The latest medical research on Plastic Surgery

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about plastic surgery gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Optimizing the Implementation of Surgical Coaching Through Feedback From Practicing Surgeons.

JAMA Surgery

Surgical coaching is maturing as a tangible strategy for surgeons' continuing professional development. Resources to spread this innovation are not yet widely available.

To identify surgeon-derived implementation recommendations for surgical coaching programs from participants' exit interviews and ratings of their coaching interactions.

This qualitative analysis of the Surgical Coaching for Operative Performance Enhancement (SCOPE) program, a quality improvement intervention, was conducted at 4 US academic medical centers. Participants included 46 practicing surgeons. The SCOPE program ran from December 7, 2018, to October 31, 2019. Data were analyzed from November 1, 2019, to January 31, 2020.

Surgeons were assigned as either a coach or a coachee, and each coach was paired with 1 coachee by a local champion who knew the surgeons professionally. Coaching pairs underwent training and were instructed to complete 3 coaching sessions-consisting of preoperative goal setting, intraoperative observation, and postoperative debriefing-focused on intraoperative performance.

Themes from the participants' exit interviews covering 3 major domains: (1) describing the experience, (2) coach-coachee relationship, and (3) facilitators and barriers to implementing surgical coaching. Surgeons' responses were stratified by the net promoter score (NPS), a scale ranging from 0 to 10 points, indicating how likely they were to recommend their coaching session to others, with 9 to 10 indicating promoters; 7 to 8, passives; and 0 to 6, detractors.

Among the 46 participants (36 men [78.3%]), 23 were interviewed (50.0%); thematic saturation was reached with 5 coach-coachee pairs (10 interviews). Overall, coaches and coachees agreed on key implementation recommendations for surgical coaching, including how to optimize coach-coachee relationships and facilitate productive coaching sessions. The NPS categories were associated with how participants experienced their own coaching sessions. Specifically, participants who reported excellent first sessions, had a coaching partner in the same clinical specialty, and were transparent about each other's intentions in the program tended to be promoters. Participants who described suboptimal first sessions, less clinical overlap, and unclear goals with their partner were more likely detractors.

These exit interviews with practicing surgeons offer critical insights for addressing cultural barriers and practical challenges for successful implementation of peer coaching programs focused on surgical performance improvement. With empirical evidence on optimizing coach-coachee relationships and facilitating participants' experience, organizations can establish effective coaching programs that enable meaningful continuous professional development for surgeons and ultimately enhance patient care.

Long-term Oncologic Outcomes of Immediate Breast Reconstruction vs Conventional Mastectomy Alone for Breast Cancer in the Setting of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

JAMA Surgery

An increasing number of patients with breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) undergo immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) with nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) or skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) as surgical treatment. However, the oncologic efficacy and safety of this treatment sequencing strategy is unclear.

To compare the long-term oncologic outcomes of IBR with NSM/SSM and conventional mastectomy (CM) alone for breast cancer in the NACT setting.

A retrospective, propensity score-matched case-control study was conducted at Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. A total of 1266 patients with breast cancer who underwent NACT followed by mastectomy with or without breast reconstruction between January 1, 2010, and November 30, 2016, were included. Data analysis was performed from July 1, 2019, to January 24, 2020. After propensity score matching, 323 patients who underwent IBR with NSM/SSM and 323 who underwent CM alone were selected for comparison of long-term oncologic outcomes.

The 5-year local recurrence-free survival, disease-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, and overall survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using log-rank tests. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards regression model.

After matching, the median follow-up periods were 67 (range, 17-125) months for the IBR group and 68 (range, 17-126) months for the CM-alone group. Median age of the women in the IBR group was 42 (range, 23-72) years; median age of those in the CM-alone group was 46 (range, 30-75) years. No significant differences were observed between the IBR and CM-alone groups in local recurrence (3.7% vs 3.4%; P = .83), regional recurrence (7.1% vs 5.3%; P = .33), or distant metastasis (17.3% vs 18.6%; P = .68) rates. There was also no significant difference between the IBR and CM-alone groups in 5-year local recurrence-free survival (95.6% vs 96.7%; HR, 1.124; 95% CI, 0.495-2.549; P = .78), disease-free survival (76.5% vs 79.9%; HR, 1.089; 95% CI, 0.790-1.500; P = .60), distant metastasis-free survival (82.5% vs 82.5%; HR, 0.941; 95% CI, 0.654-1.355; P = .74), or overall survival (92.0% vs 89.3%; HR, 0.847; 95% CI, 0.530-1.353; P = .49) rates.

