The latest medical research on Psychiatry

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about psychiatry gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Mental health during and after protests, riots and revolutions: A systematic review.

Aust N Z

Protests, riots and revolutions have long been a part of human history and are increasing globally, yet their impact on mental health remains largely unknown. We therefore systematically reviewed studies on collective actions and mental health.

We searched PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO and CINAHL Plus for published studies from their inception until 1 January 2018. Study quality was rated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale.

We identified 52 studies (n = 57,487 participants) from 20 countries/regions. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder ranged from 4% to 41% in riot-affected areas. Following a major protest, the prevalence of probable major depression increased by 7%, regardless of personal involvement in the protests, suggestive of community spillover effects. Risk factors for poorer mental health included female sex, lower socioeconomic status, exposure to violence, interpersonal conflicts, frequent social media use and lower resilience and social support. Nevertheless, two studies suggested that collective actions may reduce depression and suicide, possibly due to a collective cathartic experience and greater social cohesion within subpopulations.

We present the first systematic review of collective actions and mental health, showing compelling evidence that protests even when nonviolent can be associated with adverse mental health outcomes. Health care professionals therefore need to be vigilant to the mental and psychological sequelae of protests, riots and revolutions. Further research on this emerging sociopolitical determinant of mental health is warranted.

Regional and temporal miRNAs expression profile in a transgenic mouse model of tauopathy: implication for its pathogenesis.

Molecular Psychiatry

Studies have shown that the expression level of different microRNAs (miRNAs) is altered in neurodegenerative disorders including tauopathies, a gro...

Success and efficiency of phase 2/3 adjunctive trials for MDD funded by industry: a systematic review.

Molecular Psychiatry

To review the success rate and efficiency of industry-sponsored phase 2/3 clinical trials for adjunctive therapies for antidepressant partial- and ...

A psychiatric disease-related circular RNA controls synaptic gene expression and cognition.

Molecular Psychiatry

Although circular RNAs (circRNAs) are enriched in the mammalian brain, very little is known about their potential involvement in brain function and...

SorCS2 is required for social memory and trafficking of the NMDA receptor.

Molecular Psychiatry

Social memory processing requires functional CA2 neurons, however the specific mechanisms that regulate their activity are poorly understood. Here,...

Depression phenotype identified by using single nucleotide exact amplicon sequence variants of the human gut microbiome.

Molecular Psychiatry

Single nucleotide exact amplicon sequence variants (ASV) of the human gut microbiome were used to evaluate if individuals with a depression phenoty...

Identification of Common Neural Circuit Disruptions in Emotional Processing Across Psychiatric Disorders.

Am J Psychiatry

Disrupted emotional processing is a common feature of many psychiatric disorders. The authors investigated functional disruptions in neural circuitry underlying emotional processing across a range of tasks and across psychiatric disorders through a transdiagnostic quantitative meta-analysis of published neuroimaging data.

A PubMed search was conducted for whole-brain functional neuroimaging findings published through May 2018 that compared activation during emotional processing tasks in patients with psychiatric disorders (including schizophrenia, bipolar or unipolar depression, anxiety, and substance use) to matched healthy control participants. Activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analyses were conducted on peak voxel coordinates to identify spatial convergence.

The 298 experiments submitted to meta-analysis included 5,427 patients and 5,491 control participants. ALE across diagnoses and patterns of patient hyper- and hyporeactivity demonstrated abnormal activation in the amygdala, the hippocampal/parahippocampal gyri, the dorsomedial/pulvinar nuclei of the thalamus, and the fusiform gyri, as well as the medial and lateral dorsal and ventral prefrontal regions. ALE across disorders but considering directionality demonstrated patient hyperactivation in the amygdala and the hippocampal/parahippocampal gyri. Hypoactivation was found in the medial and lateral prefrontal regions, most pronounced during processing of unpleasant stimuli. More refined disorder-specific analyses suggested that these overall patterns were shared to varying degrees, with notable differences in patterns of hyper- and hypoactivation.

These findings demonstrate a pattern of neurocircuit disruption across major psychiatric disorders in regions and networks key to adaptive emotional reactivity and regulation. More specifically, disruption corresponded prominently to the "salience" network, the ventral striatal/ventromedial prefrontal "reward" network, and the lateral orbitofrontal "nonreward" network. Consistent with the Research Domain Criteria initiative, these findings suggest that psychiatric illness may be productively formulated as dysfunction in transdiagnostic neurobehavioral phenotypes such as neurocircuit activation.

An Electroencephalography Connectomic Profile of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

Am J Psychiatry

The authors sought to identify brain regions whose frequency-specific, orthogonalized resting-state EEG power envelope connectivity differs between combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and healthy combat-exposed veterans, and to determine the behavioral correlates of connectomic differences.

The authors first conducted a connectivity method validation study in healthy control subjects (N=36). They then conducted a two-site case-control study of veterans with and without PTSD who were deployed to Iraq and/or Afghanistan. Healthy individuals (N=95) and those meeting full or subthreshold criteria for PTSD (N=106) underwent 64-channel resting EEG (eyes open and closed), which was then source-localized and orthogonalized to mitigate effects of volume conduction. Correlation coefficients between band-limited source-space power envelopes of different regions of interest were then calculated and corrected for multiple comparisons. Post hoc correlations of connectomic abnormalities with clinical features and performance on cognitive tasks were conducted to investigate the relevance of the dysconnectivity findings.

