The latest medical research on Psychiatry

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about psychiatry gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Psychopathy as an Emergent Interpersonal Syndrome: Further Reflections and Future Directions.

Journal of Personality and Social

In our article (Lilienfeld et al., 2019), we hypothesized that psychopathy and some other personality disorders are emergent interpersonal syndrome...

Forms, Importance, and Ineffability of Factor Interactions to Define Personality Disorders.

Journal of Personality and Social

The emergent interpersonal syndrome (EIS) approach conceptualizes personality disorders as the interaction among their constituent traits to predic...

Psychopathy as an Emergent Interpersonal Syndrome: What Is the Function of Fearlessness?

Journal of Personality and Social

Lilienfeld and colleagues (this issue) propose that some personality disorders can be conceptualized as emergent interpersonal syndromes (EIS). An ...

We Need to Talk About Development and Victims.

Journal of Personality and Social

The article by Lilienfeld and colleagues (this issue) proposes that the study of personality disorders could be substantially advanced by viewing a...

Antidepressant efficacy of a selective organic cation transporter blocker in a mouse model of depression.

Molecular Psychiatry

Current antidepressants act principally by blocking monoamine reuptake by high-affinity transporters in the brain. However, these antidepressants s...

Reward sensitivity deficits in a rat model of compulsive eating behavior.

Neuropsychopharmacology

Compulsive eating behavior is hypothesized to be driven in part by reward deficits likely due to neuroadaptations to the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) s...

Efficacy and Safety of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for Treating Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Psychiatry

Negative symptoms represent a substantial burden in schizophrenia. Although preliminary studies have suggested that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is effective for some clusters of symptoms, the clinical benefits for negative symptoms are unclear.

To determine the efficacy and safety of tDCS vs sham as an add-on treatment for patients with schizophrenia and predominant negative symptoms.

The double-blind Schizophrenia Treatment With Electric Transcranial Stimulation (STARTS) randomized clinical trial was conducted from September 2014 to March 2018 in 2 outpatient clinics in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Patients with schizophrenia with stable negative and positive symptoms and a minimum score of 20 points in the negative symptoms subscale of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) were included.

Ten sessions of tDCS performed twice a day for 5 days or a sham procedure. The anode and the cathode were positioned over the left prefrontal cortex and the left temporoparietal junction, respectively.

Change in the PANSS negative symptoms subscale score at week 6 was the primary outcome. Patients were followed-up for an additional 6 weeks.

Of the 100 included patients, 20 (20.0%) were female, and the mean (SD) age was 35.3 (9.3) years. A total of 95 patients (95.0%) finished the trial. In the intention-to-treat analysis, patients receiving active tDCS showed a significantly greater improvement in PANSS score compared with those receiving the sham procedure (difference, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.51-3.79; number needed to treat, 3.18; 95% CI, 2.12-6.99; P < .001). Response rates for negative symptoms (20% improvement or greater) were also higher in the active group (20 of 50 [40%]) vs the sham group (2 of 50 [4%]) (P < .001). These effects persisted at follow-up. Transcranial direct current stimulation was well tolerated, and adverse effects did not differ between groups, except for burning sensation over the scalp in the active group (43.8%) vs the sham group (14.3%) (P = .003).

Transcranial direct current stimulation was effective and safe in ameliorating negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia.

ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02535676.

Association Between High School Personality Phenotype and Dementia 54 Years Later in Results From a National US Sample.

JAMA Psychiatry

Personality phenotype has been associated with subsequent dementia in studies of older adults. However, neuropathologic changes often precede cognitive symptoms by many years and may affect personality itself. Therefore, it is unclear whether supposed dementia-prone personality profiles (high neuroticism and low conscientiousness) are true risk factors or merely reflections of preexisting disease.

To examine whether personality during adolescence-a time when preclinical dementia pathology is unlikely to be present-confers risk of dementia in later life and to test whether associations could be accounted for by health factors in adolescence or differed across socioeconomic status (SES).

Cohort study in the United States. Participants were members of Project Talent, a national sample of high school students in 1960. Individuals were identified who received a dementia-associated International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) diagnosis code during any year between 2011 and 2013. The dates of our analysis were March 2018 to May 2019.

Ten personality traits were measured by the 150-item Project Talent Personality Inventory. Socioeconomic status was measured by a composite based on parental educational level, income, occupation, and property ownership. Participants were also surveyed on demographic factors and height and weight.

Medicare records were collected, with dementia diagnoses in the period of 2011 to 2013 classified according to the US Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services ICD-9-based algorithm. Cox proportional hazards regression models estimated the relative risk of dementia based on the 10 personality traits, testing interactions with SES and adjusting for demographic confounders.

