The latest medical research on Dermatology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about dermatology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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CXCR4 inhibition modulates the tumor microenvironment and retards the growth of B16-OVA melanoma and Renca tumors.

Melanoma Research

To determine whether blockade of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 might alter the tumor microenvironment and inhibit tumor growth, we tested the effica...

A novel germline variant in the DOT1L gene co-segregating in a Dutch family with a history of melanoma.

Melanoma Research

A proportion of patients diagnosed with melanoma has a positive family history. Despite increasing knowledge on the genes responsible for familial ...

A novel patient-reported outcome for paediatric localized scleroderma: A qualitative assessment of content validity.

British Journal of Dermatology

According to current standards, no existing patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures have high quality validity evidence for use with individuals diagnosed with paediatric localized scleroderma. This lack severely hinders patient-centred LS-focused research, including much needed clinical trials.

To develop a valid health-related quality of life measure for individuals with paediatric-localized scleroderma (LS) and to qualitatively evaluate its content validity using a patient-centred approach.

Previously collected qualitative data from youth with LS and their caregivers was used to develop items. The resulting item-set was administered in a clinical setting to participants aged 8-18 years old. Cognitive interviews were used to evaluate time to survey completion, readability/understanding of the items, appropriateness of the recall period, and construct representation.

Seventeen children and adolescents with LS participated in the study. Interviews supported readability, understanding of the items, and appropriateness of the recall period in individuals >10 years old. Revisions were made to simplify the instructions and to be more inclusive of different subtypes of localized scleroderma. Three items were added to improve content representation.

Content validity was supported by the patient-centred development process of the outcome measure and via direct feedback from individuals with LS and their families. Although an important first step, the resulting PRO, termed the "Localized Scleroderma Quality of Life Instrument", should be further evaluated in a larger sample before being implemented.

Principal component analysis of seven skin ageing features identifies three main types of skin ageing.

British Journal of Dermatology

The underlying phenotypic correlations between wrinkles, pigmented spots, telangiectasia and other related facial ageing sub-phenotypes are not well understood.

To analyse the underlying phenotypic correlation structure between seven features for facial ageing: global wrinkling, Perceived Age (PA), Griffiths photo-damage grading, Pigmented Spots (PS), telangiectasia, Actinic Keratosis (AK) and Keratinocyte Cancer (KC).

This was a cross-sectional study. Facial photographs and a full-body skin examination were used. We used PCA to derive main axis (PCs) of common variation between the features. We performed multivariable linear regressions between age, sex, BMI, smoking and UV exposure and the PC-scores derived from PCA. We also tested the association between the main PC-scores and 140 SNPs previously associated with skin ageing phenotypes.

We analysed data from 1790 individuals with complete data on seven features of skin aging. Three main PCs explained 73% of the total variance of the ageing phenotypes: an hypertrophic/wrinkling component (PC-1:global wrinkling, PA and Griffiths grading), a atrophic/skin colour component (PC-2: PS and telangiectasia) and a cancerous component (PC3: AK and KC). The associations between life-style and host factors differed per PC. The strength of SNP associations also differed per component with the most SNP associations found with the atrophic component (e.g.the IRF4- SNP: rs12203592; p-value= 1.84x10-22 ).

Using a hypothesis-free approach, we identified three major underlying phenotypes associated with extrinsic ageing. Associations between determinants for skin ageing differed in magnitude and direction per component.

A risk prediction model for development of subsequent primary melanoma in a population-based cohort.

British Journal of Dermatology

Guidelines for follow-up of melanoma patients are based on limited evidence.

To guide skin surveillance, we developed a risk prediction model for subsequent primary melanoma based on demographic, phenotypic, histopathologic, sun exposure, and genomic risk factors.

Using Cox regression frailty models, we analysed data for 2,613 melanomas from 1,266 patients recruited to the population-based Genes, Environment and Melanoma (GEM) study in New South Wales, Australia, with a median of 14 years follow-up via the cancer registry. Discrimination and calibration were assessed.

The median time to diagnosis of a subsequent primary melanoma decreased with each new primary. The final model included 12 risk factors. Harrell's C-statistic was 0.73 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.68-0.77), 0.65 (95% CI 0.62-0.68) and 0.65 (95% CI 0.61-0.69) for predicting second, third and fourth primary melanomas, respectively. The risk of a subsequent melanoma was 4.75 times higher (95% CI 3.87-5.82) for the highest versus lowest quintile of the risk score. The mean absolute risk of subsequent primary melanoma within 5 years was 8.0% (standard deviation [SD] 4.1%) after the first melanoma and 46.8% (SD 15.0%) after the second, but varied substantially by risk score.