The long-term oncologic outcomes of IBR with NSM/SSM for breast cancer in this study appeared to be comparable to those of CM alone after NACT, suggesting the feasibility of IBR with NSM/SSM in the NACT setting.

Evaluation and Treatment of Patients With Hypercortisolism: A Review.

JAMA Surgery

With the potential for severe adverse effects of hypercortisolism, the need to limit the development and unrecognized persistence of sequelae from cortisol excess is of great importance on individual and population health levels. This review discusses the evaluation and treatment of patients with hypercortisolism. Pathophysiology; pitfalls in the diagnosis of hypercortisolism; and preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative management considerations are discussed. The association of hypercortisolism with population health and the potential role surgeons and surgery can play in the future of patients with hypercortisolism are also discussed. Higher-level considerations are put forth to encourage a long-term view of future work needed to optimally care for these patients.

Although classic signs and symptoms of hypercortisolism are evident in some patients, mild autonomous cortisol secretion is likely more prevalent and more difficult to detect despite having the potential to cause significant adverse effects, such as increased risk of mortality, and overt hypercortisolism. With treatment, some adverse effects of hypercortisolism may resolve, although not in all patients. Thus, the need for early diagnosis and treatment is of great importance.

More attention in the future on early treatment of hypercortisolism, whether subclinical or overt, and prevention of adverse effects is warranted for the sake of the individual and the population.

A Review of Complications Due to the Use of Botulinum Toxin A for Cosmetic Indications.

Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

Botulinum toxin A (botulinum toxin A) was found to provide a wide variety of therapeutic and aesthetic benefits as one of the most potent toxins in the world. Injectable remedies, including soft tissue fillers and botulinum toxin, have become very common in wrinkling and face rejuvenation management. While these methods of treatment are relatively safe, serious side effects can occur. In this review, the complications of BoNTA are highlighted.

A literature research considered published journal articles (clinical trials or scientific reviews). Electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct) were searched using key terms, and for identification of additional relevant studies, reference lists have also been examined. Only articles published in English were included in this review with a time restriction from 2000 to 2020.

There are various injection-related adverse effects associated (AE) with botulinum toxins such as erythema, oedema, pain, ptosis of eyelid or brow and ecchymosis. The overall majority of adverse events identified are mild and temporary.

As the use of toxins becomes increasingly more common, adverse events can be expected to increase as well. The practitioners need to be aware of such AEs, and the patients should be informed of these before undertaking such procedures.

This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

Efficacy of Topical Tranexamic Acid (Cyclokapron) in "Wet" Field Infiltration with Dilute Local Anaesthetic Solutions in Plastic Surgery.

Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

Surgical bleeding may lead to the need for blood transfusion and minimizing blood loss has been a basic principle followed by surgeons for generations. Antifibrinolytic agents are widely used to reduce perioperative haemorrhage. The present study sought to assess the efficacy of directly infiltrated tranexamic acid in ameliorating bruising in participants undergoing cosmetic plastic surgery (liposuction).

The study employed a blinded, prospective, randomized, case control design. Thirty-three patients were studied. Tranexamic acid free infiltration tumescent solution (saline, bupivacaine lignocaine and adrenalin) was infiltrated to one flank of patients undergoing liposuction of flanks. The other flank was infiltrated with the same tumescent solution (saline, bupivacaine lignocaine and adrenalin) mixed with tranexamic acid (0.1%). Bruises were photographed one and seven days after surgery and measured for size. The surface area of the bruises was calculated using ImageJ software. We compared the bruised surface are between the tranexamic acid infiltrated flank and non-tranexamic acid infiltrated flank in the same patient. The model employed involved measuring the bruises on each flank of the same patient, with surgery by a single surgeon using the same infiltration and surgical techniques for both sides. The only variable was the difference in tranexamic acid concentration between study and control flanks.

