The latest medical research on Melanoma

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about melanoma gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Association Between Biologics Use and Risk of Serious Infection in Patients With Psoriasis.

JAMA Dermatology

Biologics and targeted therapies, such as apremilast, are efficient treatments to manage moderate to severe psoriasis. More information about the risk of serious infection is needed for the newest treatment options in a real-world setting.

To assess the risk of serious infection among biologics and apremilast used to treat psoriasis, with etanercept as the comparator.

This nationwide cohort study from France involved data from the National Health Data System covering approximately 99% of the French population. All adults with psoriasis, defined as receiving at least 2 prescriptions of a topical vitamin D derivative within a 2-year period, registered in the database between January 1, 2008, and May 31, 2019, were eligible. The study population included those who were new users of biologic agents or apremilast (ie, without any prescriptions of a biologic or apremilast during the previous year). Patients with HIV infection or a history of cancer, transplant, or serious infection were excluded. End of follow-up was January 31, 2020.

The primary end point was a serious infection in a time-to-event analysis using propensity score-weighted Cox proportional hazards regression models, estimating weighted hazard ratios (wHRs) and 95% CIs.

A total of 44 239 new users of biologic treatment were identified (mean [SD] age, 48.4 [13.8] years; 22 866 [51.7%] men; median follow-up, 12 months [interquartile range, 7-24 months]). A total of 29 618 (66.9%) were prescribed a tumor necrosis factor inhibitor first, 6658 (15.0%) an interleukin (IL) 12/23 inhibitor, 4093 (9.3%) an IL-17 inhibitor, 526 (1.2%) an IL-23 inhibitor, and 3344 (7.6%) apremilast. The total number of serious infections was 1656, and the overall crude incidence rate was 25.0 (95% CI, 23.8-26.2) per 1000 person-years. The most frequent serious infections were gastrointestinal infections (645 patients [38.9%]). After adjusting for time-dependent covariables, risk of serious infections was higher for new users of adalimumab (wHR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.07-1.38) or infliximab (wHR, 1.79; 95% CI 1.49-2.16) vs etanercept, whereas ustekinumab was associated with a lower risk of having a serious infection (wHR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.67-0.94). Risk of serious infections was not increased for new users of IL-17 and the IL-23 inhibitor guselkumab or apremilast vs etanercept. Risk of serious infections was increased with concomitant nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or systemic corticosteroids.

In this cohort study of individuals with moderate to severe psoriasis, risk of serious infections was increased in new users of infliximab and adalimumab vs etanercept, whereas ustekinumab users had lower risk of having a serious infection but not new users of IL-17 and IL-23 inhibitors or apremilast. Other observational studies are needed to confirm results for the most recent drugs.

Clinicopathological features and associations in a series of South African acral melanomas.

Pigment Cell and Melanoma Research

Acral melanoma (AM) arises on the palms, soles and nail apparatus (subungual), and remains a major health problem with poor prognosis and advanced ...

The immunosuppressive role of Edn3 over-expression in the melanoma microenvironment.

Pigment Cell and Melanoma Research

Endothelins are cytokines expressed in the microenvironment of several tumors. To identify which stromal cells in the melanoma microenvironment res...

Proteomic profiles of melanoma cell-derived exosomes in plasma: discovery of potential biomarkers of melanoma progression.

Melanoma Research

Cancer liquid biopsy encompassing circulating tumor cells (CTC), circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and/or tumor-derived exosomes (TEX) emerges as a nov...

Updates on the diagnosis, current and future therapeutic options in Merkel-cell carcinoma.

Melanoma Research

Merkel-cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and extremely aggressive nonmelanocytic cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma. Historically, it has been associa...

Influence of IL1B (rs16944) and IL1R2 (rs4141134) polymorphisms on aggressiveness and prognosis of cutaneous melanoma.

Melanoma Research

Cutaneous melanoma is the most aggressive skin cancer with high mortality. Proinflammatory cytokines can modulate the proliferation and survival of...

Low-dose ipilimumab combined with anti-PD-1 immunotherapy in patients with metastatic melanoma following anti-PD-1 treatment failure.

Melanoma Research

Combined immunotherapy is associated with a significant risk of severe and potentially fatal immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Therefore, we r...

Acral Lentiginous Melanoma - Population, Treatment and Survival using the NCDB from 2004-2015.

Pigment Cell and Melanoma Research

Acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) is a rare histological subtype of cutaneous malignant melanoma that typically presents on the palms and soles. To ...

Identification of melanoma-specific exosomal miRNAs as the potential biomarker for canine oral melanoma.

Pigment Cell and Melanoma Research

Considering the importance of the canine cancer model of human disease, as well as the need for strategies for canine cancer management, the proper...

Neonatal Linear IgA Bullous Dermatosis Mediated by Breast Milk-Borne Maternal IgA.

JAMA Dermatology

Neonatal linear immunoglobulin A (IgA) bullous dermatosis (LABD) is a rare disease that can be fatal when associated with respiratory failure. All previously reported cases of neonatal LABD have been in newborns with healthy asymptomatic mothers, and the pathogenic IgA was of unknown origin.

To clarify the origin of IgA associated with LABD in neonates born of healthy asymptomatic mothers.

This case study analyzed the laboratory findings of a single breast-fed newborn male with neonatal LABD admitted to the Keio University Hospital in Tokyo and his healthy asymptomatic mother. The healthy newborn developed life-threatening blisters and erosions of the skin and mucous membranes on day 4 after birth. Blood serum, skin, and maternal breast milk were examined for IgA autoantibodies.

