The latest medical research on Neurosurgery

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about neurosurgery gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Molecular basis and clinical perspectives of deep brain stimulation for major depressive disorder.

J Cereb Blood

It is possible to consider the stimulation of the cingulate gyrus in its portion below the corpus callosum (SCC, or subcallosal cingulate cortex) a...

Robot-assisted versus video-assisted thoraco-laparoscopic McKeown's esophagectomy for esophageal cancer: a propensity score-matched analysis of minimally invasive approaches.

Journal of Robotic Surgery

Minimally invasive esophagectomy for esophageal cancer decreases overall complication rate and leads to faster postoperative recovery. Robot-assist...

Biologic vs Synthetic Mesh for Single-stage Repair of Contaminated Ventral Hernias: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Surgery

Biologic mesh is widely used for reinforcing contaminated ventral hernia repairs; however, it is expensive and has been associated with high rates of long-term hernia recurrence. Synthetic mesh is a lower-cost alternative but its efficacy has not been rigorously studied in individuals with contaminated hernias.

To determine whether synthetic mesh results in superior reduction in risk of hernia recurrence compared with biologic mesh during the single-stage repair of clean-contaminated and contaminated ventral hernias.

This multicenter, single-blinded randomized clinical trial was conducted from December 2012 to April 2019 with a follow-up duration of 2 years. The trial was completed at 5 academic medical centers in the US with specialized units for abdominal wall reconstruction. A total of 253 adult patients with clean-contaminated or contaminated ventral hernias were enrolled in this trial. Follow-up was completed in April 2021.

Retromuscular synthetic or biologic mesh at the time of fascial closure.

The primary outcome was the superiority of synthetic mesh vs biologic mesh at reducing risk of hernia recurrence at 2 years based on intent-to-treat analysis. Secondary outcomes included mesh safety, defined as the rate of surgical site occurrence requiring a procedural intervention, and 30-day hospital direct costs and prosthetic costs.

A total of 253 patients (median [IQR] age, 64 [55-70] years; 117 [46%] male) were randomized (126 to synthetic mesh and 127 to biologic mesh) and the follow-up rate was 92% at 2 years. Compared with biologic mesh, synthetic mesh significantly reduced the risk of hernia recurrence (hazard ratio, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.23-0.42; P < .001). The overall intent-to-treat hernia recurrence risk at 2 years was 13% (33 of 253 patients). Recurrence risk with biologic mesh was 20.5% (26 of 127 patients) and with synthetic mesh was 5.6% (7 of 126 patients), with an absolute risk reduction of 14.9% with the use of synthetic mesh (95% CI, -23.8% to -6.1%; P = .001). There was no significant difference in overall 2-year risk of surgical site occurrence requiring a procedural intervention between the groups (odds ratio, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.60-2.44; P = .58). Median (IQR) 30-day hospital direct costs were significantly greater in the biologic group vs the synthetic group ($44 936 [$35 877-$52 656] vs $17 289 [$14 643-$22 901], respectively; P < .001). There was also a significant difference in the price of the prosthetic device between the 2 groups (median [IQR] cost biologic, $21 539 [$20 285-$23 332] vs synthetic, $105 [$105-$118]; P < .001).

Synthetic mesh demonstrated superior 2-year hernia recurrence risk compared with biologic mesh in patients undergoing single-stage repair of contaminated ventral hernias, and both meshes demonstrated similar safety profiles. The price of biologic mesh was over 200 times that of synthetic mesh for these outcomes. Identifier: NCT02451176.

Association Between Hospital Perioperative Quality and Long-term Survival After Noncardiac Surgery.

JAMA Surgery

There is known variation in perioperative mortality rates across hospitals. However, the extent to which this variation is associated with hospital-level differences in longer-term survival has not been characterized.

To evaluate the association between hospital perioperative quality and long-term survival after noncardiac surgery.

This national cohort study included 654 093 US veterans who underwent noncardiac surgery at 98 hospitals using data from the Veterans Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Program from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2016. Data were analyzed between January 1 and November 1, 2021.

Hospitals were stratified separately into quintiles of reliability-adjusted failure to rescue (FTR) and mortality rates. Patients were further categorized as having a complicated or uncomplicated postoperative course.

