The latest medical research on Melanoma

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about melanoma gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Drug Survival of Biologics in Patients With Hidradenitis Suppurativa.

JAMA Dermatology

Biologics are important in treating patients with hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). However, to our knowledge, data on their real-life performance and treatment patterns in HS are limited.

To examine the drug survival of biologic therapies for HS in a real-world setting.

This cohort study included all patients with HS between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2018, who were treated with biologics at the 5 academic hospital clinics where all biologic treatment for HS is conducted in Denmark. Biologics included adalimumab, anakinra, certolizumab pegol, etanercept, golimumab, infliximab, secukinumab, and ustekinumab. Data were analyzed between June 1, 2021, and June 20, 2021.

Drug survival was depicted through Kaplan-Meier curves, and Cox regression models were used to calculate adjusted (age, sex, previous number of biologic treatment series) hazard ratios (aHRs) with 95% CIs for the risk of treatment discontinuation. Switching patterns were visualized through a Sankey diagram.

The study comprised 241 patients (176 women [61.8%]; total of 386 treatment series) with a mean (SD) age of 41.8 (12.6) years at initiation of first biologic therapy. There were a total of 256 (189 [73.8%] biologic naive), 66 (32 [48.5%] biologic naive), 23 (9 [39.1%] biologic naive), and 22 (9 [40.9%] biologic naive) treatment series with adalimumab, infliximab, etanercept, and ustekinumab, respectively. The median time to discontinuation was 36.0 (IQR, 21.9-63.0), 28.7 (IQR, 15.1-62.9), 26.0 (IQR, 16.9-155.9), and 17.9 weeks (IQR, 12.9-41.0) for adalimumab, infliximab, ustekinumab and etanercept, respectively. The risk of drug discontinuation was significantly higher for etanercept compared with adalimumab (aHR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.16-2.82), infliximab (aHR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.03-3.05), and ustekinumab (aHR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.12-5.52), whereas no difference was observed when comparing these 3 therapies with each other. We found no significant differences in drug survival for biologic-naive vs nonnaive treatment series. Increasing C-reactive protein levels (aHR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00-1.03) and concomitant antibiotic treatment (aHR, 2.82; 95% CI, 1.36-5.86) were associated with the risk of discontinuing infliximab therapy. Men (aHR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.51-0.91) had a reduced risk of discontinuing use of adalimumab.

In this cohort study, drug survival was comparable between adalimumab, infliximab, and ustekinumab but significantly lower for etanercept. There were no differences in drug survival among biologic-naive and nonnaive patients.

Association of Psoriasis With Incident Venous Thromboembolism and Peripheral Vascular Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

JAMA Dermatology

Psoriasis, venous thromboembolism (VTE), and peripheral vascular disease (PVD) share similar mechanisms involving chronic inflammation. However, the associations between psoriasis and VTE or PVD are unclear.

To determine the association of psoriasis with incident VTE and PVD.

MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature were systematically searched for relevant publications from their respective inception through May 21, 2021. No restrictions on language or geographic locations were imposed.

Two authors independently selected cohort studies that investigated the risk for incident VTE or PVD in patients with psoriasis. Any discrepancy was resolved through discussion with 2 senior authors until reaching consensus. Only 13 initially identified studies met the selection criteria for qualitative review, and only 9 of these for quantitative analysis.

The Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) reporting guideline was followed. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies by using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Disagreements were resolved by discussion with 2 other authors. A random-effects model meta-analysis was conducted to calculate the pooled hazard ratios (HRs) with the corresponding confidence intervals for incident VTE and PVD. Subgroup analyses based on arthritis status, psoriasis severity, sex, and geographic location were also performed.

Hazard ratios for incident VTE and PVD associated with psoriasis.

A total of 13 cohort studies with 12 435 982 participants were included. The meta-analysis demonstrated a significantly increased risk for incident VTE (pooled HR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.08-1.48) and PVD (pooled HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.16-1.40) among patients with psoriasis. Subgroup analyses illustrated increased risk for incident VTE among participants with psoriatic arthritis (pooled HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.01-1.53), women (pooled HR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.36-2.61), and those in Asia (pooled HR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.42-2.88) and Europe (pooled HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.06-1.53).

