The latest medical research on Liver Cancer

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about liver cancer gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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High end-of-treatment hepatitis B core-related antigen levels predict hepatitis flare after stopping nucleot(s)ide analogue therapy.

Liver International

Accurate biomarkers to predict outcomes following discontinuation of nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) therapy are needed. We evaluated serum hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) level as a biomarker for predicting outcomes after NA discontinuation.

Patients with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB) without cirrhosis were enrolled in a prospective trial evaluating clinical outcomes until 96 weeks after NA discontinuation. End of treatment (EOT) and off-treatment levels of serum HBcrAg, HBsAg, HBV RNA and HBV DNA were used to predict key clinical outcomes including hepatitis flare (ALT ≥5 × ULN and HBV DNA > 2000 IU/mL). The SCALE-B score was calculated for the purposes of model validation.

HBcrAg was tested amongst 65 participants. The median age was 54 years, 54% were male and 83% were Asian. HBcrAg was detectable in 86% patients. HBcrAg level ≥4 log U/mL at EOT was predictive of hepatitis flare [8/10 (80%) vs. 17/55 (31%), p = .001]. The presence of either HBcrAg ≥4 log U/mL or detectable HBV RNA at EOT predicted for both biochemical relapse and hepatitis flare. The SCALE-B model at EOT predicted for virological relapse, biochemical relapse, hepatitis flare and HBsAg loss in this cohort. An increase in the serum HBcrAg level off-treatment was also associated with hepatitis flare. No participant with EOT HBcrAg level ≥4 log U/mL achieved HBsAg loss.

High levels of serum HBcrAg predict for hepatitis flare after stopping NA therapy and low likelihood of HBsAg loss at week 96. People with high levels of serum HBcrAg are not suitable candidates for NA discontinuation.

Assessment of hepatitis B virus relapse in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy with prophylactic nucleos(t)ide analogues: Implications for overall mortality.

Liver International

We aimed to explore the risk factors associated with virological and clinical relapse, as well as their impact on overall mortality, in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients receiving nucleos(t)ide analogues (NUCs) therapy prior to chemotherapy initiation.

From 2010 to 2020, we conducted a prospective cohort study involving patients with HBV infection undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy. We utilized the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard regression models to assess risk factors.

We observed that TDF or TAF (HR: 2.16, 95% CI 1.06-4.41; p = .034), anthracycline (HR: 1.73, 95% CI 1.10-2.73; p = .018), baseline HBV DNA (HR: 1.55, 95% CI 1.33-1.81; p < .001) and end-of-treatment HBsAg titre >100 IU/mL (HR: 7.81, 95% CI 1.94-31.51; p = .004) were associated with increased risk of virological relapse. Additionally, TDF or TAF (HR: 4.91, 95% CI 1.45-16.64; p = .011), baseline HBV DNA (HR: 1.48, 95% CI 1.10-1.99; p = .009) and end-of-treatment HBsAg titre >100 IU/mL (HR: 6.09, 95% CI .95-38.87; p = .056) were associated with increased risk of clinical relapse. Furthermore, we found that virological relapse (HR: 3.32, 95% CI 1.33-8.32; p = .010) and clinical relapse (HR: 3.59, 95% CI 1.47-8.80; p = .005) significantly correlated with all-cause mortality in HBV patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy with prophylactic NUCs therapy.

The risk of virological and clinical relapse was linked to baseline HBV DNA, end-of-treatment HBsAg levels and TDF or TAF for prophylaxis; additionally, experiencing relapse heightens the risk of all-cause mortality. Further research is warranted to explore potential strategies for preventing virological and clinical relapse in high-risk patients.

Management of intrahepatic and perihilar cholangiocarcinomas: Guidelines of the French Association for the Study of the Liver (AFEF).

Liver International

Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) is the second most common malignant primary liver cancer. iCCA may develop on an underlying chronic liver di...

A pilot integrated model nurse clinic increases the uptake of antiviral treatment for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HBV.

Liver International

Mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) may still occur despite birth-dose HBV vaccinations when pregnant women are positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) with high viral loads (HBV DNA ≥ 200 000 IU/mL). A pilot integrated model nurse clinic (IMNC) was started in 2020 to implement the pre-emptive antiviral therapy with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). We aimed to evaluate the performance of IMNC on uptake of TDF.

