The latest medical research on Neurosurgery

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about neurosurgery gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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In Vivo Functional Characterization of EGFR Variants Identifies Novel Drivers of Glioblastoma.


Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor. Large scale sequencing initiatives have cataloged its mutational landscape in hopes of elucidating mechanisms driving this deadly disease. However, a major bottleneck in harnessing this data for new therapies is deciphering "driver" and "passenger" events amongst the vast volume of information.

We utilized an autochthonous, in vivo screening approach to identify driver, EGFR variants. RNA-Seq identified unique molecular signatures of mouse gliomas across these variants, which only differ by a single amino acid change. In particular, we identified alterations to lipid metabolism, which we further validated through an unbiased lipidomics screen.

Our screen identified A289I as the most potent EGFR variant, which has previously not been characterized. One of the mechanisms through with A289I promotes gliomagenesis is to alter cellular triacylglycerides through MTTP. Knockout of Mttp in mouse gliomas, reduces gliomagenesis in multiple models.

EGFR variants that differ by a single amino acid residue differentially promote gliomagenesis. Among the identified mechanism that drive glioma growth include lipid metabolism through MTTP. Understanding triacylglyceride accumulation may present a prospective therapeutic pathway for this deadly disease.

Preoperative and postoperative memory in epilepsy patients with 'gliosis only' versus hippocampal sclerosis: a matched case-control study.

Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

Gliosis only (GO) and hippocampal sclerosis (HS) are distinct histopathological entities in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. This study explores whether this distinction also exists on a functional level when evaluating pre- and postoperative memory.

Using a retrospective matched case-control study design, we analysed verbal and visual memory performance in 49 patients with GO and 49 patients with HS before and one year after elective surgery.

Clinical differences were evident with a later age at seizure onset (18±12 vs 12±9 years) and fewer postoperative seizure-free patients in the GO group (63% vs 82%). Preoperatively, group and individual-level data demonstrated that memory impairments were less frequent, less severe and relatively non-specific in patients with GO compared with HS. Postoperatively, verbal memory declined in both groups, particularly after left-sided resections, with more significant losses in patients with GO. Factoring in floor effects, GO was also associated with more significant visual memory loss, particularly after left resections.

Compared with HS, GO is characterised by (1) a later onset of epilepsy, (2) less pronounced and more non-specific memory impairments before surgery, (3) a less successful surgical outcome and (4) a more significant memory decline after surgery. Overall, our results regarding cognition provide further evidence that GO and HS are distinct clinical entities. Functional integrity of the hippocampus appears higher in GO, as indicated by a better preoperative memory performance and worse memory outcome after surgery. The different risk-benefit ratios should be considered during presurgical patient counselling.

Somatic symptom disorder in patients with post-COVID-19 neurological symptoms: a preliminary report from the somatic study (Somatic Symptom Disorder Triggered by COVID-19).

Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

To assess the diagnosis of somatic symptom disorder (SSD) in patients with unexplained neurological symptoms occurring after SARS-CoV-2 infection, also referred to as long COVID.

Patients were contacted for a standardised psychometric evaluation by phone, followed by a self-survey.

Although the patients did not meet the DSM-5 criteria for a functional neurological symptom disorder specifically, SSD diagnosis based on DSM-5 criteria was positive in 32 (64%) patients. In the remaining 18 patients, SSD was considered possible given the high score on diagnostic scales. Physical examination were normal for all. Brain MRI showed unspecific minor white matter hyperintensities in 8/46 patients. Neuropsychological assessment showed exclusively mild impairment of attention in 14 out of 15 tested patients, in discrepancy with their major subjective complaint. Forty-five (90%) patients met criteria for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Seventeen (32%) patients were screened positive for mood-anxiety disorders, 19 (38%) had a history of prior SSD and 27 (54%) reported past trauma. Additional self-survey highlighted post-traumatic stress disorder in 12/43 (28%), high levels of alexithymia traits and perfectionism. Long-lasting symptoms had a major impact with a high rate of insomnia (29/43, 67%), psychiatric follow-up (28/50, 56%) and work or pay loss (25/50, 50%).