This systematic review and meta-analysis found an increased risk for incident VTE and PVD among patients with psoriatic disease. Typical presentations of VTE or PVD should not be overlooked in patients with psoriasis. Risk factors, such as obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, and varicose veins, should be identified and treated in patients with psoriasis, and medications like hormone-related therapies should be prescribed with caution.

The Genomic and Phenotypic Landscape of Ichthyosis: An Analysis of 1000 Kindreds.

JAMA Dermatology

Ichthyoses are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders characterized by scaly skin. Despite decades of investigation identifying pathogenic variants in more than 50 genes, clear genotype-phenotype associations have been difficult to establish.

To expand the genotypic and phenotypic spectra of ichthyosis and delineate genotype-phenotype associations.

This cohort study recruited an international group of individuals with ichthyosis and describes characteristic and distinguishing features of common genotypes, including genotype-phenotype associations, during a 10-year period from June 2011 to July 2021. Participants of all ages, races, and ethnicities were included and were enrolled worldwide from referral centers and patient advocacy groups. A questionnaire to assess clinical manifestations was completed by those with a genetic diagnosis.

Genetic analysis of saliva or blood DNA, a phenotyping questionnaire, and standardized clinical photographs. Descriptive statistics, such as frequency counts, were used to describe the cases in the cohort. Fisher exact tests identified significant genotype-phenotype associations.

Results were reported for 1000 unrelated individuals enrolled from around the world (mean [SD] age, 50.0 [34.0] years; 524 [52.4%] were female, 427 [42.7%] were male, and 49 [4.9%] were not classified); 75% were from the US, 12% from Latin America, 4% from Canada, 3% from Europe, 3% from Asia, 2% from Africa, 1% from the Middle East, and 1% from Australia and New Zealand. A total of 266 novel disease-associated variants in 32 genes were identified among 869 kindreds. Of these, 241 (91%) pathogenic variants were found through multiplex amplicon sequencing and 25 (9%) through exome sequencing. Among the 869 participants with a genetic diagnosis, 304 participants (35%) completed the phenotyping questionnaire. Analysis of clinical manifestations in these 304 individuals revealed that pruritus, hypohydrosis, skin pain, eye problems, skin odor, and skin infections were the most prevalent self-reported features. Genotype-phenotype association analysis revealed that the presence of a collodion membrane at birth (odds ratio [OR], 6.7; 95% CI, 3.0-16.7; P < .001), skin odor (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.1-6.8; P = .02), hearing problems (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.6-5.5; P < .001), eye problems (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.5-6.0; P < .001), and alopecia (OR, 4.6; 95% CI, 2.4-9.0; P < .001) were significantly associated with TGM1 variants compared with other ichthyosis genotypes studied. Skin pain (OR, 6.8; 95% CI, 1.6-61.2; P = .002), odor (OR, 5.7; 95% CI, 2.0-19.7; P < .001), and infections (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.4-7.7; P = .03) were significantly associated with KRT10 pathogenic variants compared with disease-associated variants in other genes that cause ichthyosis. Pathogenic variants were identified in 869 (86.9%) participants. Most of the remaining individuals had unique phenotypes, enabling further genetic discovery.

This cohort study expands the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of ichthyosis, establishing associations between clinical manifestations and genotypes. Collectively, the findings may help improve clinical assessment, assist with developing customized management plans, and improve clinical course prognostication.

Checklist for Evaluation of Image-Based Artificial Intelligence Reports in Dermatology: CLEAR Derm Consensus Guidelines From the International Skin Imaging Collaboration Artificial Intelligence Working Group.

JAMA Dermatology

The use of artificial intelligence (AI) is accelerating in all aspects of medicine and has the potential to transform clinical care and dermatology workflows. However, to develop image-based algorithms for dermatology applications, comprehensive criteria establishing development and performance evaluation standards are required to ensure product fairness, reliability, and safety.