The risk of developing a subsequent primary melanoma varies considerably between individuals and is particularly high for those with two or more previous melanomas. This risk prediction model and nomograms enables estimation of absolute risk of subsequent melanoma based on an individual's risk factors and can be used to tailor surveillance intensity, communicate risk and provide patient education.

Dermoscopic findings of Kaposi sarcoma and dermatopathological correlations.

Australasian Journal of Dermatology

There are a limited number of studies regarding the dermoscopic features and dermatopathological correlations of Kaposi sarcoma. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate dermoscopic features of Kaposi sarcoma, and the secondary objective was to investigate their dermatopathological correlates.

Dermoscopic and clinical analysis of 222 lesions from 38 patients with histologically confirmed Kaposi darcoma were assessed by two investigators. A total of 83 biopsies were available from different clinical stages. Additionally, 3 mm punch biopsy was performed where newly defined dermoscopic findings were observed. Modified pattern analysis algorithm was used for the dermoscopic evaluation.

The most common dermoscopic features of Kaposi sarcoma were white lines (55.9%) and white clods (37.8%) followed by surface scale (32.9%) and polychromatic colour change (22.1%). Four dot clods, white lines, white clods, collarette sign, serpentine vessels, dotted, curved and coiled vessels were the new dermoscopic findings of our study. Polychromatic colour change is correlated with the presence of hyaline globules probably with their birefringence properties, whereas we found no significant correlation between polychromatic colour change and honeycomb-like pattern of vascular spaces.

White lines, white clods, four dot clods, collarette sign, serpentine vessels, dotted, curved and coiled vessels are the new dermoscopic features of Kaposi sarcoma, and polychromatic colour change is correlated with the presence of hyaline globules.

Body mass index and serum lipid profile: Association with atopic dermatitis in a paediatric population.

Australasian Journal of Dermatology

The association between atopic dermatitis, body weight and serum lipid levels is not well known, and very few studies have examined this relationship in children.

Children (n = 239) under 14 years old participated in this prospective cross-sectional study. The following variables were recorded: age, gender, weight, height, atopic dermatitis severity, serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides.

Mean body mass index was slightly higher in atopic dermatitis patients than healthy controls and significantly higher in atopic dermatitis patients aged 0-2 years (atopic dermatitis, 16.7 ± 4.6; controls, 15.7 ± 1.3; P = 0.04) and 12-14 years (atopic dermatitis, 24.9 ± 5.3; controls, 20.6 ± 3.4; P = 0.03). Among atopic dermatitis patients, body mass index was significantly higher in those with severe atopic dermatitis in the 9-12 (P = 0.03) and 12-14 (P = 0.01) years groups. Mean serum lipid levels were higher in patients with severe atopic dermatitis than in the atopic dermatitis group as a whole. These differences reached statistical significance for total cholesterol (P = 0.04) and triglycerides (P = 0.02).

The prevalence of overweight, obesity and dyslipidemia is greater in children with atopic dermatitis than in age-matched healthy counterparts.

Skin benefits of moisturising body wash formulas for children with atopic dermatitis: A randomised controlled clinical study in China.

Australasian Journal of Dermatology

It acknowledged that skin care is an important part of atopic dermatitis therapy. However, clinical evidences are limited for the best bathing practices, especially the skin health performance of cleansing products on children's atopic dermatitis skin.

A randomised controlled clinical study was conducted in China among 4- to 18-year-old children with mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis to evaluate the skin health effect of three cleansing systems (a mild synthetic bar, an ultra-mild body wash with lipids, and an ultra-mild body wash with lipids and zinc pyrithione) by measuring SCORing of Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD), consumption of topical corticosteroid and the characteristics of microbiome.

Increased Staphylococcus aureus abundance and decreased microbial diversity were observed in atopic dermatitis lesion sites compared with healthy control sites. After 4 weeks of treatment, all three treatments showed clinically important improvement from baseline in SCORAD. Four-week corticosteroid consumption was significantly lower for the two body wash groups than the bar group. A significant decrease in S. aureus abundance and increase in microbial diversity were observed in the lesion sites for the two body wash formulas, while the microbial diversity was statistically insignificant for the mild cleansing bar group. However, there were no incremental benefits provided by the body wash formulas based on the assessment of SCORAD.

These results demonstrated the safety and efficacy of using the investigational body wash formulas with lipids in reducing the needs for corticosteroid and improving the healthy composition of skin microbiome vs. the mild synthetic bar soap.

Cutaneous manifestation of IgG4-related disease mimicking dermatitis artefacta.

Australasian Journal of Dermatology

Dermatitis artefacta is a self-inflicted cutaneous disease presenting as sharply delineated ulcers, usually in accessible sites such as the head an...

A Randomized, Double-blind Study of Amorolfine 5% Nail Lacquer with Oral Fluconazole Compared with Oral Fluconazole Alone in the Treatment of Fingernail Onychomycosis.