Histopathologic and immunofluorescence analyses of specimens (serum, skin, and breast milk) from the patient and his mother.

Histopathologic evaluation of the newborn's skin revealed subepidermal blisters with neutrophil infiltrates, and immunofluorescence testing showed linear IgA deposition along the basement membrane zone (BMZ), which lead to the diagnosis of neonatal LABD. Indirect immunofluorescence using normal human skin after treatment with 1-mol/L sodium chloride showed the patient to have circulating IgA binding to the dermal side of BMZ. Immunohistochemical staining proved the deposition of secretory IgA in the neonatal skin by demonstrating the presence of J chain-not been seen in other LABD cases-indicating that the autoantibodies producing the blisters were derived from the maternal breast milk. Although no circulating IgA against the skin was detected in mother's sera, the breast milk contained IgA that reacted with the dermal side of the BMZ. No new blister formation was observed after cessation of breastfeeding.

The results of this case study suggest a passive transfer of pathogenic IgA to a newborn from an asymptomatic mother via breast milk. In prior reports, no serum from asymptomatic mothers of newborns with LABD had IgA autoantibodies binding to skin components; however, in this case, we found that the maternal breast milk contained IgA autoantibodies associated with neonatal LABD. In neonatal LABD, maternal breast milk should be examined for IgA autoantibodies and breast milk feeding should be discontinued as soon as neonatal LABD is suspected.

Limitations of Using Questionnaires for Assessing the Prevalence of Psoriasis and Atopic Dermatitis Among Adults.

JAMA Dermatology

Questionnaire studies are important for estimating the prevalence of psoriasis and atopic dermatitis; however, validity among the adult population remains an important concern.

To examine the test-retest accuracy of questionnaires for measuring psoriasis and atopic dermatitis prevalence in an adult population.

This nationwide population-based cohort study administered questionnaires on psoriasis and atopic dermatitis to the same 2333 and 2312 randomly selected adults (≥18 years) in Denmark, respectively, at 2 different time points from May 15, 2018, to November 20, 2020. Data were analyzed from January 10 to January 28, 2021. To reduce the risk of participation bias, potential respondents were given information on the research project only after agreeing to participate.

Participants were asked identical questions on psoriasis and atopic dermatitis in 2018 and in 2020. Responses were linked at the individual-level.

The test-retest reliability (expressed by Cohen κ).

The psoriasis questionnaire was completed by 2333 (mean [SD] age, 55.1 [16.2] years; 1338 [57.4%] women) participants in 2018 and in 2020. The atopic dermatitis questionnaire was completed by 2312 (mean [SD] age, 55.0 [16.2] years; 1326 [57.4%] women) participants in 2018 and in 2020. Among participants reporting a history of psoriasis, agreement between individual responses was high (κ = 0.7558); however, among those reporting a history of atopic dermatitis, agreement was low (κ = 0.4395). For psoriasis, prevalence changed from 7.8% to 8.0%; for atopic dermatitis, from 8.2% to 7.6%. Of participants who in 2018 reported dermatologist-diagnosed atopic dermatitis, 36.9% claimed in the 2020 questionnaire that they had never had atopic dermatitis. Analyses revealed substantial agreement for psoriasis responses across all age strata; for atopic dermatitis responses, the κ declined with increasing age, to 0.2613 for participants 65 or older.

This cohort study found considerable agreement between responses over time when participants were asked about a history of psoriasis. When asked about a history of atopic dermatitis, responses over time were inconsistent. This inconsistency suggests that questionnaires on a history of atopic dermatitis will confer considerable risk of bias and misclassification.

Health-Related Quality of Life, Depression, and Self-esteem in Patients With Androgenetic Alopecia: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

JAMA Dermatology

Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is associated with trichodynia, anxiety, low self-esteem, and depression, which have implications for quality of life. However, no systematic evaluation has been performed on the association of AGA with health-related quality of life (HRQOL).

To systematically examine the association of AGA with HRQOL and psychiatric disorders.

Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and WanFang databases were searched from inception through January 24, 2021.

Case series, case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, cohort studies, and randomized clinical trials that examined either HRQOL or psychiatric disorders in patients with AGA were included. Studies published in languages other than English and Mandarin were excluded.

The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) reporting guideline was used. The risk of bias in included studies was assessed with the Risk of Bias in Non-randomized Studies of Intervention (ROBINS-I) tool. A random-effects model meta-analysis was performed to calculate the pooled effect on HRQOL. A subgroup analysis according to sex and geographic regions was also conducted.

The outcome was HRQOL of patients with AGA.

A total of 41 studies involving 7995 patients was included. The pooled Dermatology Life Quality Index score was 8.16 (95% CI, 5.62-10.71). The pooled Hair-Specific Skindex-29 score indicated moderate impairment of emotions, with the meta-analysis showing a score of 29.22 (95% CI, 24.17-34.28) in the emotion dimension. The pooled Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score did not indicate depression, with the meta-analysis showing a score of 14.98 (95% CI, 14.28-15.68). Factors that had a direct association with HRQOL included married or coupled status and receipt of medical treatments, whereas factors that had an inverse association with HRQOL included higher self-rated hair loss severity, lower visual analog scale score, and higher educational level.

This systematic review and meta-analysis found a significant association of AGA with moderate impairment of HRQOL and emotions, but no association was found with depressive symptoms. The findings suggest that patients with AGA may need psychological and psychosocial support.