The latest medical research on Laryngeal Cancer

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Comparison of Demographic and Clinicopathological Characteristics of Basal Cell Carcinoma on the Nose and Other Sites of the Face: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Laryngeal Cancer

The clinicopathological characteristics of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in different areas of the face, including the nose, are important and may be different. Accurate recognition of these characteristics may be necessary for the planning and selection of appropriate treatment.

This cross-sectional study was conducted on 328 patients (131 females and 197 males) with 371 documented facial BCC in the West of Iran within 2013-2018. The demographic and clinicopathological data of the patients in the nose area were compared with other sites of the face by appropriate statistical methods.

Out of 371 lesions, 38.8% of the cases were on the nose, 75.8% were primary lesions, 97.8% had no perineural invasion, 89.2% were nodular, and 65.8% were of nodular clinical and pathologic type, which were the most common variables of patients. It was revealed that early-onset (P<0.001), smaller size (P<0.001), high-risk pathologic type (P=0.01), and recurrent lesions (P=0.013) were significantly higher in the nasal BCC. However, there was no significant difference between BCC in the nose and other sites of the face in terms of gender (P=0.654), high-risk clinical type (P=0.06), and perineural invasion (P=0.275).

Considering the nasal site as an important cosmetic unit, more limitation of the nose in performing any procedure, and presence of the more risk factors in the nose than in other areas of the face, the definite treatment of nasal BCC requires special attention, expertise, and experience.

Auditory and Vestibular Assessment of Patients with Type Two Diabetes Mellitus: A Case-Control Study.

Laryngeal Cancer

Type two diabetes mellitus may relate to auditory and vestibular dysfunction. This relationship was frequently observed in elders. The present study aimed to evaluate the auditory and vestibular function of diabetic patients and compare the results with those of a healthy adult control group.

Patients were asked to complete demographic characteristics form. Moreover, fasting blood sugar, as well as hemoglobin A1C tests, were carried out on them. Both the patients and control group were evaluated using several auditory and vestibular tests including Pure Tone Audiometry (PTA), video Head Impulse Test (v-HIT), ocular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential (o-VEMP), and cervical Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential (c-VEMP).

The PTA showed a significant difference in some frequencies between the two groups. These differences were minimal in lower frequencies and become greater at 8000Hz. The v-HIT was abnormal for some patients and also showed a significant difference between the two groups. The o-VEMP and c-VEMP results were normal in most patients.

Based on the obtained results, auditory and vestibular dysfunctions are related to Diabetes. Patients with type two diabetes mellitus showed mild auditory and vestibular dysfunctions compared to the healthy control group.

Evaluation of Olfactory Function by Iranian Smell Diagnostic Test in Patients with Parkinson's disease in North of Iran.

Laryngeal Cancer

Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative and multisystem disorder affecting systems more than the motor system. The olfactory disorder is an early non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease.

The present study was conducted on 110 patients aged 50-95 years with a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease referred to the Neurology Clinic of Babol University of Medical Sciences between 2018-2019. The control group consisted of 50-95-year-old non-neurological patients who were matched for age and gender with patients with Parkinson's disease. Data were collected by examination, demographic and clinical information questionnaire (duration of disease, the severity of disease, symptom index), as well as Iranian smell diagnostic test. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

The mean age scores of Parkinson's disease and control groups were obtained at 69±9 and 66±9 years, respectively. The mean duration of the disease was 5 years. Patients with Parkinson's disease scored lower on the Iranian smell test, and olfactory function was significantly reduced in the case group (P<0.001). Based on the results, olfactory function in patients with Parkinson's disease was not significantly correlated with gender, marital status, education, place of residence, and occupation(P<0.05). Only olfactory dysfunction was increased with age (P=0.01). In addition, olfactory dysfunction showed no significant relationship with severity of disease, duration of disease, and clinical index sign. Rapid Iranian smell test with a cut-off of 3.5% had a sensitivity of 87.3% and a specificity of 66.4%.

According to the obtained results, olfactory dysfunction is an important non-motor and a primary symptom in patients with Parkinson's disease and is not related to the duration and severity of motor symptoms and symptom index.

