The latest medical research on Plastic Surgery

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Preauricular Aging: A Three-Point Grading System to Guide Treatment in Facial Rejuvenation.

Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

Aging affects the face in all its dimensions. However, more has been published about the improvement of the periocular, midface, and perioral aging changes. We believe the profile view, particularly the preauricular area, is of great value when assessing the need for facial contouring procedures, as well as their effectiveness.

To develop and evaluate a classification based on the aging changes around the preauricular area, which aims to provide an objective direction to the appropriate treatment method.

All patients who attended the clinic for different aesthetic procedures between June 2019 and January 2020 were photographed. Two non-treating dermatologists and two non-treating plastic surgeons were asked to evaluate the perceived aging of the preauricular area using a three-point grading system. The assessment of each photograph was made once by each evaluator, and the inter-rater correlation was calculated.

A total of 158 profile pictures of the preauricular area of 158 patients were evaluated by two non-treating dermatologists and two non-treating plastic surgeons. The inter-rater correlation was excellent at 0.942. The mean grading system of the patient samples was 1.42, with a standard deviation of 0.9 and a variance of 0.001.

The preauricular area is often overlooked and undertreated. Our results demonstrate an excellent inter-rater correlation between plastic surgeons and dermatologists at assessing the degree of aging in the area. This relatively hidden lateral area can serve as a test point, evaluating response to selected treatment before proceeding to full-face intervention. We suggest using a simple three-point scale to help guide treatment of the preauricular area and as part of our holistic approach to facial rejuvenation.

This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these evidence-based medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

A Single-Center, Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Trial to Compare the Efficacy and Safety of a New Monophasic Hyaluronic Acid Filler and Biphasic Filler in Correcting Nasolabial Fold.

Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

Hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers have been widely used in humans since 1958 because of their biomedical safety. Restylane® was introduced in the1990s as a favorable temporary filler option for facial augmentation. Subsequently, many new HA filler products, including the Sardenyashape®, have been introduced, but comparative studies of these products are limited. Here, we compared tolerability (wrinkle severity rating scale, WSRS), pain (visual analog scale, VAS score), satisfaction (global esthetic improvement scale, GAIS), and safety of a new monophasic HA (MHA) filler (Sardenyashape®) containing lidocaine, used to correct nasolabial folds (NLFs), with those of biphasic HA (BHA) filler (Restylane LYFT®) containing lidocaine.

We enrolled 96 participants with visible NLFs in this randomized, double-blind, single-center clinical study. Participants were injected with a new MHA filler in one NLF and a BHA filler and were reassessed for cosmetic changes at 8 and 24 weeks. Wrinkle severity was assessed using the 5-point WSRS.

At week 24, the mean improvement in WSRS compared to baseline was 1.92 ± 0.75 and 2.24 ± 0.66 for MHA and BHA fillers, respectively, and corresponding average pain values using the VAS score 30 min after the procedure were 0.04 ± 0.25 and 0.02 ± 0.15, respectively, showing no significant difference. Average GAIS values 8 weeks after the procedure with MHA and BHA fillers were 1.89 ± 0.77 and 1.40 ± 0.82, respectively (p < 0.001). Both fillers were well tolerated, with mild adverse reactions.

The evaluation of the effect of Sardenyashape® with lidocaine on NLF in this study proved its effectiveness and safety for use in correcting NLF.

This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

Influences of Intermittent Pneumatic Compression Therapy on Edema and Postoperative Patient's Satisfaction After Lipoabdominoplasty.

Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

Lipoabdominoplasty (LABP) is a frequently performed surgical procedure in the field of plastic surgery that often requires physical therapy in order to minimize postoperative complications, augment the postoperative outcomes, and enhance recovery. Intermittent pneumatic compression therapy (IPCT) is a physical therapy modality that may be used in the management of LABP population. This study aimed to assess the influences of intermittent pneumatic compression therapy on the resolution of edema and improvement in postoperative patient satisfaction following LABP.

