The latest medical research on Laryngeal Cancer

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The Effect of Topical Aminophylline on Hyposmia and Anosmia.

Laryngeal Cancer

Olfactory training is accounted as a significantly beneficial therapy for hyposmia or anosmia. There is some evidence about methylxanthine usage for this issue. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of topical aminophylline in hyposmic and anosmic patients.

In this clinical trial study, patients were randomly divided into two groups (n= 20/each), the case group was given aminophylline drops over a three-month period (using the contents of the vial aminophylline in the form of nasal drops, 250 micrograms daily) with olfactory training and the control group was given normal saline drops with olfactory training over a three-month period. The olfactory capacities were assessed before the start and after the completion of treatments using a valid and reliable smell identification test.

In the saline and aminophylline groups, the mean ± SD relative changes in SIT score were 0.55±0.31 and 0.85±0.56, respectively. As a result, the SIT score in the saline group climbed by 55 percent but increased by 85 percent in the aminophylline group. The difference in SIT score between pre- and post-test was meaningful in both groups (P< 0.001). The aminophylline group scored significantly higher according to the marginal longitudinal regression model, adjusting baseline parameters.

Intranasal aminophylline plus olfactory training significantly improved SIT scores in severe hyposmia or anosmia. Hypothetically, these effects are mediated through changes in cAMP and cGMP.

The Correlation of Signal to Noise Ratio Value on DPOAE with Malondialdehyde Levels in Rattus Norvegicus Diabetes Model.

Laryngeal Cancer

The aim of this study was to determine the correlation of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) value on distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) examination with malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in a diabetic rat model.

The subjects of this study were 25 rats. The samples were divided into 5 groups (days of confirmed diabetes): group 1 (control/non-treatment); group 2 (3 days); group 3 (6 days); group 4 (9 days); and group 5 (12 days). Samples that confirmed diabetes were assessed by DPOAE examination and subjected to MDA-level examination. The data were processed using SPSS and considered significant if p <0.05.

The study showed a decrease in SNR values and an increase in MDA levels for the rats, which was confirmed by diabetes. The most significant result was shown by group 5, which compared to the other diabetes groups. A post hoc test showed the significant difference SNR value in each group (p<0.05); except for groups 1 and 2, the MDA levels showed significant differences for all groups. The Pearson correlation test showed a negative correlation between SNR values and MDA levels. A significant correlation between SNR values and MDA levels was found in group 5.

The study showed a correlation of SNR values from DPOAE examination to MDA levels in diabetes rats, indicating that there has been tissue damage (cochlea), which is characterized by a decrease in the SNR value.

Evaluation of Sublingual Varices Prevalence and Its Respective Factors in Two Iranian Nursing Homes in 2019.

Laryngeal Cancer

Sublingual varices (SLVs) are among the most prevalent oral lesions, which develop with aging. We aimed to find the prevalence of SLVs among seniors in two nursing homes and evaluate the possible linked factors.

This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at Kahrizak Alborz and razy allah razi Al-Waledain nursing homes in 2019. The list of all seniors over 60 years old was prepared then; after explaining the aim of the study and obtaining their consent, a well-trained senior dentistry student examined them for the presence of SLVs. At the same time, factors, including age, gender, smoking, oral prosthesis, leg varices, high blood pressure, and literacy level, were recorded. The role of each feature was analyzed by Chi-square test using SPSS (version 22; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA).

The study performed on 478 nursing home residents showed an SLVs' prevalence of 56.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 52.3-60). SLVs were significantly correlated with gender (P<0.001), age P<0.01), smoking status (P<0.001), complete denture usage (P<0.01), and leg varicosity status (P<0.0001).

It appears that SLVs are highly prevalent in senior adults. Therefore, clinicians should be aware of the possible presence of SLVs and avoid unnecessary interventions.

A Rare Occurrence of an Extensive Sino-Nasal Solitary Fibrous Tumour.

Laryngeal Cancer

Solitary fibrous tumours are uncommon in head and neck region, especially in the nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses, with most cases reported in the thoracic region in the pleura. It is often considered a borderline or low-grade malignant soft tissue tumour. Complete surgical resection is currently the treatment of choice, though intracranial and orbital extension of these lesions must be carefully evaluated and navigated to ensure a safe outcome.

A 36 years-old lady presented with a long one-year history of left-sided nasal obstruction with facial pain, headaches and mild visual disturbances. She had been treated for sinusitis for a prolonged period. Clinically, there was a left nasal mass obliterating the ostiomeatal complexes and the roof of the nasal cavity. MRI showed heterogeneously enhancing mass occupying the left ethmoid sinuses extending laterally eroding the left lamina papyracea to the orbit, medially towards the right nasal cavity eroding the nasal septum, and superiorly to extend intracranially. After inconclusive biopsies were performed, the mass was excised with a combined endoscopic and open lateral rhinotomy approach with left medial maxillectomy and reconstruction of the skull base defect. The tumour was eventually reported as a solitary fibrous tumour.