Seventy-four brain region connections were significantly reduced in PTSD (all in the eyes-open condition and predominantly using the theta carrier frequency). Underconnectivity of the orbital and anterior middle frontal gyri were most prominent. Performance differences in the digit span task mapped onto connectivity between 25 of the 74 brain region pairs, including within-network connections in the dorsal attention, frontoparietal control, and ventral attention networks.

Robust PTSD-related abnormalities were evident in theta-band source-space orthogonalized power envelope connectivity, which furthermore related to cognitive deficits in these patients. These findings establish a clinically relevant connectomic profile of PTSD using a tool that facilitates the lower-cost clinical translation of network connectivity research.

U.S. Adults With Pain, A Group Increasingly Vulnerable to Nonmedical Cannabis Use and Cannabis Use Disorder: 2001-2002 and 2012-2013.

Am J Psychiatry

Given changes in U.S. marijuana laws, attitudes, and use patterns, individuals with pain may be an emerging group at risk for nonmedical cannabis use and cannabis use disorder. The authors examined differences in the prevalence of nonmedical cannabis use and cannabis use disorder among U.S. adults with and without pain, as well as whether these differences widened over time.

Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC, 2001-2002; N=43,093) and NESARC-III (2012-2013; N=36,309) were analyzed using logistic regression. Risk differences of past-year nonmedical cannabis use, frequent (at least three times a week) nonmedical use, and DSM-IV cannabis use disorder were estimated for groups with and without moderate to severe pain, and these risk differences were tested for change over time.

Any nonmedical cannabis use was more prevalent in respondents with than without pain (2001-2002: 5.15% compared with 3.74%; 2012-2013: 12.42% compared with 9.02%), a risk difference significantly greater in the 2012-2013 data than in the 2001-2002 data. The prevalence of frequent nonmedical cannabis use did not differ by pain status in the 2001-2002 survey, but was significantly more prevalent in those with than without pain in the 2012-2013 survey (5.03% compared with 3.45%). Cannabis use disorder was more prevalent in respondents with than without pain (2001-2002: 1.77% compared with 1.35%; 2012-2013: 4.18% compared with 2.74%), a significantly greater risk difference in the data from 2012-2013 than from 2001-2002.

The results suggest that adults with pain are a group increasingly vulnerable to adverse cannabis use outcomes, warranting clinical and public health attention to this risk. Psychiatrists and other health care providers treating patients with pain should monitor such patients for signs and symptoms of cannabis use disorder.

Exosomes from patients with major depression cause depressive-like behaviors in mice with involvement of miR-139-5p-regulated neurogenesis.

Neuropsychopharmacology

Exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) have been suggested to participate in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric diseases, but their role in major depressive...

Modulation of depression-related behaviors by adiponectin AdipoR1 receptors in 5-HT neurons.

Molecular Psychiatry

The adipocyte-derived hormone adiponectin has a broad spectrum of functions beyond metabolic control. We previously reported that adiponectin acts ...

Targeting the centromedian thalamic nucleus for deep brain stimulation.

Journal Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the centromedian thalamic nucleus (CM) is an emerging treatment for multiple brain diseases, including the drug-resistant epilepsy Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS). We aimed to improve neurosurgical targeting of the CM by: (1) developing a structural MRI approach for CM visualisation, (2) identifying the CM's neurophysiological characteristics using microelectrode recordings (MERs) and (3) mapping connectivity from CM-DBS sites using functional MRI (fMRI).

19 patients with LGS (mean age=28 years) underwent presurgical 3T MRI using magnetisation-prepared 2 rapid acquisition gradient-echoes (MP2RAGE) and fMRI sequences; 16 patients proceeded to bilateral CM-DBS implantation and intraoperative thalamic MERs. CM visualisation was achieved by highlighting intrathalamic borders on MP2RAGE using Sobel edge detection. Mixed-effects analysis compared two MER features (spike firing rate and background noise) between ventrolateral, CM and parafasicular nuclei. Resting-state fMRI connectivity was assessed using implanted CM-DBS electrode positions as regions of interest.

The CM appeared as a hyperintense region bordering the comparatively hypointense pulvinar, mediodorsal and parafasicular nuclei. At the group level, reduced spike firing and background noise distinguished CM from the ventrolateral nucleus; however, these trends were not found in 20%-25% of individual MER trajectories. Areas of fMRI connectivity included basal ganglia, brainstem, cerebellum, sensorimotor/premotor and limbic cortex.

In the largest clinical trial of DBS undertaken in patients with LGS to date, we show that accurate targeting of the CM is achievable using 3T MP2RAGE MRI. Intraoperative MERs may provide additional localising features in some cases; however, their utility is limited by interpatient variability. Therapeutic effects of CM-DBS may be mediated via connectivity with brain networks that support diverse arousal, cognitive and sensorimotor processes.