Indian Journal of Dermatology

It is a challenge to treat onychomycosis due to frequent treatment failures and relapses. Systemic and topical therapies need to be combined to improve cure rates. Antifungal susceptibility might play a role in the treatment resistance of onychomycosis.

To compare the safety and effectiveness of amorolfine 5% nail lacquer + oral fluconazole versus only oral fluconazole in the treatment of fingernail onychomycosis.

In this double-blind trial (CTRI/2015/02/005369), patients were randomized (1:1) into amorolfine 5% nail lacquer + fluconazole and dummy lacquer + fluconazole. Treatment was given for 3 months with monthly follow-ups. Antifungal sensitivity was carried out for Candida. Effectiveness was assessed by reduction in the number and percentage area of nails involved and mycological cure. At the end of 3-month treatment period, the association between drug sensitivity and treatment response was explored for the Candida infections.

Among 30 study participants, the combination group showed significantly lower number of nail involvement (P = 0.004) and percentage nail involvement (P = 0.005) than only fluconazole group. Pretreatment fungal culture showed a comparable number of dermatophytes, Candida, Aspergillus in both the groups. Sensitivity testing was done for the isolated Candida species. Antifungal sensitivity for Candida (n = 11) was tested, and 8 (72.7%) of the organisms were sensitive to fluconazole (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] 1.25 ± 1.19 μg/ml), 100% were sensitive to itraconazole (MIC 0.0726 ± 0.021 μg/ml), and 3 (27.3%) were susceptible-dose dependent (S-DD) to fluconazole (MIC 16 μg/ml). Fluconazole only group patients with Candida who showed resistance to fluconazole did not respond to therapy; however, patients in the combination group showed moderate improvement (reduction in area involvement = 55.56 ± 35.36%).

The combination of amorolfine/fluconazole achieved a higher cure rate not only for sensitive fungus but also for those which were S-DD to fluconazole.

Changing Trend of Superficial Mycoses with Increasing Nondermatophyte Mold Infection: A Clinicomycological Study at a Tertiary Referral Center in Assam.

Indian Journal of Dermatology

Superficial mycosis is the commonest infections affecting human globally. Though they do not cause mortality, their clinical significance lies in their morbidity, recurrence, and cosmetic disfigurement, thus creating a major public health problem. The infections are more prevalent in the tropical regions. The etiological agents are also seen to vary with time and geographical location.

This study was carried out to find out the trend of superficial mycosis in Assam, along with a clinicomycological correlation.

A total of 130 clinically diagnosed cases of superficial mycoses attending the outpatient department (OPD) of a tertiary hospital in Assam for a period of 1 year were taken up for the study. After taking the informed consent and a proper history, the clinical materials like skin scrapings, nail clippings, and infected hair were sent for mycological examination.

The infection was found to be more prevalent among males than females (M:F, 3:2) and among the farmers and laborers (24.61%). Tinea corporis was the commonest clinical type (21.5%). Among the fungal isolates, dermatophytes were the most frequent isolates (43.54%), out of which Trichophyton rubrum was commonest. nondermatophyte moulds like Fusarium, Aspergillus, Scopulariopsis, Trichosporon, and Penicillium spp. were isolated.

The epidemiology of fungal infection and the causative fungi is seen to vary geographically and with time. This study reflects the changing trend of fungal infection in the north eastern region with a high rate of isolation of nondermatophyte moulds as the causative agent.

Profile of Dermatophytosis in a Tertiary Care Center in Kerala, India.

Indian Journal of Dermatology

The incidence of dermatophytosis is increasing over the last few years and there are many cases which are recurrent and chronic.

The aim was to study the host and pathogen factors in dermatophytosis, to identify the species responsible, and to study the histopathological features of chronic dermatophytosis.

It was a descriptive study conducted in the Department of Dermatology for a period of 1 year and all patients who were clinically diagnosed as dermatophytosis were included. Isolated hair, and nail involvement were excluded from the study. Epidemiological parameters and treatment history were analyzed, scrapings, and fungal culture were done in all patients. Histopathological examination was done in patients with chronic dermatophytosis who had applied topical steroids.

Chronic dermatophytosis was seen in 68%; tinea corporis was the most common presentation; topical steroid application was seen in 63%; azoles were the most common antifungals used; varied morphologies such as follicular and nonfollicular papules, arciform lesions, pseudoimbricata were seen in steroid modified tinea. Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes were the most common species isolated in culture, but rare species such as Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton schoenleinii, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum audouinii were also isolated from chronic cases. Histopathology showed perifolliculitis in steroid modified tinea. Minimal inhibitory concentration was lowest for itraconazole in susceptibility studies.

Chronicity in dermatophytosis is due to various factors such as topical steroid application, noncompliance, and change in predominant species.