To consolidate limited existing literature with expert opinion to guide developers and reviewers of dermatology AI.

In this consensus statement, the 19 members of the International Skin Imaging Collaboration AI working group volunteered to provide a consensus statement. A systematic PubMed search was performed of English-language articles published between December 1, 2008, and August 24, 2021, for "artificial intelligence" and "reporting guidelines," as well as other pertinent studies identified by the expert panel. Factors that were viewed as critical to AI development and performance evaluation were included and underwent 2 rounds of electronic discussion to achieve consensus.

A checklist of items was developed that outlines best practices of image-based AI development and assessment in dermatology.

Clinically effective AI needs to be fair, reliable, and safe; this checklist of best practices will help both developers and reviewers achieve this goal.

Clinical features, molecular characteristics and surgical management of primary penile mucosal melanoma based on the European Association of Urology Penile Cancer Guidelines.

Melanoma Research

Penile mucosal melanoma is an aggressive and rare genital malignancy. The aim of the present study was to review the management and outcomes of a h...

Ulcerated Melanoma: Systems Biology Evidence of Inflammatory Imbalance Toward Pro-tumorigenicity.

Pigment Cell and Melanoma Research

Microscopic ulceration is an independent predictor of melanoma death. Here we used systems biology to query the role of host and tumor specific pro...

Evaluation of Site- and Autoantigen-Specific Characteristics of Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid.

JAMA Dermatology

Mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) is a rare, heterogeneous subepithelial autoimmune bullous disease. The association between its clinical and immunological features is yet to be fully evaluated.

To characterize the clinical, immunoserological, and immunopathological characteristics of patients with MMP and to identify site- and autoantigen-specific characteristics.

A retrospective cohort study encompassing all consecutive patients diagnosed with MMP from January 2007 through February 2020 in 2 tertiary referral centers in Germany.

The clinical, immunoserological, and immunopathological features of eligible patients were evaluated. Associations of different anatomical sites and autoantigens were assessed using a multivariable logistic regression model.

The study encompassed 154 patients (96 [62.3%] women and 58 [37.7%] men; mean [SD] age at diagnosis, 66.2 [13.8] years) with MMP, of whom 125 (81.2%), 61 (39.6%), 34 (22.1%), and 16 (10.4%) presented with lesions involving the oral, ocular, nasal, and genital mucosae, respectively, and 35 (22.7%) presented with cutaneous involvement. Among the 154 patients, the most frequently targeted antigen was BP180 (90 patients [58.4%]), followed by laminin 332 (13 patients [8.4%]) and BP230 (3 patients [1.9%]). Ocular disease was inversely associated with oral (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.02; 95% CI, 0.01-0.13) and nasal (aOR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.04-0.91) involvement and was associated with a 13-fold increased risk of malignant neoplasm (aOR, 13.07; 95% CI, 1.56-109.36). Anti-laminin 332 reactivity was associated with malignant neoplasm (aOR, 23.27; 95% CI, 1.83-296.68), whereas anti-BP180 NC16A immunoglobulin G seropositivity was associated with absence of ocular lesions (aOR, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.01-0.99).

In this cohort study of patients with MMP, malignant neoplasms were associated with ocular disease and anti-laminin 332 reactivity, suggesting potential benefit of malignant neoplasm screening in these patients.

Assessing the Potential for Patient-led Surveillance After Treatment of Localized Melanoma (MEL-SELF): A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Dermatology

Patient-led surveillance is a promising new model of follow-up care following excision of localized melanoma.

To determine whether patient-led surveillance in patients with prior localized primary cutaneous melanoma is as safe, feasible, and acceptable as clinician-led surveillance.

This was a pilot for a randomized clinical trial at 2 specialist-led clinics in metropolitan Sydney, Australia, and a primary care skin cancer clinic managed by general practitioners in metropolitan Newcastle, Australia. The participants were 100 patients who had been treated for localized melanoma, owned a smartphone, had a partner to assist with skin self-examination (SSE), and had been routinely attending scheduled follow-up visits. The study was conducted from November 1, 2018, to January 17, 2020, with analysis performed from September 1, 2020, to November 15, 2020.

