The latest medical research on Psychiatry

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about psychiatry gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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All roads lead to the default-mode network-global source of DMN abnormalities in major depressive disorder.

Neuropsychopharmacology

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by abnormal resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) in various neural ...

Age-dependent effects of protein restriction on dopamine release.

Neuropsychopharmacology

Despite the essential role of protein intake for health and development, very little is known about the impact of protein restriction on neurobiolo...

Reward Processing in Children With Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Callous-Unemotional Traits in the ABCD Study.

Am J Psychiatry

Disrupted reward processing is implicated in the etiology of disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) and callous-unemotional traits. However, neuroimaging investigations of reward processing underlying these phenotypes remain sparse. The authors examined neural sensitivity in response to reward anticipation and receipt among youths with DBDs, with and without callous-unemotional traits.

Data were obtained from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development Study (mean age=9.51 years [SD=0.50]; 49% female). Reward-related activation during the monetary incentive delay task was examined across 16 brain regions, including the amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), nucleus accumbens (NAcc), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Latent variable modeling was used to examine network-level coactivation. The following diagnostic groups were compared: typically developing youths (N=693) and youths with DBDs (N=995), subdivided into those with callous-unemotional traits (DBD+CU, N=198) and without callous-unemotional traits (DBD only, N=276).

During reward anticipation, youths in the overall DBD group (with and without callous-unemotional traits) showed decreased dorsal ACC activation compared with typically developing youths. The DBD-only group exhibited reduced ventral and dorsal striatal activity compared with the DBD+CU and typically developing groups. During reward receipt, youths with DBDs showed increased cortical (e.g., OFC) and subcortical (e.g., NAcc) regional activation compared with typically developing youths. The DBD+CU group demonstrated greater activation in several regions compared with those in the typically developing (e.g., amygdala) and DBD-only (e.g., dorsal ACC) groups. At the network level, the DBD-only group showed reduced anticipatory reward activation compared with the typically developing and DBD+CU groups, whereas youths in the DBD+CU group showed increased activation during reward receipt compared with those in the typically developing group.

These findings advance our understanding of unique neuroetiologic pathways to DBDs and callous-unemotional traits.

Early Parenting Intervention Effects on Brain Responses to Maternal Cues Among High-Risk Children.

Am J Psychiatry

Early adversity is correlated with increased risk for negative outcomes, including psychopathology and atypical neurodevelopment. The authors aimed to test the causal impact of an early parenting intervention (the Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-Up; ABC) on children's neural processing of parent cues and on psychosocial functioning in a longitudinal randomized clinical trial.

Participants (N=68, mean age, 10.0 years [SD=0.8 years]) were 46 high-risk children whose parents were randomly assigned to receive either the ABC intervention (N=22) or a control intervention (N=24) while the children were infants, in addition to a comparison sample of low-risk children (N=22). During functional MRI scanning, children viewed pictures of their own mothers and of a stranger.

Children in the ABC condition showed greater maternal cue-related activation than children in the control condition in clusters of brain regions, including the precuneus, the cingulate gyrus, and the hippocampus, regions commonly associated with social cognition. Additionally, greater activity in these regions was associated with fewer total behavior problems. There was an indirect effect of early intervention on middle childhood psychosocial functioning mediated through increased activity in brain regions in response to maternal cues.

These results suggest that early parenting intervention (in this case the ABC intervention) can enhance brain regions supporting children's social cognitive development. In addition, the findings highlight these brain effects as a possible neural pathway through which ABC may prevent future behavior problems among high-risk children, yielding psychosocial benefits that endure through at least middle childhood without the need to intervene with the child directly.

Identification of a Signaling Mechanism by Which the Microbiome Regulates Th17 Cell-Mediated Depressive-Like Behaviors in Mice.

Am J Psychiatry

Microbiota dysbiosis has been linked to major depressive disorder, but the mechanisms whereby the microbiota modulates mood remain poorly understood. The authors tested whether specific changes in the microbiome modulate depressive-like behaviors.

Stools from learned helpless, non-learned helpless, and non-shocked mice were analyzed by V4 16S RNA sequencing to identify gut bacteria associated with learned helplessness and to quantify the level of the quorum-sensing molecule autoinducer-2 (AI-2). T cells were analyzed by flow cytometry, and serum amyloid proteins (SAA) were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Fecal transfer approach and administration of oleic acid and AI-2 were used to determine the effects of the microbiome and quorum-sensing molecules on depressive-like behaviors.

Mice deficient in segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) were resilient to the induction of depressive-like behavior, and were resensitized when SFB was reintroduced in the gut. SFB produces the quorum-sensing AI-2 and promotes the production of SAA1 and SAA2 by the host, which increases T helper 17 (Th17) cell production. Th17 cells were required to promote depressive-like behaviors by AI-2, as AI-2 administration did not promote susceptibility to depressive-like behaviors or SAA1 and SAA2 production in Th17-deficient mice after stress. Oleic acid, an AI-2 inhibitor, exhibited antidepressant properties, reducing depressive-like behavior, intestinal SAA1 and SAA2 production, and hippocampal Th17 cell accumulation. Stool samples from 10 people with current depressive symptoms and 10 matched healthy control subjects were analyzed as well. Patients with current major depressive disorder exhibited increased fecal interleukin 17A, SAA, and SFB levels.