We found that use of tranexamic acid consistently resulted in a smaller bruise area on days one and seven after liposuction of flanks. Results were statistically significant.

This is the first study examining addition of tranexamic acid to a tumescent infiltration solution-to produce a predictable local concentration of tranexamic acid-in order to maximize surgical site effect and minimize systemic effect. The authors recommend incorporation of tranexamic acid as a routine component along with adrenaline and local anaesthetics in tumescent field infiltration solution 10-15 min before commencement of the cosmetic surgery.

This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

Septorhinoplasty and Septoplasty: Outcomes of a Large Cohort Using Autologous Versus Homologous Cartilage, 1999-2019.

Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

This study describes the complication rate and use of autologous and/or homologous cartilage in a large 20-year cohort of septo(rhino)plasty surger...

Assessment of the Causes of Differences in Centrifugation Protocols as a Fat-Processing Technique: A Systematic Literature Review.

Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

Centrifugation has been widely used for fat graft processing. However, numerous different centrifugation protocols have been proposed in different studies. Investigation of these major differences is needed to clarify ambiguities and to achieve standardization. This review aimed to assess the causes of differences in centrifugation protocols as a fat-processing technique.

Full-text and English-language articles between 1990 and 2020 were included in this study. Articles that assess the effect of centrifugation on fat graft survival with the following research purposes were selected: determination of the effect of centrifugation force/speed, determination of the effect of centrifugation time/duration, and comparison with other fat-processing techniques.

Fifty-four full-text, English-language articles were included. The number of articles that assessed centrifugation force/speed was 17 and centrifugation duration/time was 4, and the number of articles that compared centrifugation with other fat-processing techniques was 29 and centrifugation with noncentrifugation techniques was 4. Based on the study design, 25 experiments were performed in vivo, and 41 were performed in vitro.

Misuse of force (g) and speed (rpm) for defining the centrifugation protocol, differences in selected techniques for the graft harvest and graft transfer steps and differences in the analysis methods for fat graft survival are the main causes of these substantial variations among studies.

This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

Extended Latissimus Dorsi Kite Flap (ELD-K Flap): Revisiting an Old Place for a Total Autologous Breast Reconstruction in Patients with Medium to Large Breasts.

Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

The latissimus dorsi (LD) flap represents one of the most reliable methods for autologous breast reconstruction. However, in many patients, the exclusive use of this technique may not guarantee the restoration of an adequate volume and projection. We report our experience with the extended latissimus dorsi kite flap (ELD-K flap), an alternative surgical approach to maximize the volume of the fleur-de-lis pattern LD flap, for total autologous breast reconstruction.

Between 2016 and 2018, 23 patients were subjected to mastectomy and immediate autologous reconstruction with "extended latissimus dorsi kite flap" (ELD-K flap), technique that employs an extended version of the LD musculocutaneous flap, based on the skeletonized thoracodorsal pedicle and a trilobate skin incision with an inferiorly based vertical branch. The BREAST-Q questionnaire was administered preoperatively, and one year after surgery to evaluate the quality of life results of the patients. BREAST-Q latissimus dorsi module was also provided.

Average body mass index was 29.7 kg/m2 (range 25-40 kg/m2). Mild complications occurred in only six cases, and eight patients underwent treatment to improve the donor site scar outcome. Patients indicated high scores in quality of life measures with an increase in all BREAST domains from the preoperative to the postoperative period. A statistically significant increase (p < 0.05) was noted in: "overall satisfaction with breasts" (p < 0.05), "psychosocial well-being" (p < 0.05), "physical impact of the surgery" (p < 0.05). Within the LD module, participants reported a mean score of, respectively, 73.8 and 67.9 for "satisfaction with back" and "satisfaction with shoulder and back function" domains.

The extended incision allows the recruitment of additional tissue to provide enough volume to complete the reconstruction without implants. The isolation of the vascular pedicle allows for extreme freedom and mobilization of the flap, ensuring adequate filling of the breast. ELD-K flap may expand the indications for a total autologous LD immediate breast reconstruction, representing an additional and reliable alternative in selected cohorts of patients.