Participants were randomized (1:1) to 6 months of patient-led surveillance (the intervention comprised usual care plus reminders to perform SSE, patient-performed dermoscopy, teledermatologist assessment, and fast-tracked unscheduled clinic visits) or clinician-led surveillance (the control was usual care).

The primary outcome was the proportion of eligible and contacted patients who were randomized. Secondary outcomes included patient-reported outcomes (eg, SSE knowledge, attitudes, and practices, psychological outcomes, other health care use) and clinical outcomes (eg, clinic visits, skin surgeries, subsequent new primary or recurrent melanoma).

Of 326 patients who were eligible and contacted, 100 (31%) patients (mean [SD] age, 58.7 [12.0] years; 53 [53%] men) were randomized to patient-led (n = 49) or clinician-led (n = 51) surveillance. Data were available on patient-reported outcomes for 66 participants and on clinical outcomes for 100 participants. Compared with clinician-led surveillance, patient-led surveillance was associated with increased SSE frequency (odds ratio [OR], 3.5; 95% CI, 0.9 to 14.0) and thoroughness (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 0.8 to 5.7), had no detectable adverse effect on psychological outcomes (fear of cancer recurrence subscale score; mean difference, -1.3; 95% CI, -3.1 to 0.5), and increased clinic visits (risk ratio [RR], 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.1), skin lesion excisions (RR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.6 to 2.0), and subsequent melanoma diagnoses and subsequent melanoma diagnoses (risk difference, 10%; 95% CI, -2% to 23%). New primary melanomas and 1 local recurrence were diagnosed in 8 (16%) of the participants in the intervention group, including 5 (10%) ahead of routinely scheduled visits; and in 3 (6%) of the participants in the control group, with none (0%) ahead of routinely scheduled visits (risk difference, 10%; 95% CI, 2% to 19%).

This pilot of a randomized clinical trial found that patient-led surveillance after treatment of localized melanoma appears to be safe, feasible, and acceptable. Experiences from this pilot study have prompted improvements to the trial processes for the larger trial of the same intervention. Identifier: ACTRN12616001716459.

Association Between Atopic Dermatitis and Height, Body Mass Index, and Weight in Children.

JAMA Dermatology

Atopic dermatitis may be associated with short stature and obesity in children, but most previous studies have been either small or cross-sectional.

To evaluate the association between atopic dermatitis and height, body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), and weight throughout childhood.

TARGet Kids! (The Applied Research Group for Kids) is an ongoing prospective longitudinal cohort study that collects data at routine physician visits throughout childhood. In this cohort, children aged 5 or younger were followed up into adolescence at regular physician visits at general pediatric and family practices in Toronto, Canada, from June 2008 to February 2021.

Parental report of atopic dermatitis.

Primary outcomes were length-for-age and BMI-for-age z scores. The secondary outcome was weight-for-age z score. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate associations between atopic dermatitis and each outcome. In secondary analyses, interaction terms were included between atopic dermatitis and age.

A total of 10 611 children were included in the analysis, with mean (SD) baseline age of 23 (20) months; 5070 (47.8%) participants were female. Participants were followed for a median (range) of 28.5 (0.0-158.0) months. A total of 1834 (17.3%) children had atopic dermatitis during follow-up. Atopic dermatitis was associated with lower length-for-age z score (-0.13; 95% CI, -0.17 to -0.09; P < .001), higher BMI z score (0.05; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.09; P = .008), and lower weight-for-age z score (-0.07; 95% CI, -0.10 to -0.04; P < .001) compared with children without atopic dermatitis. The associations between atopic dermatitis and height and BMI changed with age, diminishing by age 14 years and 5.5 years, respectively. Based on World Health Organization growth tables, children with atopic dermatitis were on average 0.5 cm shorter with 0.2 more BMI units at age 2 years and 0.6 cm shorter with no difference in BMI at age 5 years than children without atopic dermatitis after adjusting for covariates. There was no evidence of interaction between atopic dermatitis and age with respect to weight.