Solitary fibrous tumour is a rare differential of tumours in the sino-nasal region, diagnosed via histopathology. Although generally slow-growing, these lesions may extend the adjacent structures namely the orbit and skull base. Definitive treatment via surgical resection may be performed safely after careful radiological assessment and multidisciplinary consideration.

Audio-Vestibular Profile of COVID-19; Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Laryngeal Cancer

After more than a year of the COVID-19 pandemic, audio-vestibular problems have been reported as consequences. Several limited case report studies with different methodologies were published. This study aimed to describe the impact of COVID-19 on the auditory-vestibular system and communication problems in subjects with hearing impairment.

The current systematic review was performed based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guideline. PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched to find relevant articles using combined keywords.

Out of 26 final studies, 20 studies dealt with the effects of COVID-19 on the auditory and vestibular system, and six articles examined the COVID-19 effects on hearing-impaired people and patients. In these studies, dizziness (17.8%), tinnitus (8.1%), and vertigo (2.8%) were common symptoms. Most studies were case reports (42.30%), and in terms of quality, nine studies (34.61%) were in the suitable quality group.

COVID-19 might cause auditory-vestibular system problems by directly affecting the structures or functions of the inner ear or by weakening the immune system. The need for taking preventive measures during the COVID-19 pandemic has caused communication and social challenges, particularly for people with hearing loss.

Prognostication of Sino-Nasal Mucormycosis.

Laryngeal Cancer

For the purpose of prognostication of sinonasal mucormycosis, a detailed analysis of the clinical, diagnostic, therapeutic and outcome parameters has been contemplated.

Retrospectively data was collected for all patients of sinonasal mucormycosis managed in a tertiary care hospital in last 5years.

Diabetes was the commonest comorbidity among total of 52 cases. Disease extent-wise, 16, 23 and 13 patients had sino-nasal (SN), rhino-orbital (RO) and rhino-orbito-cerebral (ROC) mucormycosis respectively. Median cumulative Amphotericin-B administered was 3.5gms and 94.2% of cases underwent surgical debridement depending on the disease extent. With a median follow-up of 18months, 67% of the patients are alive and disease free, 2% are under treatment and 29% of patients have expired. The mortality rate was 12.5% in SN, 30.5% in RO and 38.5% in ROC mucormycosis. Palatal and orbital involvement is associated with statistically significant mortality risk at one month.

Mortality rate in sino-nasal mucormycosis can be significantly curtailed with prompt control of underlying comorbidity, aggressive medical and adequate surgical management.

Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma of Submandibular gland.

Laryngeal Cancer

Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma of salivary glands (MASC) is a low-grade carcinoma of salivary glands of the head-neck region. It bears histological resemblance to Secretory Carcinoma of the breast and Acinic Cell Carcinoma (ACC) of the parotid gland. Its clinical behaviour and aggressiveness vary amongst individuals and experience in MASC of the submandibular gland are limited.

We report a 16-year-old female with binary neck swelling in the submandibular region. The hard swelling in the submandibular region was a MASC and the soft cystic mass was a synchronous congenital lymphatic cyst in the neck. We report two unusual features, an extremely rare involvement of MASC of submandibular salivary gland and the presence of a congenital lymphatic cyst in the area adjacent to the main tumour mass. Treatment was done by surgical excision of both the neck masses in-toto and ipsilateral selective neck dissection (Level I-IV).

While MASC's histological pattern has been described in previous studies, its clinical picture is rarely documented. This report aims to shed light on the clinical presentation of this under-diagnosed entity and the aggressive management protocol required during preoperative workup, intraoperative disease clearance and post-operative follow up of such patients. MASC of the submandibular salivary gland is an uncommon cause of neck swelling in the adolescent age group, but due to its occasional aggressive nature, should be borne in mind as a possible differential diagnosis of salivary gland tumours.

A New Method for Plastic Closure of an Extensive Laryngotracheal Defect.

Laryngeal Cancer

Elimination of extensive defects of the larynx and trachea by using musculoskeletal plastics without the use of supporting materials is not always sufficient. Laser modeling of cartilage tissue is a promising technique in modern medicine.

This article presents a new method for plastic closure of an extensive defect in the larynx and trachea with the help of costal auto-cartilage modeled by an erbium fiber laser with wavelength of 1.56 μm.

The presented method allows us to restore the anatomical integrity of the respiratory tract at the final stage of surgical treatment of patients with chronic combined laryngeal and tracheal stenosis. Presented own clinical observation.

OSAHS Growth Impairment and Resolution after Adenotonsillectomy in Children.

Laryngeal Cancer

One of the most important complications of OSAHS in children is growth delay. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in clinical body growth, and laboratory growth in children with OSAHS after adeno-tonsillar surgery.