A majority of patients with unexplained long-lasting neurological symptoms after mild COVID met diagnostic criteria for SSD and may require specific management.


Exploring the phenotype of Italian patients with ALS with intermediate ATXN2 polyQ repeats.

Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

To detect the clinical characteristics of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) carrying an intermediate ATXN2 polyQ number of repeats in a large population-based series of Italian patients with ALS.

The study population includes 1330 patients with ALS identified through the Piemonte and Valle d'Aosta Register for ALS, diagnosed between 2007 and 2019 and not carrying C9orf72, SOD1, TARDBP and FUS mutations. Controls were 1274 age, sex and geographically matched Italian subjects, identified through patients' general practitioners.

We found 42 cases and 4 controls with≥31 polyQ repeats, corresponding to an estimated OR of 10.4 (95% CI 3.3 to 29.0). Patients with≥31 polyQ repeats (ATXN2+) compared with those without repeat expansion (ATXN2-) had more frequently a spinal onset (p=0.05), a shorter diagnostic delay (p=0.004), a faster rate of ALSFRS-R progression (p=0.004) and King's progression (p=0.004), and comorbid frontotemporal dementia (7 (28.0%) vs 121 (13.4%), p=0.037). ATXN2+ patients had a 1-year shorter survival (ATXN2+ patients 1.82 years, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.51; ATXN2- 2.84 years, 95% CI 1.67 to 5.58, p=0.0001). ATXN2 polyQ intermediate repeats was independently related to a worse outcome in Cox multivariable analysis (p=0.006).

In our population-based cohort, ATXN2+ patients with ALS have a distinctive phenotype, characterised by a more rapid disease course and a shorter survival. In addition, ATXN2+ patients have a more severe impairment of cognitive functions. These findings have relevant implications on clinical practice, including the possibility of refining the individual prognostic prediction and improving the design of ALS clinical trials, in particular as regards as those targeted explicitly to ATXN2.

Risk of stroke in multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optic spectrum disorder: a Nationwide cohort study in South Korea.

Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

People with multiple sclerosis (MS) are more likely to develop stroke than those without. However, little is known about the association between neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and the risk of stroke. We aimed to estimate the risk of stroke in patients with MS and NMOSD in South Korea.

Data from the Korean National Health Insurance between January 2010 and December 2017 were analysed. A total of 1541/1687 adult patients with MS/NMOSD, who were free of stroke were included. Matched controls were selected based on age, sex and the presence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia.

The risk of developing stroke was 2.78 times higher (adjusted HR (aHR), 95% CI 1.91 to 4.05) in patients with MS compared with controls matched by age, sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia. The risk of stroke in NMOSD was also higher than that in matched controls (aHR=1.69, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.61) and not statistically different from that of MS (p=0.216). The patients with MS had a higher risk for either of ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke (HR=2.63 and 2.93, respectively), whereas those with NMOSD had a higher risk for ischaemic stroke (HR=1.60) with marginal statistical significance.

The risk of stroke is increased in patients with MS and NMOSD and seemed comparable between the two conditions. This is the first study that estimates the risk of stroke in patients with MS and NMOSD within the same population.

Diagnostic and prognostic performance of Mxa and transfer function analysis-based dynamic cerebral autoregulation metrics.

J Cereb Blood

Dynamic cerebral autoregulation is often assessed by continuously recorded arterial blood pressure (ABP) and transcranial Doppler-derived mean cere...

Abnormal cerebral microvascular perfusion and reactivity in female offspring of reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) mice model.

J Cereb Blood

Children born from women with preeclampsia have alterations in cerebral neurovascular development and a high risk for developing cognitive alterati...

Protontherapy for adult craniopharyngioma: experience of a single institution in 91 consecutive patients.


Craniopharyngioma (CP) in adults is a rare benign tumor associated with many morbidities, with limited contemporary studies to define treatment, and follow-up guidelines.

