The latest medical research on Psychiatry

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about psychiatry gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Prevalence and Correlates of Suicide and Nonsuicidal Self-injury in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

JAMA Psychiatry

Considerably less is known about self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs) in preadolescence than older age groups, owing partly to the common view that young children are incapable of suicidal thoughts. Yet, preadolescent suicide has increased in recent years and is now the fifth leading cause of death in this age group, leading the National Institute of Mental Health to identify it as a priority for research and intervention.

To assess prevalence estimates of preadolescent SITBs, identify correlates of these outcomes, and conduct head-to-head comparisons of preadolescent and adolescent SITBs in terms of associated characteristics.

MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Embase were systematically searched from inception through December 23, 2021, for studies on the prevalence and correlates of preadolescent SITBs. The search was restricted to English language publications and peer-reviewed journals.

Two reviewers independently identified studies providing data on prevalence and correlates of preadolescent SITBs.

Two reviewers independently extracted data from each study, and the Joanna Briggs Institute Checklist for Prevalence Studies was used to assess study quality. Pooled prevalence and Cohen d were derived from random-effects meta-analyses. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) reporting guideline was followed.

Prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, suicide deaths, and nonsuicidal self-injury among preadolescents.

Fifty-eight studies with 626 486 590 individuals were included. Lifetime prevalence of suicide in the general population was 0.79 per 1 million children. Prevalence for lifetime suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts, and nonsuicidal self-injury among preadolescents were 15.1%, 2.6%, and 6.2%, respectively, in community samples. These data suggest that approximately 17.0% of preadolescents with suicidal ideation transition to attempting suicide. Across several analyses, male individuals appear more likely to have SITBs in preadolescence than adolescence. Correlate data were modest for SITBs other than suicidal ideation, but among specific disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (suicidal ideation: d = 0.54 [95% CI, 0.34-0.75]) and depression (suicidal ideation: d = 0.90 [95% CI, 0.71-1.09]; suicide attempts: d = 0.47 [95% CI, 0.26-0.68]) emerged as the strongest correlates. Among interpersonal factors, child maltreatment (suicidal ideation: d = 2.62 [95% CI, 1.56-3.67]) and parental support (suicidal ideation: d = -0.34 [95% CI, -0.46 to -0.22]) yielded the largest effect sizes.

In this systematic review anda meta-analysis, although preadolescent suicide deaths were rare, other SITB types occur with concerning frequency. Male individuals were at greater risk for SITBs in preadolescence relative to adolescence. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, child maltreatment, and parental support were especially relevant to suicidal ideation, as well as depression for suicidal thoughts and behaviors, in this age group. Further study, especially of SITBs other than suicidal ideation, is needed.

The integrity of the research record: a mess so big and so deep and so tall.

Br J Psychiatry

Poor research integrity is increasingly recognised as a serious problem in science. We outline some evidence for this claim and introduce the Royal...

Making sense of phantom limb pain.

Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

Phantom limb pain (PLP) impacts the majority of individuals who undergo limb amputation. The PLP experience is highly heterogenous in its quality, ...

Clinical recommendations for the care of people with treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder when undergoing deep brain stimulation.

Aust N Z

Deep brain stimulation is an emerging therapy for treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder patients. Yet, accessibility is limited, treat...

Exploring the possible mental health and wellbeing benefits of video games for adult players: A cross-sectional study.

Australasian Psychiatry

There is mixed evidence on the psychological effects of video games. While excessive use can be harmful, moderate use can have emotional, psychological and social benefits, with games successfully used in treating anxiety and depression. More data are required to understand how and for whom these benefits occur. This paper aims to identify correlations between video game genre, player demographics, wellbeing, and the in-play psychological processes for adult players.

Adult gamers (n = 2107) completed an anonymous cross-sectional survey canvassing play style, genre, perception of psychological impact and mechanisms (wellbeing, self-determination and flow). A multivariate multiple regression model explored correlations.

88.4% of participants experienced emotional benefits from gaming, with stronger benefits experienced by younger players in all categories. The genres most strongly correlated with psychological benefits were music games, role-playing games and survival horror games. Multiplayer online battle arena games had lower scores for psychological and emotional wellbeing.

