The latest medical research on Melanoma

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about melanoma gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Prognostic value of clinical and radiomic parameters in patients with liver metastases from uveal melanoma.

Pigment Cell and Melanoma Research

Approximately every second patient with uveal melanoma develops distant metastases, with the liver as the predominant target organ. While the media...

Dupilumab in Adults With Moderate to Severe Atopic Dermatitis: A 5-Year Open-Label Extension Study.

JAMA Dermatology

Moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that often requires continuous long-term systemic management. Long-term safety and efficacy data for treatment options are critically important.

To assess the safety and efficacy of dupilumab treatment for up to 5 years in adults with moderate to severe AD.

The 5-year LIBERTY AD open-label extension study was conducted from September 2013 to June 2022 at 550 sites in 28 countries. The study enrolled adult patients with moderate to severe AD who had participated in previous dupilumab clinical trials. Data were analyzed from August 2022 to February 2023.

At enrollment, patients initiated a regimen of subcutaneous dupilumab, 200 mg, weekly (400-mg loading dose). The regimen was amended in June 2014 to dupilumab, 300 mg, weekly (600-mg loading dose) based on a dose-ranging study and again in November 2019 to dupilumab, 300 mg, every 2 weeks to align with the regulatory regimen approvals.

The primary end points were the incidence and rate of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). Key secondary end points included incidence and rate of serious TEAEs and adverse events of special interest, proportion of patients achieving an Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA) score of 0 or 1 (clear or almost clear), and proportion of patients with 75% or more improvement in the Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) from the parent study baseline.

A total of 2677 patients were enrolled and treated in the open-label extension study; 1611 (60.2%) were male, and the mean (SD) age was 39.2 (13.4) years. A total of 334 patients (12.5%) completed treatment up to week 260. The most common reasons for withdrawal were due to regulatory approval of dupilumab in compliance with the study protocol (810 of 1380 [58.7%]), patient withdrawal (248 of 1380 [18.0%]), and adverse events (116 of 1380 [8.4%]). Exposure-adjusted rates of TEAEs were generally stable or declined throughout the study. Common TEAEs (incidence of 5% or greater) included nasopharyngitis, worsening AD, upper respiratory tract infection, conjunctivitis, conjunctivitis allergic, headache, oral herpes, and injection-site reaction. At week 260, 220 of 326 patients (67.5%) achieved an IGA score of 0 or 1 and 288 of 324 (88.9%) achieved 75% or greater improvement in the EASI. The mean (SD) EASI score was 16.39 (14.60) at baseline and 2.75 (5.62) at end of study.

In this study, there was sustained safety and efficacy of continuous long-term dupilumab treatment for adults with moderate to severe AD.

Durable complete response in a patient with leptomeningeal melanoma after treatment with dabrafenib, trametinib, and nivolumab.

Pigment Cell and Melanoma Research

Leptomeningeal disease (LMD) is a devastating complication of melanoma with a dismal prognosis. We present the case of a young man with stage IV BR...

The Global Prevalence of Seborrheic Dermatitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

JAMA Dermatology

Seborrheic dermatitis is a prevalent chronic inflammatory skin disease, yet its global prevalence, pathogenesis, and epidemiology remain inadequately defined.

To provide a detailed estimation of the global prevalence of seborrheic dermatitis, analyze demographic variations, and explore differences in various settings.

Embase, PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched from inception through October 2023.

Original investigations on seborrheic dermatitis prevalence were included after duplicate screening of titles, abstracts, and full articles, including only studies with clinician-diagnosed cases.

Following PRISMA guidelines, data were extracted and quality was assessed independently by multiple reviewers. A random-effects model using restricted maximum likelihood was used for meta-analysis and subgroup analyses.

The primary outcome was the pooled estimate of global seborrheic dermatitis prevalence.

From 1574 identified articles, 121 studies were included, encompassing 1 260 163 individuals and revealing a pooled global seborrheic dermatitis prevalence of 4.38% (95% CI, 3.58%-5.17%), with significant heterogeneity (I2 = 99.94%). Subgroup analyses showed variations by age, with a higher prevalence in adults (5.64% [95% CI, 4.01%-7.27%]) compared to children (3.70% [95% CI, 2.69%-4.80%]) and neonates (0.23% [95% CI, 0.04%-0.43%]). Geographic analyses indicated variability, with the highest prevalence in South Africa (8.82% [95% CI, 3.00%-14.64%]) and the lowest in India (2.62% [95% CI, 1.33%-3.92%]).

This comprehensive meta-analysis provides a detailed estimation of the global prevalence of seborrheic dermatitis, highlighting significant variability across different demographics and settings.

Efficacy of axitinib in a US cohort of patients with programmed cell death protein 1-resistant mucosal melanoma.

Melanoma Research

Mucosal melanoma is a rare melanoma subtype, accounting for about 1% of all diagnosed melanomas. It is characterized by an aggressive phenotype wit...

Interfering with aggregated α-synuclein in advanced melanoma leads to a major upregulation of MHC class II proteins.

Melanoma Research

Melanoma is the most serious and deadly form of skin cancer and with progression to advanced melanoma, the intrinsically disordered protein α-synuc...