Language Outcomes in Cochlear Implanted Children with White Matter Disturbances.

Laryngeal Cancer

The present study reviews our experience with children with white matter disturbances and the benefits they get from rehabilitation post cochlear implantation.

It is a retrospective cohort study of 7 cochlear implanted children with white matter disturbances. Preoperatively all the subjects had undergone a complete Audiological test battery for confirmation of hearing thresholds. Post assessment, a digital hearing aid trial was followed by three months' therapy. Unilateral cochlear implant surgery and monitored auditory-verbal therapy sessions were the next line of treatment for at least one year. The therapist regularly monitored hearing and communication outcomes on an Auditory verbal ongoing scale, revised CAP, MAIS, word, and sentence discrimination scores.

The age range of Implantation was between 48 to 60 months. 5 out of 7 participants showed remarkable improvement with regular therapy. Their Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (MAIS) scores were greater than 35 indicating good auditory integration and Categories of Auditory Performance (CAP) revealed scores of even 9 and higher indicating good telephone conversation. Speech Intelligibility Rating (SIR) showed a rating of 4 meaning thereby that an unfamiliar Listener could understand Speech without additional cues. However, all of them reported difficulty perceiving speech in noisy environments. Two cochlear implantees needed speech reading cues in conjunction with the audition.

Our experience with cochlear Implantation in children with white matter abnormalities has been positive and satisfactory. The presence of white matter abnormalities on MRI should not be a contraindication for Implantation. Successful outcomes can be expected with regular and dedicated auditory-verbal therapy sessions.

Long Term Versus Short Term Hearing Results in Endoscopic Sandwich Myringoplasty.

Laryngeal Cancer

The use of the endoscope in otological surgeries has both diagnostic and therapeutic values. It provides an excellent view in difficult nooks and corners. The use of endoscopic sandwich myringoplasty using cartilage and perichondrium has its benefit in hearing outcome and graft uptake in long-term follow-up. The main objective was to compare the long-term with short- term hearing outcomes in those who have undergone endoscopic sandwich myringoplasty with Dhulikhel hospital (D‑HOS) technique.

Forty-two patients who underwent endoscopic sandwich myringoplasty with D-HOS technique using tragal cartilage perichondrium were enrolled in the study. The hearing outcome was analyzed by comparing the pre-operative findings with post-operative findings and amongst post-operative patients, long-term with short-term air bone gap (ABG) and ABG closure in speech frequencies (0.5kHz, 1kHz, 2kHz, 4kHz) were compared.

Amongst forty-two patients, 40 (95.2%) had graft uptake in both short-term (6.08 months) and in long-term (20 months) follow-up. The mean pre-operative ABG was 28.1±9.3dB whereas the mean short-term post-operative ABG was 14.5±7.2dB, it showed statistical significance (P=0.001). Likewise, while comparing pre-operative with long-term post-operative ABG (13.4±4.8 dB), it showed statistical significance of P=0.000. While comparing short-term with long-term post-operative ABG, it did not show any statistical significance (P=0.065).The mean closure in ABG in both short-term and long-term hearing assessment was not statistically significant (P=0.077).

Endoscopic sandwich myringoplasty with D-HOS technique is a reliable procedure with good hearing outcome and graft uptake in both short and long-term follow-up.

Quality of Life with Voice Prosthesis after Total Laryngectomy.

Laryngeal Cancer

The loss of voice after total laryngectomy is one of the main impairments in personal and social life. In order to prevent potential psycho-social consequences in the patient and his family, the restoration of phonatory function is the main objective of post-laryngectomy rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to assess quality of life in patients who received prosthetic voice after total laryngectomy.

Over a one-year period, 51 patients with voice prostheses after total laryngectomy were recruited. 32 patients (62.74%) were administered radiation therapy and 9 patients (17.64%) underwent to surgical reconstruction with flaps. Each patient was administered the VHI-10 and V-RQOL self-assessment questionnaires.