A single-center retrospective study was conducted on patients aged ≥18-years from 2006-2018 with CP and who were treated with proton therapy (PT). Late toxicity was defined as a minimum of 18 months from diagnosis. Overall survival (OS), local recurrence-free survival (LRFS), and toxicity were characterized using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses.

Ninety-one patients met the criteria, with a median age of 37-years (range 18-82y). PT was conducted after tumor resection in 88 patients (97%), in 64 patients (70.3%) as an adjuvant strategy and 27 (29.7%) after recurrent disease. Three patients received exclusive PT. A median MRI follow-up of 39 months revealed 35.2% complete response, 49.5% partial response, and 9.9% stable disease. Five patients developed local recurrence (LR). Pattern of failure study showed that these five LR were within the GTV volume. The 5-year LRFS was 92.0% [CI95%:84.90-99.60]. All the patients were alive at the end of the follow-up. Patients requiring treatment adaptation during PT tend to have a higher risk of LR (p=0.084). Endocrinopathy was the most frequent grade≥2 late toxicity. Among patients who were symptom-free before the start of treatment, none developed hearing toxicity but four (9.8%) developed visual disorders and 10 (11.3%) symptomatic memory impairment. Patients with large tumors had a higher risk of developing symptomatic memory impairment (p=0.029).

Adults with CP treated with PT have favorable survival outcomes, with acceptable late toxicity. Prospective quality-of-life and neurocognitive studies are needed to define late adverse effects better.

Preserving stroke penumbra by targeting lipid signalling.

J Cereb Blood

Pharmacological inhibition of astrocytic enzyme autotaxin rescues the stroke penumbra in mice and improves functional recovery, indicating therapeu...

Disturbed microcirculation and hyperaemic response in a murine model of systemic inflammation.

J Cereb Blood

Systemic inflammation affects cognitive functions and increases the risk of dementia. This phenomenon is thought to be mediated in part by cytokine...

National-level overall survival patterns for molecularly-defined diffuse glioma types in the United States.


Molecularly-defined diffuse glioma types - including IDH-wildtype glioblastoma, IDH-mutant astrocytoma, IDH-mutant 1p/19q-codeleted oligodendroglioma, and H3 K27M-mutant diffuse midline glioma - were incorporated into U.S. cancer registry reporting for individuals with brain tumors beginning in 2018. We leveraged these new data to estimate the national-level overall survival (OS) patterns associated with glioma integrated diagnoses.

Individuals diagnosed with diffuse gliomas in 2018 and had brain molecular marker data were identified within the U.S. National Cancer Database. OS was estimated using Kaplan Meier methods and stratified by WHO CNS grade, age, sex, tumor size, treatment, extent of resection, and MGMT promoter methylation. Additionally, the effects of WHO CNS grade were examined among individuals with IDH-wildtype astrocytic gliomas.

8,651 individuals were identified. One-year OS was 53.7% for WHO grade 4 IDH-wildtype glioblastomas; 98.0%, 92.4%, and 76.3% for WHO grade 2, 3, and 4 IDH-mutant astrocytomas, respectively; 97.9% and 94.4% for WHO grade 2 and 3 IDH-mutant 1p/19q-codeleted oligodendrogliomas, respectively; and 55.9% for H3 K27M-mutant diffuse midline gliomas. Among IDH-wildtype glioblastomas, median OS was 17.1 months and 12.4 months for methylated and unmethylated MGMT promoters. Additionally, IDH-wildtype diffuse astrocytic gliomas reported as WHO grade 2 or 3 demonstrated longer OS compared to grade 4 tumors (both p<0.001).

Our findings provide the initial national OS estimates for molecularly-defined diffuse gliomas in the U.S. and illustrate the importance of incorporating such data into cancer registry reporting.

Establishing robotic bariatric surgery at an academic tertiary hospital: a learning curve analysis for totally robotic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

Journal of Robotic Surgery

The use of robotic systems in bariatric surgery has constantly increased over the last years. However, beside its technical advantages in morbidly ...