morbidity is the propensity of melanoma cells to metastasise....

US Food and Drug Administration Reports of Pregnancy and Pregnancy-Related Adverse Events Associated With Isotretinoin.

JAMA Dermatology

iPLEDGE is a rigorous program initiated in 2006 to reduce fetal exposure to isotretinoin, a disease-modifying medication for acne that carries a risk of teratogenesis. Despite the imposition of iPLEDGE requirements on patients and clinicians, the scope of isotretinoin-related adverse events is unknown.

To determine the frequency and rate of pregnancy and pregnancy-related adverse events among women taking isotretinoin reported to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Pregnancy reports from the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System, a public database of medication adverse event reports filed by prescribers, consumers, and manufacturers, were used to perform a retrospective analysis of pregnancy-related adverse events associated with isotretinoin from January 1, 1997, to December 31, 2017. Each individual reporting any pregnancy-related adverse event signified 1 pregnancy. Abortions, pregnancies that occurred while contraception was used, and fetal defects were counted as subgroups of total pregnancy events.

The frequency of pregnancy and of pregnancy-related events (abortions, pregnancies that occurred while using contraception, and fetal defects) were stratified by year that the FDA was notified of the event and by age. The rates of adverse events were calculated using isotretinoin prescribing data.

There was a total of 6740 pregnancies among women taking isotretinoin reported to the FDA from 1997 to 2017, peaking in 2006 (768 pregnancies) before settling into a range of 218 to 310 annual reports of pregnancy after 2011. The mean (SD) age of the women was 24.6 (7.1) years. The rate of pregnancy for females of childbearing potential was between 0.33% (388 of 115 925) and 0.65% (768 of 117 784), with a peak in 2006. Although pregnancies, abortions, and fetal defects among women taking isotretinoin have decreased since the initiation of iPLEDGE in 2006, all 3 persist.

The number of reports of pregnancies, abortions, and fetal defects among women taking isotretinoin has decreased since peaking around the initiation of iPLEDGE in 2006. Explanations for this trend include a broader national decrease in teenage pregnancies and abortion rates, improvements in access to effective long-term and emergency contraception, stringent iPLEDGE requirements, and reporting fatigue over time. Despite the decrease, persistent reporting of pregnancy-related events in the last decade warrants investigation into the efficacy of iPLEDGE and exploration of new approaches for lowering fetal exposure to isotretinoin.

Oral Lesions in Autoimmune Bullous Diseases: An Overview of Clinical Characteristics and Diagnostic Algorithm.

American Journal of Clinical Dermatology

Autoimmune bullous diseases are a group of chronic inflammatory disorders caused by autoantibodies targeted against structural proteins of the desm...

Genital Psoriasis: Impact on Quality of Life and Treatment Options.

American Journal of Clinical Dermatology

Psoriasis involving the genital skin occurs in up to two-thirds of psoriasis patients but is often overlooked by physicians. Furthermore, psoriasis...

Deciphering the molecular morphology of the human hair cycle: Wnt signalling during the telogen-anagen transformation.

British Journal of Dermatology

The signals that induce anagen (growth) in "quiescent" human telogen hair follicles (HFs) are as yet unknown. Their identification promises better-targeted therapeutic hair growth interventions.

Recognising the central role of Wnt signalling in hair biology, the differential expression of key agonists, antagonists and target genes of this pathway was delineated during the telogen-to-anagen transformation of human scalp HFs.

This was studied by in situ hybridisation in human telogen and early-anagen scalp HF sections.

Upon anagen-induction, gene expression of the Wnt ligands, WNT3, WNT4 and WNT10B, the Wnt ligand secretion regulator, WLS, and the Wnt target genes, AXIN2 and LEF1, is significantly increased within the secondary hair germ (SHG) and the dermal papilla (DP). Conversely, expression of the secreted Wnt-inhibitor, SFRP1 is reduced. Human epithelial HF stem cells up-regulate WNT4 and WNT10A expression, suggesting that these Wnt agonists are important for stem cell activation.

We provide the first evidence that key changes in Wnt signalling that drive murine anagen-induction also occur in human scalp HFs, yet with notable differences. This provides a rational basis for Wnt-targeting therapeutic interventions to manipulate human hair growth disorders. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

The clinical characteristics of melanoma with BRAF V600R mutation: a case series study.