Forty-three females, aged 35-55 years, who underwent LABP, were involved in this prospective randomized study. They were divided into two groups: group A wherein 22 patients wore a compression garment (CG) for 24 h, through 4 weeks; group B wherein 21 patients wore CG besides the application of IPCT for 45 min, 3 times a week, for 4 weeks. The abdominal circumferences were measured at three positions: 3 cm above the umbilicus, at the umbilicus, and 3 cm below the umbilicus. Additionally, patient satisfaction rate was assessed by visual analog scale (VAS; in mm). All patients were assessed three times (Initial Assessment, During Assessment, and Final Assessment).

With reference to the abdominal circumferences at three levels and VAS satisfactory scores, there were statistically significant differences between both groups in Final Assessment (p < .04) in favor of group B.

Application of IPCT while wearing CG was superior as compared to CG alone in reducing the abdominal edema and improving postoperative patient satisfaction following LABP.

This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

Is Breast Implant Associated-Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma linked to textured implants?

Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

Breast Implant Associated-Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) is a distinctive type of T-cell lymphoma arising around breast implants. We per...

A Reliable Method for Chin Augmentation by Mechanical Micronization of Lipoaspirates.

Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

Desire for improved aesthetic contour of the lower third of the face has resulted in an increase in chin augmentation. Although many fillers, including hyaluronic acid (HA), autologous fat and stromal vascular fraction gel (SVF-gel), have been used to improve facial morphology, chin augmentation requires fillers that provide greater support.

The elastic and viscous moduli of SVF-gel and Coleman fat were assessed in vitro by rheological testing, whereas their elasticity were evaluated in vivo by ultrasonic elastography. Results in vitro were compared with those of highly elastic HA (HE-HA) and highly viscous HA (HV-HA), whereas results in vivo were compared with HE-HA. Changes in chin volume, SVF-gel retention rate and absorptivity for at least 12 months were measured by 3D white light scanning. Questionnaires were administered to assess patient satisfaction.

The elastic and viscous modulus of SVF-gel was, respectively, slightly lower than HE-HA and HV-HA but higher than the other two in vitro, with the elasticity of the three layers of SVF-gel lower than HE-HA but slightly higher than normal control in vivo. The average retention rate was 62.34±3.34% at 12 months. The absorptivity of 90% of the samples was <3% from 6 to 12 months, which was considered stable. Patients expressed satisfaction with their results.

SVF-gel has ideal rheologic characteristics in vitro, which has slightly higher elasticity than normal fat tissue of chin in vivo, and could keep well retention rate for chin augmentation in clinic.

This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

Perforator-Based Intercostal Artery Muscle Flap: A Novel Approach for the Treatment of Tracheoesophageal or Bronchoesophageal Fistulas.

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

Postoperative tracheoesophageal or bronchoesophageal fistulas represent a major surgical challenge. The authors report the description of an original perforator-based intercostal artery muscle flap, aiming to cover all types of intrathoracic fistulas, from any location, in difficult cases such as postoperative fistulas after esophagectomy in an irradiated field. Between June of 2016 and January of 2019, eight male patients were treated with a perforator-based intercostal artery muscle flap. All had previous surgery for esophageal cancer and developed a tracheoesophageal or bronchoesophageal fistula during the perioperative course. The mean patient age was 55.9 ± 8.8 years. All patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and seven received neoadjuvant radiation therapy. A perforator-based intercostal artery muscle flap, with a mean skin paddle size of 9.86 × 5 cm, was harvested. The median operative time was 426.50 minutes. The tracheoesophageal or bronchoesophageal fistula was successfully and definitively occluded in three patients; two patients experienced recurrence; and one patient underwent reoperation. At 1 year, five patients were alive (62.5 percent), and among them, three (37.5 percent) were free from any intrathoracic complications. Three patients died, because of massive digestive bleeding, mesenteric ischemia, and multiorgan failure, respectively. The perforator-based intercostal artery muscle flap, like the Taylor flap in abdominoperineal reconstruction, could become a workhorse flap for all intrathoracic reconstructions, as it can always be harvested, even if a previous thoracotomy has ruined most of the options. This surgical technique, easily feasible, reliable, and reproducible, became our first option for all postoperative tracheoesophageal or bronchoesophageal fistula patients during the postoperative course following esophagectomy.

Therapeutic, IV.

Trends of Medicare Reimbursement Rates for Common Plastic Surgery Procedures.