The study showed that vocal restoration with voice prosthesis allows patients to recover a significant degree of quality of life after total laryngectomy. The average score on the V-RQOL questionnaire was 75.9 and on the VHI-10 questionnaire was 13.5. It has not been shown a statistically significant correlation between quality of life after tracheoesophageal prosthesis and radiation therapy, chemotherapy or reconstruction flaps. Younger patients showed, on average, a higher score at V-RQOL. These results allow to state that, after prosthetic rehabilitation, at least 75% of patients experienced an increase in quality of life. Moreover, the prosthetic technique (primary vs secondary) does not affect the long-term outcome and radiotherapy, chemotherapy or reconstruction flaps are not absolute contraindications to rehabilitation with voice prosthesis.

After total laryngectomy, rehabilitation with tracheoesophageal prosthesis is a satisfactory choice to restore the patient's ability to communicate verbally.

Post-tonsillectomy Hemorrhage: A Seven-year Retrospective Study.

Laryngeal Cancer

Post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage (PTH) is a serious complication that sometimes requires immediate surgical interventions. The present study aimed to assess the association between patients' age, the time of onset of PTH, and the need for surgery to control bleeding.

All patients with PTH were retrospectively admitted to two tertiary hospitals in Mashhad, during 2012-2019. Hospital records were investigated to select eligible cases and retrieve their characteristics such as demographics, source and time of bleeding, and type of intervention. Chi-square, independent samples T-test, and binary logistic regression were used as research tools.

A total of 227 patients with PTH and a mean age of 14.99±10.34 years were studied, of whom 128 (56.4%) were male and 63 (27.8%) required surgery to control PTH. The mean onset of PTH was 8.14±3.47 days after the surgery and in 59 cases (26.5%) was the seventh day. Those patients aged 6 years or older in whom PTH occurred during the first postoperative week were significantly more likely to need surgery to control it (P= 0.034). Adult (OR= 4.032, 95%CI= 1.932-8.414, P<0.001), bleeding from both tonsils (OR= 2.380, 95%CI= 1.032-5.487, P= 0.042), and receiving blood transfusion (OR= 7.934, 95%CI= 2.003-31.422, P= 0.002) were independent predictors of the need for surgical treatment to control PTH.

PTH within the first postoperative week in patients older than 6 years, adults, bleeding from both tonsils, and receiving a blood transfusion is recommended to be considered as a potential predictor of the need for surgery.

A Literature Review of the Rare Coexistence of Central Giant Cell Granuloma with Aneurysmal Bone Cyst: A Case Report.

Laryngeal Cancer

Central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) is a benign bone tumor that occurs more in young females and anterior of the mandible. It can be unilocular or multilocular with wispy-septation, undulating borders, cortical expansion, and perforation. Central giant cell granuloma in association with other benign lesions of the jaws is named hybrid lesion. An aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a rare, rapidly growing benign tumor that is commonly developed in young females and the mandible molar and ramus regions. It is usually a well-defined cyst-like expansile lesion with an internal structure similar to CGC lesions in radiographic features.

A 17-year-old girl was referred to the radiology department for panoramic radiography at the end of orthodontic treatment. The complete opacification of the right maxillary sinus, root resorption, and periodontal ligament widening was evident in panoramic radiography. Cone-beam computed tomography revealed a soft-tissue mass and displacement of the lateral nasal wall. The lesion was multilocular with wispy septation and ground glass in some parts. On T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, a heterogeneous mass with low to intermediate signals and fluid-fluid levels were observed. The patient underwent surgical curettage, and the histopathological diagnosis was the coexistence of CGCG and ABC.

An unusual view of the coexistence of CGCG and ABC could be a lesion with ground glass pattern calcification. Hybrid lesions with the coexistence of CGCG and ABC are rare, and only six cases are reported in the literature in this regard.

Burkholderia Cepacia Causes Frontal Mucopyocele with Anterior Cranial Fossa Extension: A Novel Case Report.

Laryngeal Cancer

Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is a group of gram-negative bacilli that have rarely been isolated in the ear, nose and throat region in immunocompetent patients. Bcc show resistance to most available antibacterial drugs.