In our study, among 102 children suffering from sleep-disordered breathing, 70 met the inclusion criteria because they were affected by OSAHS and adenotonsillar hypertrophy. In total, 96 children affected by adeno-tonsillar hypertrophy (55 males and 41 females) underwent nocturnal cardiorespiratory monitoring with Embletta MPR, monitoring for post-operative 24 hours. Patients underwent blood sampling to evaluate preoperative GH and IGF-1 serum levels, "placement" in Cacciari's growth charts and adenotonsillectomy and saturation monitoring for post-operative 24 hours. According to auxological parameters, 82.86% of the patients were below the fiftieth percentile of BMI Cacciari's growth charts and IGF-1 preoperative serum levels were below the normal range. All patients underwent adenotonsillectomy.

All 70 patients recovered from OSAHS according to the results of nocturnal cardiorespiratory monitoring after six months. IGF-1 serum levels significantly increased after three months and one year after. All the auxological parameters showed a significant increase after surgery. We calculated the average annual growth in height of the patients before and after adenotonsillectomy (AT): the growth rate was impaired by OSAHS (5.4±1.3 cm/year), while in the following year post-surgery we found a significant growth speed acceleration (9.9±1.7 cm/year, P=0.001).

In conclusion, growth delay in children can be caused by OSAHS, and when it is due to adenotonsillar hypertrophy, adenotonsillectomy is to be considered as the therapy of choice.

Comparison of Endoscopic Versus Microscopic Tympanoplasty.

Laryngeal Cancer

Tympanoplasty is a common surgery for chronic otitis media and has conventionally been performed with a microscope for decades. The trend of endoscopic minimally invasive surgeries has been increasing worldwide for the last few decades. Few studies have discussed the outcomes of tympanoplasty with microscope and tympanoplasty with endoscope . This study aims to compare results of tympanoplasty done with microscope vs endoscope in terms of graft take rate and improvement in conductive hearing loss.

We did a retrospective review of 120 patients (54 male and 66 female) who underwent Type I tympanoplasty at Liaquat National Postgraduate Medical Center from January 2019 to January 2020. We included 60 patients who underwent tympanoplasty with microscope and 60 patients who underwent tympanoplasty with endoscope. Postoperative graft uptake and hearing improvement were studied.

Overall mean preoperative hearing loss was 30.24 (±9.61) dB as compared to mean postoperative hearing loss, which was reduced to 19.36 ( ±8.54) dB, and the difference was significant (P-value <0.001. No statistically significant difference was found for air-bone gap closure between the two groups (P-value 0.78). Out of 120 patients, overall successful graft uptake was seen in 109 (90.8%). In tympanoplasty with microscope, graft take was 90.0%, compared to 91.6% in endoscope group. There was no significant difference in graft take in the two groups.

The tympanoplasty with endoscope is comparable to tympanoplasty with microscope in terms of graft uptake and hearing improvement.

Investigation of the Serum Level of Vitamin D in Patients with Ear Cholesteatoma.

Laryngeal Cancer

This study aimed to investigate the serum level of vitamin D in patients with ear cholesteatoma.

This cross-sectional study was performed on 62 patients with middle ear cholesteatoma (case group) and 62 patients with simple chronic otitis media (control group). Both groups had the same age (32±1 in the case group and 34±1 in the control group; P=0.973) and gender. Vitamin D serum level was measured in the two groups. Data analysis was conducted using t-test and ANOVA.

According to the statistical analysis, a significant relationship was observed between the serum level of vitamin D and middle ear cholesteatoma (P=0.000). The results showed that the serum level of vitamin D was lower in the case group, compared to the control group.

Vitamin D serum level was lower in the cholesteatoma group. Moreover, it was strongly associated with hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo.

Zenker's Diverticulum in Forestier Disease: Chance or Causality?

Laryngeal Cancer

Zenker's diverticulum is an acquired sac-like outpouching of the mucosa and submucosa layers originating at the pharyngoesophageal junction. The predominant symptom of Zenker's diverticulum is dysphagia. Videofluoroscopy confirms the diagnosis. Forestier disease is a clinical entity characterized by ossification of anterolateral vertebral ligament and anterior osteophyte formation along the anterolateral spinal column. Its etiopathogenesis remains unknown and common symptoms are dysphagia, dysphonia and airway obstruction. The objective of this study is to identify a pathophysiological correlation between Forestier disease and the onset of Zenker's diverticulum.

A retrospective observational study was conducted. The electronic database of our Radiology Unit was analyzed in order to identify patients with hypopharyngeal diverticulum and osteophytes at the cervical vertebrae level, from January 2010 to January 2021. The search was performed using precise keywords.

The computerized database search outlined 10 imaging exams: 5 videofluorographies and 5 computed tomography scans. In 100% of the cases, dysphagia was the main symptom that led to the diagnostic assessment; 30% of patients, on the other hand, reported dyspnoea. From the data analysis, the male / female ratio is 1: 1 and the average age of the patients is 64.8 (+/- 11.31) years.

We assume that the anatomical abnormalities in Forestier disease may cause an increase of pharyngeal pressure and consequently support the development of the Zenker's diverticulum. Hence, it is always recommended to investigate the presence of Zenker's diverticulum in a patient with Forestier disease, especially for the life-threatening complications of Zenker's diverticulum.