The association between hospital FTR or mortality performance quintile (with quintile 1 representing low FTR or mortality and quintile 5 representing very high FTR or mortality) and overall risk of death was evaluated separately using multivariable shared frailty modeling among patients with a complicated and uncomplicated postoperative course.

For the overall cohort of 654 093 patients, the mean (SD) age was 61.1 (13.2) years; 597 515 (91.4%) were men and 56 578 (8.7%) were women; 111 077 (17.0%) were Black, 5953 (0.9%) were Native American, 467 969 (71.5%) were White, 42 219 (6.5%) were missing a racial category, and 26 875 (4.1%) were of another race; and 37 538 (5.7%) were Hispanic. Hospital-level 5-year survival for patients with a complicated course ranged from 42.7% (95% CI, 38.1%-46.9%) to 82.4% (95% CI, 59.0%-93.2%) and from 76.2% (95% CI, 74.4%-78.0%) to 95.2% (95% CI, 92.5%-97.7%) for patients with an uncomplicated course. Overall, 47 (48.0%) and 83 (84.7%) of 98 hospitals were either in the same or within 1 performance quintile for FTR and mortality, respectively. Among patients who had a postoperative complication, there was a dose-dependent association between care at hospitals with higher FTR rates and risk of death (compared with quintile 1: quintile 2 hazard ratio [HR], 1.05 [95% CI, 0.99-1.12]; quintile 3 HR, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.10-1.26]; quintile 4 HR, 1.30 [95% CI, 1.22-1.38]; and quintile 5 HR, 1.34 [95% CI, 1.22-1.43]). Similarly, increasing hospital FTR rates were associated with increasing risk of death among patients without complications (compared with quintile 1: quintile 2 HR, 1.07 [95% CI, 1.01-1.14]; quintile 3 HR, 1.10 [95% CI, 1.04-1.16]; quintile 4 HR, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.09-1.21]; and quintile 5 HR, 1.10 [95% CI, 1.05-1.19]). These findings were similar across hospital mortality quintiles for patients with complicated and uncomplicated courses.

The findings of this cohort study suggest that the structures, processes, and systems of care that underlie the association between FTR and worse short-term outcomes may also have an influence on long-term survival through a pathway other than rescue from complications. A better understanding of these differences could lead to strategies that address variation in both perioperative and longer-term outcomes.

A prospective observational study assessing the feasibility and factors affecting same-day discharge in patients undergoing robotic-assisted surgery for gynecological cancers.

Journal of Robotic Surgery

Although robotic-assisted surgery is being increasingly used in the management of gynecologic cancers, most surgeons discharge patients on the next...

Coupling between cerebrovascular oscillations and CSF flow fluctuations during wakefulness: An fMRI study.

J Cereb Blood

It is commonly believed that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) movement is facilitated by blood vessel wall movements (i.e., hemodynamic oscillations) in t...

Comparison of the long-term oncologic outcomes of robotic-assisted and video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy for resectable non-small cell lung carcinoma.

Journal of Robotic Surgery

The current oncologic outcomes of robotic-assisted lobectomy compared to video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy are currently not well defined. Thi...

Economizing on a 12 mm port incision site: modification of robotic bowel stapling technique in Da Vinci X/Xi left colonic resections-the modified Norfolk and Norwich robotic stapling technique.

Journal of Robotic Surgery

The modified Norfolk and Norwich technique allows to replace a 12 mm port incision site by an 8 mm one, therefore reducing potential postoperative ...

Fat-rich versus carbohydrate-rich nutrition in ALS: a randomised controlled study.

Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

There is growing evidence that the course of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) may be influenced beneficially by applying high-caloric food supplements (HCSs). However, it is unknown which composition of nutrients offers optimal tolerability and weight gain.

We conducted a randomised controlled study (Safety and Tolerability of Ultra-high-caloric Food Supplements in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS); TOLCAL-ALS study) in 64 patients with possible, probable or definite ALS according to El Escorial criteria. Patients were randomised into four groups: a high-caloric fatty supplement (HCFS; 405 kcal/day, 100% fat), an ultra-high-caloric fatty supplement (UHCFS; 810 kcal/day, 100% fat), an ultra-high-caloric, carbohydrate-rich supplement (UHCCS; 900 kcal/day, 49% carbohydrates) and an open control (OC) group without any supplement. The primary endpoint was tolerability. Patients were followed up over 4 weeks.