The sample of 82 232 participants was 50.1% female, with a mean (SD) age of 15.8 (1.7) years at baseline and 69.5 (1.2) years at follow-up. Lower risk of dementia was associated with higher levels of vigor (hazard ratio for 1 SD, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.90-0.97; P < .001). Calm and maturity showed protective associations with later dementia that increased with SES. At 1 SD of SES, calm showed a hazard ratio of 0.89 (95% CI, 0.84-0.95; P < .001 for the interaction) and maturity showed a hazard ratio of 0.90 (95% CI, 0.85-0.96; P = .001 for the interaction).

This study's findings suggest that the adolescent personality traits associated with later-life dementia are similar to those observed in studies of older persons. Moreover, the reduction in dementia risk associated with a calm and mature adolescent phenotype may be greater at higher levels of SES. Personality phenotype may be a true independent risk factor for dementia by age 70 years, preceding it by almost 5 decades and interacting with adolescent socioeconomic conditions.

Association of Bulimia Nervosa With Long-term Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality Among Women.

JAMA Psychiatry

Bulimia nervosa is associated with short-term cardiovascular complications in women, but its long-term consequences on cardiovascular health are unknown.

To study the association of bulimia nervosa with the long-term risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in women.

In this longitudinal cohort study, 416 709 women hospitalized in Quebec, Canada, including women hospitalized for bulimia nervosa and those for pregnancy-related events as a comparison group, were followed up for 12 years from 2006 to 2018 to identify incidences of cardiovascular disease and death.

At least 1 hospitalization for bulimia nervosa.

The study participants were followed up to identify future incidences of cardiovascular disease and deaths. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs to assess the association of bulimia nervosa with future outcomes after adjustment for patient characteristics.

The study population comprised 818 women who were hospitalized for bulimia nervosa (mean [SD] age, 28.3 [13.4] years) and 415 891 hospitalized for pregnancy-related events (mean [SD] age, 28.3 [5.4] years). Patients were followed up for a total of 2 957 677 person-years. The women hospitalized for bulimia nervosa had a greater incidence of cardiovascular disease compared with those hospitalized for pregnancy-related events (10.34 [95% CI, 7.77-13.76] vs 1.02 [95% CI, 0.99-1.06] per 1000 person-years). Incidence of future cardiovascular disease was even higher for women with 3 or more bulimia admissions (25.13 [95% CI, 13.52-46.70] per 1000 person-years). Women hospitalized for bulimia nervosa had 4.25 (95% CI, 2.98-6.07) times the risk of any cardiovascular disease and 4.72 (95% CI, 2.05-10.84) times the risk of death compared with women hospitalized for pregnancy-related events. Bulimia nervosa was found to be associated with ischemic heart disease (HR, 6.63; 95% CI, 3.34-13.13), atherosclerosis (HR, 6.94; 95% CI, 3.08-15.66), and cardiac conduction defects (HR, 2.99; 95% CI, 1.57-5.71). Bulimia was also associated with 21.93 (95% CI, 9.29-51.74) times the risk of myocardial infarction at 2 years of follow-up and 14.13 (95% CI, 6.02-33.18) times the risk at 5 years of follow-up.

This study's findings suggest that bulimia nervosa may be associated with the long-term risk of any cardiovascular disease, such as ischemic cardiac events and conduction disorders, as well as with death among women. The findings also suggest that women with a history of bulimia nervosa should be screened regularly for ischemic cardiovascular disease and may benefit from prevention of and treatment for cardiovascular risk factors.

A population-based family clustering study of tic-related obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Molecular Psychiatry

In the latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) included a new "tic...

Understanding the genetics of neuropsychiatric disorders: the potential role of genomic regulatory blocks.

Molecular Psychiatry

Recent genome-wide association studies have identified numerous loci associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. The majority of these are in non-c...

Psychosis and longitudinal outcomes in Huntington disease: the COHORT Study.

Journal Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry

Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease involving motor disturbances, cognitive decline and psychiatric symptoms. Psychotic symptoms occur in a significant proportion of patients. We sought to characterise the clinical outcomes of this group of patients.

Data were drawn from the Cooperative Huntington Observational Research Trial, a prospective, multi-centre observational study. 1082 patients with HD were recruited. Measures of cognition, function, behavioural disturbance and motor function were completed annually over 5 years.

Overall, 190 patients (17.6%) displayed psychotic symptoms. These patients demonstrated worse cognition, function and behavioural disturbances than patients without psychosis over time. Patients with psychosis also demonstrated lower levels of chorea than patients without psychosis, despite adjusting for concurrent antipsychotic and tetrabenazine use.

Psychosis in HD is associated with poorer outcomes in cognition, function and behavioural symptoms. Patients with psychotic symptoms may also have less chorea. Altogether, the findings suggest patients with psychosis have a distinct clinical course.