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

Knowledge of Medicare reimbursement is essential for plastic surgeons providing care to Medicare beneficiaries. The authors sought to evaluate changes in Medicare reimbursement for common plastic surgery procedures from 2010 to 2020.

The authors assessed the Physician Fee Schedule of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services website. Rates of work-, facility-, or malpractice-related relative value units and total monetary units for 26 common plastic surgery procedures between 2010 to 2020 were evaluated. Descriptive statistics were used to calculate relative differences and to compare observed changes over time with the rate of inflation.

For the selected procedures, the authors found an average relative difference in terms of monetary units of an increase by 2.02 percent. However, after adjusting for inflation, the average relative difference was a decrease by 14.31 percent. The authors' analysis indicates that, on average, there was a 1.55 percent decrease in physician relative value units between 2010 and 2020.

Medicare reimbursement rates have changed significantly over the past decade. However, these changes did not keep pace with the rate of inflation. Plastic surgeons should be aware of these trends and advocate for more fair reimbursement rates.

Skin-Reducing Mastectomy with Immediate Prepectoral Reconstruction: Surgical, Aesthetic, and Patient-Reported Outcomes with and without Dermal Matrices.

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

Prepectoral breast reconstruction is being increasingly popularized, largely because of technical advances. Patients with ptotic breasts and active cancer require mastectomies through a mastopexy excision pattern to achieve proper pocket control in a prepectoral single-stage operation. This article presents a single-surgeon experience with direct-to-implant, prepectoral reconstruction following skin-reducing mastectomies.

Therapeutic, III.

Eighty-four patients (121 breasts) were included. A widely based inframammary fold adipodermal flap was used in all cases, with acellular dermal matrix used in 77 breasts (63.3 percent), free nipple grafts in 42 breasts (34.7 percent), and postmastectomy radiation therapy in 31 breasts (26.5 percent). Operative complications included nipple-areola complex necrosis in six (5.1 percent), hematoma in four (3.4 percent), seroma in four (3.4 percent), implant exposure in three (2.6 percent), and infection in one (0.9 percent). Minor complications included cellulitis in five (6.0 percent) and minor wound issues in five (4.3 percent). In aesthetic outcomes, only two nonirradiated breasts experienced a grade 3 to 4 or grade 4 capsular contracture requiring capsulectomy. Rippling was visible in four breasts (3.4 percent). The BREAST-Q showed good satisfaction with the technique, with no significant differences between nipple-areola complex techniques.

This cohort represents the largest single-surgeon, Wise-pattern, direct-to-implant prepectoral database in the literature. This report showed that surgical and aesthetic complications did not differ in terms of acellular dermal matrix use. This technique has shown, through patient-reported outcomes, to yield good patient satisfaction.

Rhinosurgery during and after the COVID-19 Pandemic: International Consensus Conference Statement on Preliminary Perioperative Safety Measures.

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has widely affected rhinosurgery, given the high risk of contagion and the elective nature of the aesthetic procedure, generating many questions on how to ensure safety. The Science and Research Committee of the Rhinoplasty Society of Europe aimed at preparing consensus recommendations on safe rhinosurgery in general during the COVID-19 pandemic by appointing an international panel of experts also including delegates of The Rhinoplasty Society.

A Zoom meeting was performed with a panel of 14 international leading experts in rhinosurgery. During 3.5 hours, four categories of questions on preoperative safety measures in private practice and outpatient clinics, patient assessment before and during surgery, and legal issues were presented by four chairs and discussed by the expert group. Afterward, the panelists were requested to express an online, electronic vote on each category and question. The panel's recommendations were based on current evidence and expert opinions. The resulting report was circled in an iterative open e-mail process until consensus was obtained.

Consensus was obtained in several important points on how to safely restart performing rhinosurgery in general. Preliminary recommendations with different levels of agreement were prepared and condensed in a bundle of safety measures.

The implementation of the panel's recommendations may improve safety of rhinoplasty by avoiding operating on nondetected COVID-19 patients and minimizing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus spread in outpatient clinics and operating rooms.

The Intra.Ox Near-Infrared Spectrometer Measures Variations in Flap Oxygenation That Correlate to Flap Necrosis in a Preclinical Rodent Model.