The study results reveal a novel mechanism by which bacteria alter mood.

Data-driven evolution of neurosurgical gene therapy delivery in Parkinson's disease.

Journal Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry

Loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic projection neurons is a key pathology in Parkinson's disease, leading to abnormal function of basal ganglia moto...

Occupational therapy consensus recommendations for functional neurological disorder.

Journal Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry

People with functional neurological disorder (FND) are commonly seen by occupational therapists; however, there are limited descriptions in the literature about the type of interventions that are likely to be helpful. This document aims to address this issue by providing consensus recommendations for occupational therapy assessment and intervention.

The recommendations were developed in four stages. Stage 1: an invitation was sent to occupational therapists with expertise in FND in different countries to complete two surveys exploring their opinions regarding best practice for assessment and interventions for FND. Stage 2: a face-to-face meeting of multidisciplinary clinical experts in FND discussed and debated the data from stage 1, aiming to achieve consensus on each issue. Stage 3: recommendations based on the meeting were drafted. Stage 4: successive drafts of recommendations were circulated among the multidisciplinary group until consensus was achieved.

We recommend that occupational therapy treatment for FND is based on a biopsychosocial aetiological framework. Education, rehabilitation within functional activity and the use of taught self-management strategies are central to occupational therapy intervention for FND. Several aspects of occupational therapy for FND are distinct from therapy for other neurological conditions. Examples to illustrate the recommendations are included within this document.

Occupational therapists have an integral role in the multidisciplinary management of people with FND. This document forms a starting point for research aiming to develop evidence-based occupational therapy interventions for people with FND.

Quality of life outcomes after globus pallidus internus deep brain stimulation in idiopathic or inherited isolated dystonia: a meta-analysis.

Journal Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry

Several studies reported the beneficial effects of globus pallidus internus deep brain stimulation (GPi DBS) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with inherited or idiopathic isolated dystonia. However, the impact of this intervention on physical and mental/psychological domains and the effects over time remain unclear.

We conducted a systematic literature review from January 2000 to May 2019 and performed a meta-analysis of HRQoL outcomes based on the Short Form Health Survey-36 (SF-36) after GPi DBS in patients with inherited or idiopathic isolated dystonia to evaluate the effects of DBS on physical and mental QoL.

Seven studies comprising 144 patients with dystonia (78, generalised; 34, segmental; and 32, focal cervical) were included in this comprehensive analysis. The mean (SD) age at DBS implantation was 41.0 (11.4) years, and the follow-up period after implantation was 3.2 (3.8) years. The random effects model meta-analysis revealed that both physical and mental domains of SF-36 improved following DBS with a significantly larger effect size for the physical domains (effect size=0.781; p<0.0001) compared with the mental domains (effect size=0.533; p<0.0001). A moderator variable analysis demonstrated that effect sizes for HRQoL improvement were maintained over time.

This is the first meta-analysis that demonstrates significant benefits in HRQoL following DBS in patients with inherited or idiopathic isolated dystonia. The benefits are greater for physical QoL domains compared with mental/psychological QoL. These findings highlight the importance of a comprehensive multidisciplinary approach to improve mental/psychological QoL.

Sex specific effects of "junk-food" diet on calcium permeable AMPA receptors and silent synapses in the nucleus accumbens core.

Neuropsychopharmacology

CP-AMPARs in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) mediate cue-triggered motivation for food and cocaine. In addition, increases in NAc CP-AMPAR expression a...

Pharmacokinetics trumps pharmacodynamics during cocaine choice: a reconciliation with the dopamine hypothesis of addiction.

Neuropsychopharmacology

Cocaine is known to increase brain dopamine at supranormal levels in comparison to alternative nondrug rewards. According to the dopamine hypothesi...

Genome-wide DNA methylation differences in nucleus accumbens of smokers vs. nonsmokers.

Neuropsychopharmacology

Numerous DNA methylation (DNAm) biomarkers of cigarette smoking have been identified in peripheral blood studies, but because of tissue specificity...

Supporting the vulnerable: developing a strategic community mental health response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Australasian Psychiatry

The COVID-19 pandemic poses significant risks to the vulnerable patient population supported by community mental health (CMH) teams in South Australia. This paper describes a plan developed to understand and mitigate these risks.

Public health and psychiatric literature was reviewed and clinicians in CMH teams and infectious disease were consulted. Key risks posed by COVID-19 to CMH patients were identified and mitigation plans were prepared.

A public health response plan for CMH teams was developed to support vulnerable individuals and respond to the COVID-19 pandemic. This plan will be reviewed regularly to respond to changes in public health recommendations, research findings and feedback from patients and clinicians.

The strategic response plan developed to address risks to vulnerable patients from COVID-19 can assist other CMH services in managing the COVID-19 pandemic.