The latest medical research on Psychiatry

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about psychiatry gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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The neuroendocrinology of stress: the stress-related continuum of chronic disease development.

Molecular Psychiatry

Stress is defined as a state of threatened homeodynamic balance by a wide range of intrinsic or extrinsic, real or perceived challenges or stimuli,...

Differentiating white matter measures that protect against vs. predispose to bipolar disorder and other psychopathology in at-risk youth.

Neuropsychopharmacology

Bipolar disorder (BD) is highly heritable. Identifying objective biomarkers reflecting pathophysiological processes predisposing to, versus protect...

Pediatric PTSD is characterized by age- and sex-related abnormalities in structural connectivity.

Neuropsychopharmacology

Pediatric post-traumatic stress disorder (pPTSD) is a prevalent and pervasive form of mental illness comprising a disparate constellation of psychi...

Mechanisms underlying dorsolateral prefrontal cortex contributions to cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia.

Neuropsychopharmacology

Kraepelin, in his early descriptions of schizophrenia (SZ), characterized the illness as having "an orchestra without a conductor." Kraepelin furth...

Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs): decipher underlying basis of neurodegenerative diseases.

Molecular Psychiatry

Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are characterized by the aggregation of neurotoxic proteins in the central nervous system. Aberrant protein accumu...

Development Over Time of the Population-Attributable Risk Fraction for Cannabis Use Disorder in Schizophrenia in Denmark.

JAMA Psychiatry

Cannabis use and potency of cannabis have increased during the past 2 decades. If the association between cannabis use and schizophrenia is causal, this should be reflected in an increase in the proportion of cases of schizophrenia being attributable to cannabis, the population-attributable risk fraction (PARF).

To determine whether the PARF for cannabis use disorder in schizophrenia has increased over time.

This nationwide, register-based historical prospective cohort study included all people in Denmark born before December 31, 2000, who were alive and 16 years or older at some point from January 1, 1972, to December 31, 2016. Data analysis was performed from August 2020 to April 2021.

Diagnosis of cannabis use disorder.

Diagnosis of schizophrenia, with estimated PARF of cannabis use disorder in schizophrenia from 1972 to 2016.

A total of 7 186 834 individuals were included in the analysis, including 3 595 910 women (50.0%) and 3 590 924 men (50.0%). The adjusted hazard ratio for schizophrenia fluctuated at approximately 4 (with 95% CIs ranging from approximately 3 to 6) throughout most of the study period when people diagnosed with cannabis use disorder were compared with those without cannabis use disorder. The PARF of cannabis use disorder in schizophrenia also fluctuated, but with clear evidence of an increase from 1995 (when the PARF was relatively stable around 2.0%, with a 95% CI of approximately 0.3% to either side) until reaching some stability around 6.0% to 8.0% (with a 95% CI of approximately 0.5% to either side) since 2010.

The results from these longitudinal analyses show the proportion of cases of schizophrenia associated with cannabis use disorder has increased 3- to 4-fold during the past 2 decades, which is expected given previously described increases in the use and potency of cannabis. This finding has important ramifications regarding legalization and control of use of cannabis.

Evaluation of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy vs Mindfulness Meditation in Brain Changes During Reappraisal and Acceptance Among Patients With Social Anxiety Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Psychiatry

Cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) and mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) are thought to help patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) via distinct emotion-regulation mechanisms. However, no study has compared the effects of CBGT and MBSR on brain and negative emotion indicators of cognitive reappraisal and acceptance in patients with SAD.

To investigate the effects of CBGT and MBSR on reappraisal and acceptance in patients with SAD and to test whether treatment-associated brain changes are associated with social anxiety symptoms 1 year posttreatment.

In this randomized clinical trial, a total of 108 unmedicated adults diagnosed with generalized SAD were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of CBGT, MBSR, or waitlist. The final sample included 31 patients receiving CBGT, 32 patients receiving MBSR, and 32 waitlist patients. Data were collected at the psychology department at Stanford University from September 2012 to December 2014. Data were analyzed from February 2019 to December 2020.

CBGT and MBSR.

Changes in self-reported negative emotion and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal within an a priori-defined brain search region mask derived from a meta-analysis of cognitive reappraisal and attention regulation 1 year posttreatment.

Of 108 participants, 60 (56%) were female. The mean (SD) age was 32.7 (8.0) years. Self-reported race and ethnicity data were collected to inform the generalizability of the study to the wider population and to satisfy the requirements of the National Institutes of Health. From the categories provided by the National Institutes of Health, 47 participants selected White (43.5%), 42 selected Asian (38.9%) 10 selected Latinx (9.3%), 1 selected Black (1%), 1 selected Native American (1%), and 7 selected more than 1 race (6.5%). CBGT and MBSR were associated with a significant decrease in negative emotion (partial η2 range, 0.38 to 0.53) with no significant between-group differences when reacting (β, -0.04; SE, 0.09; 95% CI, -0.11 to 0.08; t92 = -0.37; P = .71), reappraising (β, -0.15; SE, 0.09; 95% CI, -0.32 to 0.03; t92 = -1.67; P = .10), or accepting (β, -0.05; SE, 0.08; 95% CI, -0.20 to 0.11; t92 = -0.59; P = .56). There was a significant increase in BOLD percentage signal change in cognitive and attention-regulation regions when reappraising (CBGT = 0.031; MBSR = 0.037) and accepting (CBGT = 0.012; MBSR = 0.077) negative self-beliefs. CBGT and MBSR did not differ in decreased negative emotion and increased reappraisal and acceptance BOLD responses. Reappraisal-associated MBSR (vs CBGT) negative emotions and CBGT (vs MBSR) brain responses were associated with social anxiety symptoms 1 year posttreatment.