Certain genres have stronger correlations with beneficial mechanisms, while some may be detrimental to players. These results may guide experimental studies to measure the directionality and strength of these correlations and can also impact practical aspects in development of therapeutic games to treat mental distress.

Grasping the nettle of danger: a commentary on how people perceive their health risks, impacting on their health behaviours.

Australasian Psychiatry

To provide a commentary review, for psychiatrists and trainees, on the clinical relevance of risk perception for health behaviours and outcomes.

The core dimensions of risk perception are how a person perceives the likelihood and severity of an adverse outcome in the face of a threat. The two fundamental modes of how a threat is perceived are a rapid, intuitive, affective response followed by a slower, deliberate, cognitive appraisal. Risk perception regarding health threats is influenced by: level of trust in the information source; immediacy; voluntariness; perceived consequences of the threat; an affective response of fear, especially a feeling of dread; familiarity with the threat, including past exposure; and factual knowledge of the threat. Perception of risk may by distorted by cognitive biases (heuristics), including optimistic bias. There is a strong and consistent link between risk perception and health behaviours, and, therefore, health outcomes.

Ask depressed patients about brain fog to ensure melancholia is not mist.

Australasian Psychiatry

This study aims to highlight cognitive 'brain fog' as a key depression sub-typing symptom, being weighted to melancholic (as against non-melancholic) depression and note its common persistence after episode remission.

This paper weights clinical observation but considers several salient overview papers and research findings.

While 'brain fog' is intrinsically non-specific in that it has multiple causes, when assessed as a second-order depressive sub-typing symptom, it has seemingly distinctive specificity to the melancholic sub-type, with many patients with melancholia resonating with such a descriptor question. As it may persist (albeit attenuated) after episode remission, psychostimulant medication may be of benefit in some patients.

In the clinical assessment and differential diagnosis of those with a depressive disorder, inquiring into 'brain fog' can have distinct diagnostic benefit in differentiating melancholic and non-melancholic depression.

Delirium and the risk of developing dementia: a cohort study of 12 949 patients.

Journal Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry

Delirium is an important risk factor for subsequent dementia. However, the field lacks large studies with long-term follow-up of delirium in subjects initially free of dementia to clearly establish clinical trajectories.

We undertook a retrospective cohort study of all patients over the age of 65 diagnosed with an episode of delirium who were initially dementia free at onset of delirium within National Health Service Greater Glasgow & Clyde between 1996 and 2020 using the Safe Haven database. We estimated the cumulative incidence of dementia accounting for the competing risk of death without a dementia diagnosis. We modelled the effects of age at delirium diagnosis, sex and socioeconomic deprivation on the cause-specific hazard of dementia via cox regression.

12 949 patients with an incident episode of delirium were included and followed up for an average of 741 days. The estimated cumulative incidence of dementia was 31% by 5 years. The estimated cumulative incidence of the competing risk of death without dementia was 49.2% by 5 years. The cause-specific hazard of dementia was increased with higher levels of deprivation and also with advancing age from 65, plateauing and decreasing from age 90. There did not appear to be a relationship with sex.

Our study reinforces the link between delirium and future dementia in a large cohort of patients. It highlights the importance of early recognition of delirium and prevention where possible.

Perspectives From the National Institutes of Health on Multidimensional Mental Health Disparities Research: A Framework for Advancing the Field.

Am J Psychiatry

Racial, ethnic, and other mental health disparities have been documented for several decades. However, progress in reducing or eliminating these di...

A New Agenda for Optimizing Investments in Community Mental Health and Reducing Disparities.

Am J Psychiatry

The Biden-Harris Administration's FY22 budget includes $1.6 billion for the Community Mental Health Services Block Grant program, more than double ...

Innovative Directions to Advance Mental Health Disparities Research.

Am J Psychiatry

Disparities in mental health have persisted or worsened despite our awareness of their existence, increased understanding of their causes, and effo...

The Intergenerational Impact of Structural Racism and Cumulative Trauma on Depression.

Am J Psychiatry

Depression among individuals who have been racially and ethnically minoritized in the United States can be vastly different from that of non-Hispan...