This was a territory-wide retrospective cohort of all consecutive HBsAg-positive women of child-bearing age with pregnancy records in public hospitals 2019-2022. Demographic characteristics, liver biochemistries and virologic parameters, and TDF use were collected. Concurrently, data from a prospective audit in Union Hospital, the private hospital with the highest number of deliveries in Hong Kong, from June 2022 to May 2023 were compared.

The prevalence rate of HBV DNA ≥ 200 000 IU/mL in pregnant women with available HBV DNA records was 29.2% (66/226) in 2019, 27.3% (99/363) in 2020, 15.9% (125/784) in 2021 and 17.2% (117/679) in 2022 (p < .001), out of 2052 pregnant women who had their HBV DNA checked within 1 year prior to delivery. An increasing uptake rate of TDF by highly viraemic pregnant women (i.e. ≥ 200 000 IU/mL) was noted after the commencement of IMNC in public hospitals, with 67% (45/67) in 2019, 83% (88/106) in 2020, 91% (117/128) in 2021 and 89% (149/167) in 2022. Moreover, all highly viraemic pregnant women from Union Hospital received TDF. Continuous use of TDF was associated with a reduced risk of postpartum biochemical flare.

IMNC increases the uptake of antiviral treatment in pregnant women at risk of MTCT of HBV. IMNC contributes to hepatitis elimination through a structured care plan to prevent MTCT of HBV.

AI-based digital pathology provides newer insights into lifestyle intervention-induced fibrosis regression in MASLD: An exploratory study.

Liver International

Lifestyle intervention is the mainstay of therapy for metabolic dysfunction-associated steatohepatitis (MASH), and liver fibrosis is a key consequence of MASH that predicts adverse clinical outcomes. The placebo response plays a pivotal role in the outcome of MASH clinical trials. Second harmonic generation/two-photon excitation fluorescence (SHG/TPEF) microscopy with artificial intelligence analyses can provide an automated quantitative assessment of fibrosis features on a continuous scale called qFibrosis. In this exploratory study, we used this approach to gain insight into the effect of lifestyle intervention-induced fibrosis changes in MASH.

We examined unstained sections from paired liver biopsies (baseline and end-of-intervention) from MASH individuals who had received either routine lifestyle intervention (RLI) (n = 35) or strengthened lifestyle intervention (SLI) (n = 17). We quantified liver fibrosis with qFibrosis in the portal tract, periportal, transitional, pericentral, and central vein regions.

About 20% (7/35) and 65% (11/17) of patients had fibrosis regression in the RLI and SLI groups, respectively. Liver fibrosis tended towards no change or regression after each lifestyle intervention, and this phenomenon was more prominent in the SLI group. SLI-induced liver fibrosis regression was concentrated in the periportal region.

Using digital pathology, we could detect a more pronounced fibrosis regression with SLI, mainly in the periportal region. With changes in fibrosis area in the periportal region, we could differentiate RLI and SLI patients in the placebo group in the MASH clinical trial. Digital pathology provides new insight into lifestyle-induced fibrosis regression and placebo responses, which is not captured by conventional histological staging.

Liver injury in paraquat poisoning: A retrospective cohort study.

Liver International

Liver injury is one of the common complications of paraquat (PQ) poisoning, but whether the degree of liver injury is related to patient prognosis is still controversial. This study aimed to investigate whether liver injury was a risk factor for death in PQ-poisoned patients.

We conducted a retrospective cohort study of PQ-poisoned patients from the past 10 years (2011-2020) from a large tertiary academic medical centre in China. PQ-poisoned patients were divided into a normal liver function group (n = 580) and a liver injury group (n = 60). Propensity score matching (PSM) analysis was then performed.

A total of 640 patients with PQ poisoning were included in this study. To reduce the impact of bias, dose of PQ, urinary PQ concentration and time from poisoning to hospital admission were matched between the two groups. A 3:1 PSM analysis was performed, ultimately including 240 patients. Compared with the normal liver function group, patients in the liver injury group were older, had a higher R value ([ALT/ULN]/[ALP/ULN]) (p < .001) and had a higher mortality rate. Cox regression analysis showed that there was no significant association between alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin levels and hazard of death, but age, PQ dose, creatine kinase isoenzyme, creatine kinase, white blood cell count, neutrophil percentage and lymphocyte percentage were associated with mortality in patients with PQ poisoning.