ToF-SIMS imaging reveals changes in tumor cell lipids during metastatic progression of melanoma.

Pigment Cell and Melanoma Research

Most melanomas progress from radial to vertical growth phase before spreading locoregionally and distally. Much is still unknown about the metaboli...

Sex-dependent interaction of PTGS2 with miR-146a as risk factor for melanoma and the impact of sex hormones in gene expression in skin cells.

Melanoma Research

Gender disparity in melanoma is a complex issue where sex hormones could be engaged. Differences in genetic variations are important in understandi...

The number needed to biopsy for cutaneous melanoma in academic dermatology clinics.

Melanoma Research

A standard metric for melanoma detection is the number needed to biopsy (NNB). This metric has been used to evaluate practicing dermatologists, der...

Single-Lesion Skin Cancer Risk Stratification Triage Pathway.

JAMA Dermatology

Access to timely dermatologic care remains a challenge, especially for patients with new skin lesions. Assessing the efficiency of new triage pathways may assist in better resource allocation and shorter time to care.

To evaluate whether a rule-based triage system was associated with better skin cancer risk stratification of patients and reduced wait times.

This retrospective quality improvement cohort study of patients referred to Stanford University dermatology clinics was conducted between November 2017 and January 2023. A rules-based triage system based on a priori-determined high-risk lesion characteristics was implemented.

Referral reasons and risk factors of patients provided by their primary care physicians.

Biopsy results of patients (diagnosis of any skin cancer and melanoma) at their visit or within 6 months after the visit. Regression models were used to assess the association between risk factors at referral and (1) biopsy outcomes and (2) time to first visit, adjusting for sociodemographic factors.

Among 37 478 patients (mean [SD] age, 54 (18) years; 21 292 women [57%]), the rates of aggregate biopsy, malignant biopsy specimens, and melanoma were comparable across patients seen after (n = 12 302) and before (n = 25 176) the implementation of the new triage pathway. Patients seen through the lesion pathway had a higher risk of having malignant biopsy results (adjusted risk ratio [aRR], 1.6; 95% CI, 1.4-1.9) and melanoma (aRR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2-3.2) than those not seen through the pathway. Lesions that were concerning to referring clinicians for skin cancer were associated with an increased risk of skin cancer (all skin cancer: aRR, 2.8; 95% CI, 2.2-3.5; melanoma: aRR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.1-3.7). Patients in the 3 high-risk lesion groups were seen faster in the new triage pathway (mean reduction, 26 days; 95% CI, 18-34 days).

In this study, a new automated, rules-based referral pathway was implemented that expedited care for patients with high-risk skin cancer. This reform may have contributed to improving patient stratification, reducing the time from referral to first encounter, and maintaining accuracy in identifying malignant lesions. The findings highlight the potential to optimize clinical resource allocation by better risk stratification of referred patients.

Recurrence Rate of Small Melanoma In Situ on Low-Risk Sites Excised With 5-mm Excisional Margin.

JAMA Dermatology

The incidence of melanoma in situ (MIS) has increased significantly over the past decades, and traditional guidelines for treatment of MIS have been excision with a 5-mm clinical margin; however, current Australian and other guidelines now recommend 5- to 10-mm margins. This changed recommendation was largely driven by the outcomes of studies using Mohs micrographic surgery, and recent studies using Mohs micrographic surgery are advocating for even wider excisions up to 18 mm for clearance.

To assess the rate of recurrence of MIS excised with a 5-mm margin.

This case series studied all MIS lesions from a single private dermatology clinic between January 1, 2011, and November 30, 2018. The criteria for inclusion were a documented 5-mm excisional margin on operation report and more than 5 years of site-specific follow-up after wide local excision. Lesions were excluded if the excisional margin was more than 5 mm or undocumented, there was less than 5 years of follow-up, or they required more than 1 wide local excision. Data analysis was performed January 30 to February 25, 2024.

Wide local excision with 5-mm margin.

A total of 351 MISs were identified from 292 patients (mean [SD] age, 60.3 [11.8] years; 162 females [55.5%]). Superficial spreading melanoma was the most common subtype diagnosed (177 lesions [50.4%]), followed by lentigo maligna (107 lesions [30.5%]) and lentiginous MIS (67 lesions [19.1%]). The trunk was the most common location of lesions (168 lesions [47.9%]), followed by upper limb (96 lesions [27.4%]) and lower limb (59 lesions [16.8%]). Scalp was the least common location (2 lesions [0.6%]). Most of the lesions were small, with 274 lesions (78.1%) having a length less than 10 mm and 312 lesions (88.9%) having a width less than 10 mm. A total of 348 lesions (99.1%) did not have clinical recurrence after excision with a 5-mm clinical margin following then current guidelines. A total of 3 lesions (0.9%) experienced local recurrence with no metastatic spread.

This case series found that excision with a 5-mm margin for MIS of smaller size (<10 mm) on low-risk body sites had a low rate of recurrence. Conservative 5-mm excisional margin is likely to be suitable for small MIS on lower-risk body sites.

Exploring the clinical significance of specific immune-related adverse events in melanoma patients undergoing immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy.

Melanoma Research

Several studies have demonstrated that patients who experience immune-related adverse events (irAE) as a result of immunotherapy treatment, exhibit...