Gastrointestinal side effects were most frequent in the UHCFS group (75.0%), while loss of appetite was most frequent in the UHCCS group (35.3%). During intervention, patients gained +0.9 kg/month of body weight (IQR -0.9 to 1.5; p=0.03) in the HCFS group and +0.9 kg/month (IQR -0.8 to 2.0; p=0.05) in the UHCFS group. A non-significant trend for weight gain (+0.6 kg/month (IQR -0.3 to 1.9; p=0.08)) was observed in the UHCCS group. Patients in OC group continued to lose body weight (-0.5 kg/month, IQR -1.4 to 1.3; p=0.42).

The findings suggest that HCSs frequently cause mild to moderate tolerability issues in patients with ALS, most notably gastrointestinal symptoms in high-fat supplements, and loss of appetite in high-carbohydrate supplements. All three HCSs tested are suited to increase body weight.

Development of novel clinical examination scales for the measurement of disease severity in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

To use a robust statistical methodology to develop and validate clinical rating scales quantifying longitudinal motor and cognitive dysfunction in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) at the bedside.

Rasch analysis was used to iteratively construct interval scales measuring composite cognitive and motor dysfunction from pooled bedside neurocognitive examinations collected as part of the prospective National Prion Monitoring Cohort study, October 2008-December 2016.A longitudinal clinical examination dataset constructed from 528 patients with sCJD, comprising 1030 Motor Scale and 757 Cognitive Scale scores over 130 patient-years of study, was used to demonstrate scale utility.

The Rasch-derived Motor Scale consists of 8 items, including assessments reliant on pyramidal, extrapyramidal and cerebellar systems. The Cognitive Scale comprises 6 items, and includes measures of executive function, language, visual perception and memory. Both scales are unidimensional, perform independently of age or gender and have excellent inter-rater reliability. They can be completed in minutes at the bedside, as part of a normal neurocognitive examination. A composite Examination Scale can be derived by averaging both scores. Several scale uses, in measuring longitudinal change, prognosis and phenotypic heterogeneity are illustrated.

These two novel sCJD Motor and Cognitive Scales and the composite Examination Scale should prove useful to objectively measure phenotypic and clinical change in future clinical trials and for patient stratification. This statistical approach can help to overcome obstacles to assessing clinical change in rapidly progressive, multisystem conditions with limited longitudinal follow-up.

Impact of robotic single and dual console systems in the training of minimally invasive gynecology surgery (MIGS) fellows.

Journal of Robotic Surgery

The advantages of dual console use in robotic surgical education have not been described. The aims of this study are to compare fellow console time...

Risk Factors for Treatment Refractory and Relapsed Optic Pathway Glioma in Children with Neurofibromatosis Type 1.


Nearly one-third of patients with neurofibromatosis type 1-associated optic pathway glioma (NF1-OPG) fail frontline chemotherapy; however, little is known about risk factors for treatment failure.

We performed a retrospective multi-institutional cohort study to identify baseline risk factors for treatment-refractory/relapsed disease and poor visual outcome in children with NF1-OPG. Refractory/relapsed NF1-OPG was defined as requirement of two or more treatment regimens due to progression or relapse.

Of 111 subjects eligible for inclusion, adequate clinical and visual data were available for 103 subjects from 7 institutions. Median follow-up from initiation of first chemotherapy regimen was 95 months (range 13-185). Eighty-four (82%) subjects received carboplatin-based frontline chemotherapy. Forty-five subjects (44%) experienced refractory/relapsed disease, with median time of 21.5 months (range 2-149) from initiation of first treatment to start of second treatment. The proportion of patients without refractory/relapsed disease at 2 and 5 years was 78% and 60%. In multivariable analyses, age less than 24 months at initial treatment, posterior tumor location, and familial inheritance were associated with refractory/relapsed NF1-OPG by 2 years. Both age less than 24 months and posterior tumor location were associated with refractory/relapsed NF1-OPG by 5 years. Subjects with moderate to severe vision loss at last follow-up were more likely to have posterior tumor location, optic disc abnormalities, or abnormal visual acuity at initial treatment.

Young age, posterior tumor location, and optic disc abnormalities may identify patients with the greatest likelihood of refractory/relapsed NF1-OPG and poor visual outcomes, and who may benefit from newer treatment strategies.