The latest medical research on Dentist

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Effect of concentrated growth factor (CGF) on postoperative sequel of completely impacted lower third molar extraction: a randomized controlled clinical study.

BMC Oral Health

This study was registered with the TCTR identification number TCTR20210325002 on 25/03/2021 at Thai Clinical Trials Register-Medical Research Foundation of Thailand (MRF). Also it was ethically approved from the institutional ethics committee at the Hospital of Stomatology, Xian Jiaotong University, Xian, China (No: 032), and has been conducted in accordance to the guidelines of the declaration of Helsinki. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants in the study.

A total of 74 sides of 37 participants who had completely bilateral impacted lower third molars were enrolled in this split-mouth, randomized single‑blind, clinical trial. Surgical extraction was undertaken on both sides of the mandible. Randomization was achieved by opaque, sealed envelopes. The postoperative outcomes including wound healing, swelling and pain were clinically assessed at different-time intervals(1st, 3rd and 7th days). A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

The wound healing index was significantly better in the test sides (P = 0.001). Regarding the facial swelling, the test sides had significantly less values than the control sides, particularly on the 1st (1.01 ± .57 vs. 1.55 ± .56) and 3rd days (1.42 ± 0.8 vs. 2.63 ± 1.2) postoperatively. Nonetheless, the swelling was disappeared within the 7th day in both sides. The pain scores of visual analog scale were no a statistically significant difference between both sides on the 1st day, meanwhile, the pain scores were significantly lower in the test sides compared with the control sides, especially on the 3rd (P = 0.001) and 7th days (P < 0.001) postoperatively.

The application of CGF following the surgical extraction of lower third molar has accelerated the healing of soft tissues as well as reduced postoperative sequelae such as swelling and pain. Therefore, the CGF could be promoted among clinicians during the lower third molar surgical extraction.

Mechanical properties and marginal fit of prefabricated versus customized dental implant abutments: A comparative study.

Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related

Dental implant abutments play an important role in the health and aesthetics of soft and hard tissues around implants.

To compare mechanical properties and marginal fit of prefabricated and customized dental implant abutments and provide references to evaluate the relationship between abutment choice and clinical indications.

Titanium abutments were randomly divided into prefabricated and customized abutments. Static and dynamic loads were applied according to ISO14801:2016. Mechanical properties, including fracture strength, fatigue strength, rotational torque value, and torque loss rate, were measured. The biological properties of the implant abutments were assessed using an internal marginal fit. The samples were sliced, and the internal marginal fit was examined using a scanning electron microscope before and after cyclic loading. The length of the tight contact was calculated at the level of the conical connection, lower internal connection, and screw threads. Microleakage was evaluated by immersing the samples in 1% methylene blue and measuring the absorbance.

The fracture strengths of the prefabricated abutments were greater than those of the customized abutments before and after cyclic loading. The average fatigue strengths of the prefabricated and customized abutments were 350 and 300 N, respectively. The removal torque loss of the customized abutments was significantly greater than that of the prefabricated abutments. Significant differences were found in conical connection before loading, while the screw threads showed substantial differences between the two groups after loading. Microleakage in the customized abutments was significantly higher than that in the prefabricated abutments before and after loading.

Prefabricated abutments showed superior mechanical and biological properties compared with customized abutments in vitro, suggesting a greater risk of mechanical and biological complications occurring with the use of customized abutments. This study provides a reference for the clinical selection of implant abutments.

Hemoglobin-to-Platelet Ratio in Predicting the Incidence of Trismus after Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy.

Oral Disease

The significance of pre-hemoglobin-to-platelet ratio (HPR) in predicting the occurrence of radiation-induced trismus (RIT) in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients (LA-NPC) who received concurrent chemoradiotherapy (C-CRT).

Records of LA-NPC patients with oral examination before and after C-CRT were analyzed. Maximum mouth openings (MMO) were measured before and after C-CRT to confirm RIT status, with an MMO of ≤35 mm defined as RIT. HPR values were calculated on the first day of C-CRT. The relationship between the HPR values and RIT status was discovered using the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis.

A total of 43 patients RIT cases among 198 individuals were diagnosed. The optimal HPR cutoff that stratified the patients into two groups was 0.54. RIT incidence was found to be significantly higher in the HPR≤0.54 group than its HPR>0.54 counterpart(P<0.001). Univariately T3-4 stage, mean masticator apparatus dose>57.2Gy, and pre-C-CRT MMO≤40.7 mm was found as the other significant correlates of increased RIT rates(P<0.05). All four variables seemed to be independently connected to greater RIT incidence in multivariate analysis (P<0.05, for each).

The risk of post-C-CRT RIT may be significantly increased when pre-treatment HPR levels are low.

Periodontitis links to concurrent metabolic disorders and abnormal liver function in pregnant women.