The results of this study suggest that CBGT and MBSR may be effective treatments with long-term benefits for patients with SAD that recruit cognitive and attention-regulation brain networks. Despite contrasting models of therapeutic change, CBT and MBSR may both enhance reappraisal and acceptance emotion regulation strategies.

ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02036658.

Split-hand and split-limb phenomena in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: pathophysiology, electrophysiology and clinical manifestations.

Journal Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting the upper and lower motor neurons. A key clinical feature...

Paraneoplastic cochleovestibulopathy: clinical presentations, oncological and serological associations.

Journal Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry

Cochleovestibulopathy is a distinguishable paraneoplastic phenotype. In this study, we evaluate clinical presentation, serological/cancer associations and outcomes of paraneoplastic cochleovestibulopathy.

Retrospective chart review of patients with hearing impairment and/or vestibulopathy who underwent serological evaluations for paraneoplastic antibodies between January 2007 and February 2021 was performed.

Twenty-six patients were identified (men, n=23; median age, 45 years, range: 28-70). Biomarkers detected included: KLHL11-IgG‌ ‌(n=20,‌ ‌77% (coexisting LUZP4-IgG, n=8)),‌ ‌‌ANNA1-IgG‌ ‌ ‌(n=3,‌ ‌12%),‌ ‌amphiphysin-IgG‌‌ ‌(n=2,‌ ‌8%)‌ ‌and‌ ‌LUZP4-IgG‌‌ ‌(n=1,‌ ‌4%). Most common neoplastic association was ‌testicular‌/‌extra-testicular‌ ‌seminoma‌ ‌ (n=13,‌ ‌50%).‌‌ Hearing‌ impairment (bilateral, 62%) was ‌present‌ ‌in‌ ‌all‌ ‌patients.‌ ‌Fifteen patients (58%) had cochleovestibular dysfunction as their initial presentation before rhombencephalitis/encephalomyelitis manifestations (hearing loss, four; acute vertigo, eight; both, three). ‌Brain‌ ‌MRI‌ ‌demonstrated‌ ‌internal‌ ‌auditory‌ ‌canal‌ ‌enhancement‌ ‌in‌ ‌four ‌patients.‌ Audiometry commonly revealed severe-profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Most patients ‌had‌ a refractory course ‌despite‌ ‌immunotherapy‌ ‌and/or‌ ‌cancer‌ ‌treatment‌.

Cochleovestibulopathy commonly presents with rapidly progressive bilateral hearing loss and/or acute vertigo. However, in some patients, these symptoms present along with or following brainstem/cerebellar manifestations. KLHL11-IgG and seminoma are the most common serological and cancer associations, respectively. Recognition of this phenotype may aid in earlier diagnosis of paraneoplastic autoimmunity and associated cancer.

Characteristics and treatment outcome of suicidal depression: Two large naturalistic cohorts of depressed outpatients.

Aust N Z

The emergence of new drugs for managing suicidal ideation (e.g. ketamine) raises the question of whether suicidal depression (i.e. moderate to severe depression with concomitant suicidal ideation) is a specific depression phenotype. Therefore, this study characterized patients with suicidal depression (baseline clinical characteristics, suicidal ideation and depression evolutions, suicide risk) in two large cohorts of outpatients with depression.

LUEUR and GENESE are two large, prospective, naturalistic cohorts of French adult outpatients with depression (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, criteria), treated and followed up for 6 weeks. Depression severity was assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and suicidal ideation with the suicidal item of the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale. Patients with moderate or severe depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression subscale score >11) were selected and classified as without suicidal ideation (suicidal item of the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale <2), with moderate suicidal ideation (suicidal item of the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale [2; 3]) and with severe suicidal ideation (suicidal item of the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale ⩾4).

Baseline clinical features were more severe (e.g. higher anxiety and depression scores) in depressed patients with moderate/severe suicidal ideation. Depression remission after treatment was less frequent among patients with severe suicidal ideation. The risk of suicide attempt during the follow-up was threefold higher in patients with suicidal ideation among those 10% had persistent suicidal ideation.

Suicidal depression could be a specific depression phenotype with more severe clinical characteristics, less frequent depression remission, suicidal ideation persistence and higher suicide attempt risk, despite antidepressant treatment. It seems that novel therapeutic strategies could be needed.

Systematic review of the effects of evidence-based psychotherapies on neurocognitive functioning in mood disorders.

Aust N Z

Neurocognitive impairment is considered a core feature of mood disorders. Research has shown that neurocognitive impairment often persists beyond mood symptom resolution and can have significant deleterious effects on interpersonal relationships, academic achievement, occupational functioning and independent living. As such, neurocognitive impairment has become an important target for intervention. In this systematic review, we aimed to examine the extant literature to ascertain whether current standard evidence-based psychotherapies can improve neurocognitive functioning in mood disorders.

Studies examining changes in neurocognitive functioning following evidence-based psychotherapy were identified using MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Web of Science databases. Given the heterogeneity of study procedures, treatment protocols and patient samples, a narrative rather than meta-analytic review technique was employed.

Nineteen studies (21 articles) met inclusion criteria. There was preliminary evidence of improved executive functioning following evidence-based psychotherapy for Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Disorder. There was also some signal of reduced negative biases in emotional information processing following psychotherapy in depression. Due to methodological variability across studies however, it was difficult to draw clear conclusions.

Findings from the current review suggest that evidence-based psychotherapies may influence some aspects of neurocognitive functioning in mood disorders. This continues to be an ongoing area of importance and warrants further research.

Noninvasive neuromodulation of the prefrontal cortex in mental health disorders.

Neuropsychopharmacology

More than any other brain region, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) gives rise to the singularity of human experience. It is therefore frequently implica...