This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

Aesthetic Comparison of Abdominal Donor Site Scar Between Absorbable Dermal Staple and Subcutaneous Suture after Autologous Breast Reconstruction: A Prospective Randomized Controlled, Double-Blinded Study.

Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

Abdominal tissue transfer has become the most commonly used tool for breast reconstruction. However, a secondary operator is often responsible for donor closure, which leaves dissatisfaction to patients due to inconsistent donor scars. Now, an absorbable dermal stapler is popularized worldwide and currently used for wound closure in many surgical fields. In this study, we aim to evaluate the abdominal donor site scar in using an absorbable dermal staple compared to a conventional suture.

This is a prospective, randomized controlled and double-blinded study. Between January 2018 and April 2019, a total of 30 patients who underwent breast reconstruction using abdominal flap were included. Donor sites were divided into equal halves, and the each dermal layer was sutured with either dermal staples or traditional suturing, respectively. At 1, 3 and 6 months after operation, the scar was evaluated by two blinded plastic surgeons by using the modified Manchester scar scale (MSS).

An averaged sum of modified MSS was lower for the side sutured with a dermal stapler at the first month (11.76 ± 2.12 vs. 12.28 ± 2.03, p = 0.097), third month (12.17 ± 1.86 vs. 12.62 ± 2.31, p = 0.301) and sixth month (11.28 ± 2.63 vs. 12.14 ± 2.76, p = 0.051). Also, the dermal stapler side scored significantly higher for patient satisfaction than did the suture side (4.03 ± 0.98 vs 3.66 ± 0.97, p < 0.05).

The objective outcome of the scar closed by an absorbable dermal stapler was not statistically superior to conventional suturing. (p > 0.05) In the subjective outcome, however, it showed a significantly higher patients' satisfaction (p < 0.05).

This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

Aesthetic Scrotoplasty: Systematic Review and a Proposed Treatment Algorithm for the Management of Bothersome Scrotum in Adults.

Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

Increased scrotal laxity is a poorly defined entity often associated with discomfort while wearing loose clothes, walking, doing sports and during intercourse. In our experience, this condition is produced by an enlarged scrotal bag hanging more than 1-2 cm below the tip of the penis and can be associated with persistent penoscrotal webbing. Our objective was to perform a systematic literature review addressing the diversity of this entity and its surgical treatment, as well as propose a diagnostic and therapeutic approach.

A systematic search strategy was performed following PRISMA guidelines under the terms: Scrotum(Mesh), Plastic Surgery(Mesh), Reduction Surgery, Scrotoplasty, Ventral Phalloplasty, Scrotomegaly, Penoscrotal Web, Webbed Penis(Mesh), Scrotal Lifting, Scrotopexy and Scrotal Tuck. Articles referring to scrotum reduction or plasty in male genital rejuvenation context and ventral phalloplasty related to adult penoscrotal webbing correction were considered eligible for analysis. A management algorithm and surgical technique is proposed along with the results.

A total of 1430 articles were found. After removing duplicates and applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 11 articles were eligible for analysis. Most articles corresponded to case reports or surgical technique descriptions. Based on correcting excessive scrotal skin and/or penoscrotal webbing, we propose a vertical midline scrotal skin resection and a penoscrotal junction Z plasty, respectively.

Aesthetic scrotoplasty and scrotal rejuvenation surgical techniques still remain as entities poorly addressed in the international literature. More reported experiences are needed in order to complement our proposed management algorithm and develop a nomenclature, diagnostic and treatment consensus.

This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 . Genital Surgery.

Invited Discussion on "Awareness of Facial Asymmetry and Its Impact on Postoperative Satisfaction of Rhinoplasty Patient".

Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

In this invited discussion, we applaud the authors of "Awareness of Facial Asymmetry and Its Impact on Postoperative Satisfaction of Rhinoplasty Pa...

BIS Monitoring Transformed Opioid-Free Propofol Ketamine Anesthesia From Art to Science for Ambulatory Cosmetic Surgery.

Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

Measurement is the essence of science. The BIS™ brain monitor provides direct propofol response measurement. Measuring transformed the propofol ket...