Oral Disease

This cross-sectional study investigated the association of periodontitis with the metabolic status and hepatic function in pregnant women.

Full-mouth periodontal condition, metabolic profiles and hepatic function were assessed in 219 self-reported healthy pregnant females. The association of periodontal status with the systemic parameters was evaluated by parametric and non-parametric tests, and multivariate logistic regression analysis.

Overall, periodontal status was positively associated with the metabolic profiles and hepatic function test results. The subjects with periodontitis exhibited higher levels of body mass index (BMI) (P<0.01) and serum aspartate transaminase (AST) (P<0.05), elevated diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (P<0.05) and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P<0.05) than those of the counterparts. The periodontitis severity was strongly correlated with BMI and AST levels, and the extent of periodontal inflammation was related to DBP (P<0.01). The periodontitis patients at 34-36 gestational weeks showed higher blood pressure and AST levels than those of non-periodontitis subjects (P<0.05).

Our findings on the notable links of periodontitis to concurrent metabolic disorders and abnormal liver function in pregnant women highlight the need of proactive integration of regular periodontal screening and healthcare in maternal programs for promoting optimal health and wellbeing of mothers-to-be and newborns.

Development of the Turkish version of the oral health assessment tool: Methodological study.

Spec Care Dentist

This research aimed to assess the validity and reliability of the "Oral Health Assessment Tool for the Elderly" Turkish form.

A total of 262 elderly individuals > 65 years of age were included in the study. These individuals were selected from community-dwelling elderly and nursing home residents in the Konya province of Turkey. A data form containing sociodemographic information and oral health behavior was used to collect the data. In addition, the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index and the Oral Health Assessment Tool for the Elderly were used. To create the Turkish version of the tool, the form was translated and back-translated for content validity. Expert opinion was obtained for criterion validity. Last, confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory factor analysis were performed to evaluate construct validity. Test-retest reliability, interobserver reliability, and Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficients were calculated.

The Tool Turkish form consisted of 10 items and two factors. The Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient was 0.86. The total variance explained by the items was 60.19%, and the test-retest reliability coefficient was 0.95. The content validity index was 0.90, and Kendall's coefficient of concordance was 0.97. The correlation coefficient between the scales is 0.719. The mean Oral Health Assessment Tool for the Elderly score obtained by the participants was 5.4 ± 4.32 (median 5, min-max: 0-17).

The Turkish version of the tool is a valid and reliable tool to assess oral health in community-dwelling elderly individuals and those living in nursing homes.

Advances in Scaffolds Used for Pulp-Dentine Complex Tissue Engineering - A Narrative Review.

International Endodontic Journal

Pulp necrosis in immature teeth disrupts root development and predisposes roots to fracture as a consequence of their thin walls and open apices. R...

Experimental validation of a computational fluid dynamics model using micro-particle image velocimetry of the irrigation flow in confluent canals.

International Endodontic Journal

This study aimed to experimentally validate a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, using micro-particle image velocimetry (micro-PIV) measurements of the irrigation flow velocity field developed in confluent canals during irrigation with a side-vented needle.

A microchip with confluent canals, manufactured in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used in a micro-PIV analysis of the irrigation flow using a side vented needle placed 3 mm from the end of the confluence of the canals. Velocity fields and profiles were recorded for flow rates of 0.017 mL/s and 0.1 mL/s and compared with those predicted in CFD numerical simulations (using a finite volume commercial code - FLUENT) for both laminar and turbulent regimes.

The overall flow pattern, isovelocity and vector maps as well as velocity profiles showed a close agreement between the micro-PIV experimental and CFD predicted data. No relevant differences were observed between the results obtained with the laminar and turbulent flow models used.

Results showed that the laminar CFD modelling is reliable to predict the flow in similar domains.

Dental unit water content and antibiotic resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas species: a case study.

Journal of Oral Microbiology

Many studies consider the contamination of dental unit waterlines (DUWLs), but few of them have studied the possible presence of antibiotic resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the DUWLs.

Investigation of the presence of P. aeruginosa and Pseudomonas spp. strains in DUWLs and evaluation of their resistance to six antibiotics (ceftazidime, netilmicin, piperacillin/tazobactam, meropenem, levofloxacin, colistin sulfate) at a public dental clinic in Milan, Italy.

Dental units were contaminated by P. aeruginosa with loads of 2-1,000 CFU/L and were mainly located on the mezzanine floor, with a range of 46-54%, while Pseudomonas spp. were primarily found on the first and second floors, ranging from 50 to 91%. P. aeruginosa was antibiotic resistant in 30% of the strains tested, andPseudomonas spp. in 31.8% . Cold water from controls was also contaminated by these microorganisms.

Monitoring antibiotic resistance in the water and adopting disinfection procedures on DUs are suggested within the Water Safety Plan.