The occurrence of liver injury within 48 h after PQ poisoning was a risk factor for mortality, and such liver injury was likely of a hepatocellular nature. Age, PQ dose, creatine kinase isoenzyme and white blood cell count were positively correlated with mortality, while creatine kinase, percentage of neutrophils and lymphocytes were inversely correlated.

Persons with metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease are at increased risk of severe depression.

Liver International

Few population-based studies have investigated the association between metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD) and depression. Additionally, it remains unclear if depression affects progression to major adverse liver outcomes (MALO) in MASLD.

All patients in Sweden with newly diagnosed MASLD between 2006 and 2020 were identified from the National Patient Register. Each patient was matched on age, sex, inclusion year, and municipality with up to 10 comparators from the general population. Cox regression was used to compare rates of severe depression in persons with MASLD to the comparators. In persons with MASLD, Cox regression was used to estimate rates of MALO using severe depression before baseline or diagnosed during follow-up as a time-varying exposure.

We included 11 301 persons with MASLD and 104 205 comparators who were followed for a median of 3.9 (IQR 1.5-7.6) and 4.9 years (IQR 2.3-8.7), respectively. The median age was 56 years and 5576 of 11 301 (49.3%) persons with MASLD were male. Incident severe depression developed in 228 of 11 301 (2.0%) persons with MASLD and 1160 of 104 205 (1.1%) comparators (fully adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.5-2.1). Of persons with MASLD, 25 of 1229 (2.0%) of those with severe depression before or after baseline progressed to MALO compared to 322 of 10 326 (3.1%) of those without severe depression (fully adjusted HR = 1.0, 95% CI = .6-1.5).

We confirm an association between MASLD and severe depression. However, no association between severe depression and incident MALO was found, but conclusions are limited by few observed outcomes.

Practical recommendations for biochemical and genetic diagnosis of the porphyrias.

Liver International

The porphyrias are a group of rare inborn errors of metabolism associated with various clinical presentations and long-term complications, making t...

Long-term albumin improves the outcomes of patients with decompensated cirrhosis and diabetes mellitus: Post hoc analysis of the ANSWER trial.

Liver International

Type-2 diabetes mellitus is a frequent comorbidity of cirrhosis independently associated with cirrhosis-related complications and mortality. This p...

The Equitable Benefit Approach to guide the assessment of medical and psychosocial factors in liver transplant candidacy.

Liver International

Lack of available organs poses a significant challenge in meeting the needs of patients with life-threatening liver disease who could benefit from ...

Integrative analysis reveals different feature of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma subtypes.

Liver International

Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) has two main histological subtypes: large and small duct-type iCCA, which are characterized by different clinicopathological features. This study was conducted with the purpose of expanding our understanding of their differences in molecular features and immune microenvironment.

We selected 132 patients who underwent radical surgery at our department between 2015 and 2021 for clinical and survival analyses. Whole-exome sequencing was performed to analyse mutational landscapes. Bulk RNA sequencing and single-cell RNA sequencing data were used for pathway enrichment and immune infiltration analyses based on differentially expressed genes. The function of PPP1R1B was analysed both in vitro and in vivo and the gene mechanism was further investigated.

We found that large duct-type iCCA had worse overall survival and recurrence-free survival rates than small duct-type iCCA. Mutations in ARID1A, DOT1L and ELF3 usually occur in large duct-type iCCA, whereas mutations in IDH1 and BAP1 occur in small duct-type iCCA. Among the differentially expressed genes, we found that PPP1R1B was highly expressed in large duct-type iCCA tumour tissues. Expression of PPP1R1B promoted cell proliferation, migration and invasion and indicated a worse prognosis. A combination of USF2 with the promoter of PPP1R1B can enhance gene expression in iCCA, which may further affect the expression of genes such as AHNAK, C4BPA and activating the PI3K/AKT pathway.

Our findings extend our understanding of large and small duct-type iCCA. In addition, PPP1R1B may serve as a potential marker and therapeutic target for large duct-type iCCA.

Frailty in liver transplantation: Exploring prescribing exercise as medicine to improve patient outcomes.

Liver International

Liver transplantation (LT) represents a curative avenue for individuals with advanced chronic liver disease. Given the inherent illness severity of...