The latest medical research on Neurosurgery

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about neurosurgery gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Safe transition to opioid-free pathway after robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy.

Journal of Robotic Surgery

To determine whether local anesthetic infiltration and non-narcotic pain medications can safely reduce or eliminate opioid use following robotic-as...

Role of endothelium-pericyte signaling in capillary blood flow response to neuronal activity.

J Cereb Blood

Local blood flow in the brain is tightly coupled to metabolic demands, a phenomenon termed functional hyperemia. Both capillaries and arterioles co...

Much ado about eating: Intermittent fasting and post-stroke neuroprotection.

J Cereb Blood

A proper diet is important for health and longevity. Controlling the amount of food consumed is immensely beneficial as it promotes multiple cellul...

Assessing cerebral arterial pulse wave velocity using 4D flow MRI.

J Cereb Blood

Intracranial arterial stiffening is a potential early marker of emerging cerebrovascular dysfunction and could be mechanistically involved in disea...

Neurovascular coupling dysfunction in end-stage renal disease patients related to cognitive impairment.

J Cereb Blood

We aimed to investigate the neurovascular coupling (NVC) dysfunction in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients related with cognitive impairment. ...

The long noncoding RNA lnc-HLX-2-7 is oncogenic in Group 3 medulloblastomas.

Neuro-Oncology

Medulloblastoma (MB) is an aggressive brain tumor that predominantly affects children. Recent high-throughput sequencing studies suggest that the noncoding RNA genome, in particular long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), contributes to MB subgrouping. Here we report the identification of a novel lncRNA, lnc-HLX-2-7, as a potential molecular marker and therapeutic target in Group 3 MBs.

Publicly available RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data from 175 MB patients were interrogated to identify lncRNAs that differentiate between MB subgroups. After characterizing a subset of differentially expressed lncRNAs in vitro and in vivo, lnc-HLX-2-7 was deleted by CRISPR/Cas9 in the MB cell line. Intracranial injected tumors were further characterized by bulk and single-cell RNA-seq.

Lnc-HLX-2-7 is highly upregulated in Group 3 MB cell lines, patient-derived xenografts, and primary MBs compared with other MB subgroups as assessed by quantitative real-time, RNA-seq, and RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization. Depletion of lnc-HLX-2-7 significantly reduced cell proliferation and 3D colony formation and induced apoptosis. Lnc-HLX-2-7-deleted cells injected into mouse cerebellums produced smaller tumors than those derived from parental cells. Pathway analysis revealed that lnc-HLX-2-7 modulated oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and sirtuin signaling pathways. The MYC oncogene regulated lnc-HLX-2-7, and the small-molecule bromodomain and extraterminal domain family‒bromodomain 4 inhibitor Jun Qi 1 (JQ1) reduced lnc-HLX-2-7 expression.

Lnc-HLX-2-7 is oncogenic in MB and represents a promising novel molecular marker and a potential therapeutic target in Group 3 MBs.

The follow-up of the robotic-assisted Soave procedure for Hirschsprung's disease in children.

Journal of Robotic Surgery

Robotic surgery offers three-dimensional visualization and precision of movement that could be of great value to gastrointestinal surgeons. There w...

Single-port robotic-assisted simple prostatectomy is associated with decreased post-operative narcotic use in a propensity score matched analysis.

Journal of Robotic Surgery

Robotic-assisted simple prostatectomy (RASP) has proven to be an effective minimally invasive option for benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) in rece...

The incidence of major subtypes of primary brain tumours in adults in England 1995-2017.

Neuro-Oncology

Primary brain tumours are a complex heterogenous group of benign and malignant tumours. Reports on their occurrence in the English population by sex, age, and morphological subtype and on their incidence are currently not available. Using data from the National Cancer Registration and Analysis Service (NCRAS), the incidence of adult primary brain tumour by major subtypes in England will be described.

Data on all adult English patients diagnosed with primary brain tumour between 1995 and 2017, excluding spinal, endocrinal and other CNS tumours, were extracted from NCRAS. Incidence rates were standardised to the 2013 European Standard Population. Results are presented by sex, age, and morphological subtype.

Between 1995 and 2017, a total of 133,669 cases of adult primary brain tumour were registered in England. Glioblastoma was the most frequent tumour subtype (31.8%), followed by meningioma (27.3%). The age-standardised incidence for glioblastoma increased from 3.27 per 100,000 population per year in 1995 to 7.34 in men in 2013 and from 2.00 to 4.45 in women. Meningioma incidence also increased from 1.89 to 3.41 per 100,000 in men and from 3.40 to 7.46 in women. The incidence of other astrocytic and unclassified brain tumours declined between 1995 and 2007 and remained stable thereafter.

Part of the increase in the incidence of major subtypes of brain tumours in England could be explained by advances in clinical practice including the adoption of new diagnostic tools, classifications and molecular testing, and improved cancer registration practices.

MEVITEM - A Phase I/II of vismodegib + temozolomide vs temozolomide in patients with recurrent/refractory medulloblastoma with Sonic Hedgehog pathway activation.

Neuro-Oncology

Vismodegib specifically inhibits Sonic Hedgehog (SHH). We report results of a Phase I/II evaluating vismodegib + temozolomide in immunohistochemically defined SHH recurrent/refractory adult medulloblastoma.

Temozolomide naïve patients were randomized 2:1 to receive vismodegib + temozolomide (Arm A) or temozolomide (Arm B). Patients previously treated with temozolomide were enrolled in an exploratory cohort of vismodegib (Arm C). If the safety run showed no excessive toxicity, a Simon's two-stage Phase II design was planned to explore the 6-month progression free survival (PFS-6). Stage II was to proceed if arm A PFS-6 was ≥3/9 at the end of Stage I.

A total of 24 patients were included: Arm A (10), Arm B (5), and Arm C (9). Safety analysis showed no excessive toxicity. At the end of Stage I, the PFS-6 of arm A was 20% (2/10 patients, 95% Unilateral Lower Confidence Limit: 3.7%) and the study was prematurely terminated. The overall response rates (ORR) were 40% [95% CI: 12.2; 73.8] and 20% [95% CI: 0.5; 71.6] in arm A and B, respectively. In arm C, PFS-6 was 37.5% (95% CI: 8.8; 75.5) and ORR was 22.2% [95% CI: 2.8; 60.0]. Among 11 patients with an expected sensitivity according to NGS, 3 had partial response (PR), 4 remained stable (SD) while out of 7 potentially resistant patients, 1 had PR and 1 SD.

Addition of vismodegib to temozolomide did not add toxicity but failed to improve PFS-6 in SHH recurrent/refractory medulloblastoma. Prediction of sensitivity to vismodegib needs further refinements.

Outcomes of robotically assisted laparoscopic lateral suspension (RALLS) with mesh for anterior and apical prolapse.

Journal of Robotic Surgery

Abdominal sacral colpopexy/hysteropexy is the gold standard for the treatment of vaginal apex support. However, dissection of the promontory may ex...

Report of National Brain Tumor Society Roundtable Workshop on Innovating Brain Tumor Clinical Trials: Building on Lessons Learned from COVID-19 Experience.

Neuro-Oncology

On July 24, 2020, a workshop sponsored by the National Brain Tumor Society was held on innovating brain tumor clinical trials based on lessons lear...