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

Mastectomy flap necrosis affects 7 to 40 percent of patients undergoing immediate breast reconstruction, with many cases resulting in infection and/or explantation. The Intra.Ox near-infrared spectrometer is one of several novel devices that assesses tissue perfusion by measuring the interactions of light with oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin. This handheld device facilitates serial flap perfusion assessment and may objectively identify at-risk tissues and guide evidence-based treatment algorithms. In this preliminary study, we hypothesized that the Intra.Ox spectrometer detects differences in tissue oxygenation that correlate to tissue necrosis.

Dorsal, random-pattern flaps measuring 10 × 3 cm were raised in eight male Sprague-Dawley rats. Intraoperative tissue oxygen saturation was measured using Intra.Ox in 10 standardized locations. On postoperative day 7, the skin flaps were evaluated for full-thickness necrosis. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test and one-way analysis of variance. A receiver operating characteristic curve assessed the accuracy of intraoperative tissue oxygenation in predicting the risk of flap necrosis.

Tissue oxygen saturation exhibited a strong negative correlation to distance from the flap pedicle (r = -0.798). Oxygen saturation in tissue that developed necrosis averaged 32 percent, compared to 59 percent in tissues that did not (p < 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.969. Post hoc oxygen saturation cutoffs with 100 percent specificity and sensitivity in predicting necrosis were identified at 46 percent and 54 percent, respectively.

Intra.Ox detects significant differences in tissue oxygenation saturation that are associated with the risk for flap necrosis. This technology can be used to identify at-risk tissues and represents an avenue for research aimed at preventing flap necrosis.

Impacts of Rehabilitation Gait Training on Functional Outcomes after Tibial Nerve Transfer for Patients with Peroneal Nerve Injury: A Nonrandomized Controlled Trial.

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

Although there was initial success using tibial nerve transfer to restore ankle dorsiflexion following peroneal nerve injury, results from later series were less promising. A potential reason is coactivation of the much stronger antagonistic muscles during gait. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that gait training would improve functional performance following tibial nerve transfer.

Therapeutic, II.

Patients in the gait training group attained significantly better functional recovery as measured by the Stanmore Scale (79.5 ± 14.3) (mean ± SD) versus (37.2 ± 3.5) in the control group (p = 0.02). Medical Research Council grades were 3.8 ± 0.6 in the training group versus 2.5 ± 1.2 in the surgery only group (p < 0.05). Average dorsiflexion force from patients with above antigravity strength (all from the training group) was 31 percent of the contralateral side.

In patients with successful reinnervation following tibial nerve transfers, rehabilitation training significantly improved dorsiflexion strength and function.

The Association of Zygomaticomaxillary Complex Fractures with Naso-Orbitoethmoid Fractures in Pediatric Populations.

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

Naso-orbitoethmoid fractures associated with ipsilateral zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures are more challenging injuries than zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures alone. However, there is a paucity of information on this complex fracture pattern in the pediatric population. This study investigated the cause, treatment, and outcomes of combined zygomaticomaxillary complex and naso-orbitoethmoid fractures versus isolated zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures in pediatric patients.

Risk, II.

Forty-nine patients were identified to have had zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures in the authors' 25-year study period, of whom 46 had adequate clinical documentation and follow-up. Seventeen patients had combined zygomaticomaxillary complex-naso-orbitoethmoid fractures, of whom six had panfacial fractures. Both patient groups (zygomaticomaxillary complex only and combined zygomaticomaxillary complex-naso-orbitoethmoid fractures) were similar in terms of demographics. However, a significantly greater proportion of combined fracture patients experienced postoperative complications compared to isolated zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture patients, even after excluding those with panfacial fractures (87.5 percent versus 35.3 percent; p < 0.001). Enophthalmos (37.5 percent) and midface growth restriction (37.5 percent) were the two most common complications/deformities in all combined fracture patients.

High-impact trauma can lead to zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures with associated naso-orbitoethmoid fractures in children. This injury pattern was found to cause significantly greater postoperative morbidity than isolated zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures alone. Thus, pediatric patients presenting with this complex facial fracture pattern should be closely monitored.