Accuracy of planned tooth movement with lingual straight wire technique.

Angle Orthod

To analyze the accuracy of planned tooth movements of torque, tip, rotations, and transverse width values with lingual straight-wire technique.

40 Caucasian subjects with mean age of 23.9 years, consecutively treated in private practice with a lingual straight-wire appliance (STb, Ormco, Glendora, Calif) were evaluated. Maxillary and mandibular dental casts were taken before treatment (T0), in the setup (T1), and at the end of treatment (T2) and scanned with an intraoral 3D scanner Carestream CS 3600 (Carestream Dental, Atlanta, GA). Virtual models at the three time points were superimposed on T1 using 3D software, and the coordinates were exported as a set of x, y, and z values. Angular and linear measurements were analyzed to measure torque, tip, rotation movements, and transverse intra-arch widths. Changes among the three time points were analyzed with Friedman's nonparametric test.

A general increase in torque was recorded in the setup and in the final result, except for the maxillary molars. Torque, tip, and rotation movement mean accuracy was ≥84% for incisors, canines, and premolars. A general increase in transverse width was measured in the setup and in the final models, except for the upper second molars, which showed reduced transverse width during treatment.

The movements planned in the setup to obtain the ideal torque, tip, and rotations actually occurred, except for second molars, which showed less accuracy. Planned expansion of the arches occurred only partially.

A survey of the awareness and knowledge of oral cancer among residents in Beijing.

BMC Oral Health

The present study aimed to investigate oral cancer awareness and its related knowledge among residents in Beijing.

A questionnaire survey was conducted among Beijing residents concerning their knowledge of oral cancer, and its prevention and treatment.

A total of 3055 questionnaires were completed, 45.8% by males and 54.2% by females. The ages of the respondents ranged from 15 to 93 years; 12.4% were smokers, 1.1% chewed betel nuts, and 82.5% brushed their teeth at least twice a day. Lung cancer was heard of by the most respondents, followed by gastric cancer and liver cancer; oral cancer was the least heard of. More than 60% of respondents were unaware of the risk factors and early signs of oral cancer.

This survey demonstrated a general lack of public awareness and knowledge about oral cancer. Specific measures should be taken to improve public awareness of oral cancer and its prevention and treatment.

A case of giant dental calculus in a patient with centronuclear myopathy.

Spec Care Dentist

Centronuclear myopathy is a hereditary congenital muscle disease. It is characterized by generalized muscle hypotonia from early childhood, elongated cacial appearance, mandibular undergroth, and dental malposition. In this report, we discuss the clinical course and management of a patient with centronuclearmyopathy, who developed a giant dental calculus in the floor of the mouth and underwent surgical excision.

A 37-year-old Japanese man was referred to our hospital, and reported a swelling in the floor of the mouth. The patient affects centronuclear myopathy and has generalized muscle weakness. CT images showed a high-density area in the floor of the mouth measuring 35 × 28 × 20 mm. The lesion was clinically diagnosed as giant dental calculus, and surgically removed.

We have experienced a case of giant dental calculus in a patient with centronuclear myopathy. In dental treatment, we must consider generalized muscle weakness.

D-Mannose alleviated alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis mice via regulating the anti-inflammatory effect of amino acids.

Journal of Periodontology

Periodontitis is a chronic infectious disease caused by dysbiosis of oral microbiota, ultimately leading to periodontal alveolar bone loss. The oral subgingival microbiome, a key role in periodontitis pathogenesis, could alter the composition of gut microbiomes resulting in intestinal microbiota disorder. D-Mannose plays an important role in glucose metabolism, whether it is beneficial to prevention and treatment of periodontitis and the regulation of oral and intestinal microbiota changes is still unknown.

To explore the effect of D-mannose, we established experimental periodontitis models in mice and then treated with supplementation of D-mannose in drinking water or gavage to examine the extent of periodontal bone loss using methylene blue staining. Moreover, the oral and fecal samples of mice were collected for 16S rRNA deep sequencing to analyze the changes of oral and gut microbiota after 14 days. Furthermore, amino acid content assays were used to test the concentration of amino acid of gingival tissues and intestinal tissues.

We found that D-mannose could alleviate periodontal bone loss whether in the manner of drinking water or gavage. 16S rRNA results revealed that the abundance of Firmicutes changed significantly in oral samples, while Firmicutes and Akkermansia. Muciniphila were dominated in gut microbiota. In addition, we demonstrated that D-Mannose inhibited inflammation and alleviated alveolar bone loss in periodontitis via regulating amino acid metabolism of oral and gut microbiomes.

Our findings provided insight into the mechanism underlying the abilities of D-mannose in improving periodontitis treatment, suggesting that D-mannose has potential application in the dental clinic. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.