In this cohort study, atopic dermatitis was associated with shorter stature, higher BMI, and lower weight in early childhood, but these associations were small and, for height and BMI, attenuated with age and resolved by adolescence.

Prevalence of Vitiligo Among Adults in the United States.

JAMA Dermatology

Vitiligo can have profound effects on patients and is often associated with other autoimmune comorbid conditions. It is important to understand the current prevalence of vitiligo, including diagnosed, undiagnosed, and subtypes (nonsegmental and segmental).

To estimate the point prevalence of vitiligo in the US.

For this population-based study of adults in the US, a cross-sectional online survey was administered between December 2019 and March 2020 to obtain participant self-reported vitiligo status. A representative sample of the US adult general population, aged 18 to 85 years, was recruited using a stratified proportional, sampling design from general population research panels. Additionally, 3 expert dermatologists adjudicated participants' self-reported vitiligo diagnosis by reviewing photographs uploaded by the participants using a teledermatology app designed and tested specifically for this study.

The main outcomes were the point prevalence estimates of overall vitiligo, as well as diagnosed, undiagnosed, nonsegmental, and segmental vitiligo.

Among the 40 888 eligible adult participants, the mean (SD) age was 44.9 (17.4) years, 23 170 (56.7%) were female, 30 428 (74.4%) were White, and 4225 (10.3%) were of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin. Self-reported vitiligo prevalence was 1.38% (95% CI, 1.26%-1.49%), with 0.77% (95% CI, 0.68%-0.85%) for diagnosed and 0.61% (95% CI, 0.54%-0.69%) for undiagnosed. Based on expert dermatologist review of 113 photographs of participants with self-reported vitiligo, clinician-adjudicated vitiligo prevalence (sensitivity bounds) was 0.76% (0.76%-1.11%), with 0.46% (0.46%-0.61%) for diagnosed and 0.29% (0.29%-0.50%) for undiagnosed. Self-reported nonsegmental vitiligo prevalence was 0.77% (95% CI, 0.68%-0.85%), with 0.48% (95% CI, 0.41%-0.55%) for diagnosed and 0.29% (95% CI, 0.23%-0.34%) for undiagnosed. Clinician-adjudicated nonsegmental vitiligo prevalence (sensitivity bounds) was 0.58% (0.57%-0.84%), with 0.37% (0.37%-0.49%) for diagnosed and 0.21% (0.20%-0.36%) for undiagnosed. Self-reported segmental vitiligo prevalence was 0.61% (95% CI, 0.53%-0.69%), with 0.28% (95% CI, 0.23%-0.33%) for diagnosed and 0.33% (95% CI, 0.27%-0.38%) for undiagnosed. Clinician-adjudicated segmental vitiligo prevalence (sensitivity bounds) was 0.18% (0.18%-0.27%), with 0.09% (0.09%-0.12%) for diagnosed and 0.08% (0.08%-0.15%) for undiagnosed.

Results of this survey study demonstrated that the current US population-based prevalence estimate of overall (diagnosed and undiagnosed combined) vitiligo in adults is between 0.76% (1.9 million cases in 2020) and 1.11% (2.8 million cases in 2020). Additionally, this study suggests that approximately 40% of adult vitiligo in the US may be undiagnosed. Future studies should be performed to confirm these findings.

The immunologic balance: three cases of rituximab-associated melanoma.

Melanoma Research

Currently, there is no known clinical evidence that rituximab increases the rate of subsequent primary malignancies; however, some studies have rai...

New insights into segmental vitiligo: a clinical and immunological comparison with nonsegmental vitiligo.

Pigment Cell and Melanoma Research

The overlaps between segmental vitiligo (SV) and nonsegmental vitiligo (NSV) suggest the underlying features of SV, which may be helpful for treati...