We present the case of an immunocompetent 31-year-old male reporting a pulsating headache with right supraorbital swelling associated with exophthalmos. A brain CT scan showed an expansive giant cystic lesion occupying the right frontal sinus, extending to the anterior cranial fossa. Management and outcome: drainage with the resecting of the floor of the frontal sinus from the orbital plate of the ethmoid bone to the nasal septum (Draf IIb) was performed with wide marsupialization of the mucopyocele. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis was used to identify the isolate. MRI 1 and 12 months after surgery showed complete lesion removal. The patient was followed for 12 months with complete recovery of symptoms.

Paranasal sinuses disease with cranial expansion and orbital complications constitutes an emergency. For the first time in the literature, Bcc was isolated in the frontal sinus, extending into the anterior cranial fossa, in an immunocompetent patient. An endoscopic surgical approach with microbiological identification and management by appropriate antibacterial drug treatment seems to be the key to success.

A Large Intraoral Sublingual Schwannoma in a Pediatric Patient: A Case Report.

Laryngeal Cancer

Schwannoma is a benign neoplasm that arises from Schwannoma cells found in the peripheral nerve sheath. It's a frequent neoplasm in the head and neck area, but it's exceedingly unusual to find it in the mouth. It's a rare occurrence in the oral cavity of the pediatric age group.

We present a 12-year-old kid who has had a smooth, firm, and non-tender mass in the sublingual region for the past year. The mass was removed completely using a transoral technique. The diagnosis of sublingual schwannoma was confirmed by histopathological and immunohistochemical testing.

Schwannomas are typically benign and have a good prognosis with a low risk of malignant change. It should be used as a differential diagnostic for sublingual diseases such as ranula and salivary gland lesions. In the case of lingual schwannoma, surgical removal of the tumor is the preferred therapy. The transoral method is the most popular treatment option for sublingual schwannoma.

The Relationship between Tumor-infiltrating Lymphocytes (TILs) and Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC): A Systematic Review.

Laryngeal Cancer

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a rare and aggressive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma worldwide. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have been studied and reported to be effective targets of drugs on cancer and were related to the prognostic value. The aim of the study was to look systematically into the current literature and carefully analyze the results to explore the relationship of TILs and NPC.

Three independent reviewers conducted the literature search, searching for articles published in January 2000-January 2020 and fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria. The lead author independently assessed the risk of bias of each of the included studies and discussed their assessments with the other two authors to achieve consensus. Of the 1233 articles identified in database searching, 12 articles met the criteria for this review.

The majority of the study designs were cohort (9 of 12 studies). Most of the studies discussed the prognostic significance of TILs in NPC (nine studies), two studies reported the expanded TILs for the treatment of NPC, and one study reported TILs based on one gene expression.

TILs in NPC are related to the prognostic factor and development of the immunotherapy. High TILs were associated with better outcome and survival rate; and TILs have been claimed to reflect an effective anti-tumor immune response, immune response inducer, delayed tumor progression, and improving the cancer-immune microenvironment. The understanding of TILs in NPC based on gene expression becomes important information to learn more about the relationship of TILs and NPC.

Efficacy of Computed Tomography and Ultrasonography in Diagnosis of Metastatic Cervical Lymph Nodes in Orofacial Cancer.

Laryngeal Cancer

There is no consensus on which imaging modality is better for the detection of metastatic cervical lymph nodes in orofacial malignancies. This study evaluates the efficacy of computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography (US) in diagnosis of metastatic cervical lymph nodes in orofacial cancer.

Sixty patients with various histologically diagnosed orofacial malignant lesions and clinical evidence of cervical lymph node metastasis were examined using US and CT. Further, the affected lymph nodes were biopsied and examined histologically. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of the techniques were calculated. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and Microsoft Excel 2010 (Microsoft, Redmond, WA, USA). Test of statistical significance was set at 0.05.

US recorded a sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of 80.0%, 57.1%, 77.5%, 60.0%, and 71.7%, respectively (P = 0.004), while CT recorded a sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of 87.1%, 71.4%, 85.0%, 75.0%, and 81.7%, respectively (P< 0.0001). Lymph node size was the commonest criterion in the diagnoses of metastases in cases with cervical lymph nodes.

Although we obtained great results using US, our results indicated CT to be a better imaging modality for detecting metastatic cervical lymph nodes in orofacial malignancies.