Melanoma Research

Currently, several targeted therapy regimens are approved as first-line treatment in V600E/K-mutant advanced and metastatic melanoma. Patients with...

GLT8D1 overexpression as a novel prognostic biomarker in human cutaneous melanoma.

Melanoma Research

Aberrant glycosylation plays a major role in the progression of melanoma, but little is known about glycosyltransferases. Glycosyltransferase 8 dom...

Grading immunohistochemical markers p16INK4a and HPV E4 identifies productive and transforming lesions caused by low- and high-risk HPV within high-grade anal squamous intraepithelial lesions.

British Journal of Dermatology

Current LAST guidelines recognise high- and low-grade anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL, LSIL) and recommend treatment of all HSIL, but not all HSIL progress to cancer. This study aims to distinguish transforming and productive HSIL by grading immunohistochemical (IHC) biomarkers p16 and E4 in lr- and hr-HPV- associated SIL as a potential basis for more selective treatment.

Immunostaining for p16 and HPV E4 was performed and graded in 183 biopsies from 108 HIV+ MSM. Causative HPV genotype of the worst lesion was identified using SPF10-PCR-DEIA-LiPA25v1, with laser capture microdissection (LCM) for multiple infections. Worst lesions were scored for p16 (0-4) to identify activity of hrHPV E7 gene, and panHPV E4 (0-2) marking HPV production and life-cycle completion. There were 37 normal, 60 LSIL and 86 HSIL with 85% LSIL caused by lrHPV and 93% HSIL by hrHPV. No normal biopsy showed E4 but 43% of LSIL and 37% of HSIL were E4 positive. No differences in E4 positivity rates were found between lrHPV and hrHPV lesions. Most (90%) lesions caused by lrHPV showed very extensive patchy p16 staining. p16 grade in HSIL was variable with frequency of productive HPV infection dropping with increasing p16 grade.

Combined p16/E4 IHC identifies productive and non-productive HSIL associated with hrHPV within the group of HSIL defined by the Lower Anogenital Squamous Terminology recommendations. This opens the possibility of investigating selective treatment of hrHPV-caused advanced transforming HSIL and a "wait and see" policy for productive HSIL.

A case of bullous pemphigoid with mucosal involvement serologically positive only for anti-BP230 autoantibodies.

British Journal of Dermatology

Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is characterized clinically by tense blisters on the entire body, and histopathologically by subepidermal blisters with eos...

Oral antibiotics in acne: a retrospective single centre analysis of current prescribing in primary care and it's alignment with the national antibiotic quality premium.

British Journal of Dermatology

Oral antibiotics are widely prescribed for acne due to anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial action against Propionibacterium acnes. Potential for an...

Detailed hair shaft analysis in an adult man with delayed onset Chediak-Higashi syndrome.

British Journal of Dermatology

Chediak-Higashi syndrome (OMIM# 214500) is listed as a 'grey hair syndrome' and is a rare hair shaft disorder, which is inherited in an autosomal r...

Actinic Keratosis Clinical Course Correlates with Underlying Molecular Mechanisms.

British Journal of Dermatology

Actinic keratoses (AKs) are common premalignant skin lesions triggered by excessive UV exposure. The majority of AKs regress or persist, but some progress to squamous cell carcinomas. The biomarkers associated with their persistence, progression and regression have not been characterized.

We performed skin biopsies in patients with extensive actinic damage to identify biomarkers that correlate with clinical progression and regression of AKs.

This was an observational study of a cohort of patients with extensive actinic damage. AKs were mapped on a clear plastic template in 26 subjects at months 3, 6, 9 and 11. Biopsies were taken from randomly selected, pre-determined AKs and were evaluated for p53, E-cadherin, Snail, Slug and Twist.

p53 exhibited greater expression in clinically apparent AKs (2·89±1·45) than regressed AKs (0·75±0·96); p<0·01. There also was significantly less membrane E-cadherin, the lack of which is a marker of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), in clinically apparent AKs (1·89±1·81) than sun-exposed (SE) skin (3·07±1·75); p<0·005. E-cadherin transcription repressors, Snail, Slug and Twist, were increased in AKs compared to SE skin.

At the molecular level, loss of E-cadherin and an increase in p53 are linked to the dynamic interplay between persistence, progression and regression of AKs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.