The latest medical research on Neurosurgery

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about neurosurgery gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Comparison of valve-less and standard insufflation on pneumoperitoneum-related complications in robotic partial nephrectomy: a prospective randomized trial.

Journal of Robotic Surgery

To prospectively compare standard and valve-less insufflation systems on pneumoperitoneum-related complications in robotic-assisted laparoscopic pa...

Robotic surgery vs. open surgery for thymectomy, a retrospective case-match study.

Journal of Robotic Surgery

The robotic approach in the treatment of thymus diseases has been described in many papers, but few studies have compared the early outcome of pati...

NF1 optic pathway glioma. Analysing risk factors for visual outcome and indications to treat.

Neuro-Oncology

The aim of the project was to identify risk factors associated with visual progression and treatment indications in pediatric patients with Neurofibromatosis type 1 associated optic pathway gliomas (NF1-OPG).

A multi-disciplinary expert group consisting of ophthalmologists, pediatric neuro-oncologists, neurofibromatosis specialists and neuro-radiologists involved in therapy trials assembled a cohort of children with NF1-OPG from six European countries with complete clinical, imaging and visual outcome datasets. Using methods developed during a consensus workshop, visual and imaging data were reviewed by the expert team and analyzed to identify associations between factors at diagnosis with visual and imaging outcomes.

83 patients (37 males, 46 females, mean age 5.1±2.6 years; 1-13.1 years) registered in the European treatment-trial SIOP LGG-2004 (recruited 2004-2012) were included. They were either observed or treated (at diagnosis/ after follow-up).In multivariable analysis, factors present at diagnosis associated with adverse visual outcomes included: multiple visual signs and symptoms (adjOR 8.33, 95%CI 1.9-36.45); abnormal visual behavior (adjOR 4.15, 95%CI 1.20-14.34); new onset of visual symptoms (adjOR 4.04, 95%CI 1.26-12.95) and optic atrophy (adjOR 3.73, 95%CI 1.13-12.53). Squint, posterior visual pathway tumor involvement, and bilateral pathway tumor involvement, showed borderline significance. Treatment appeared to reduce tumor size but improved vision in only 10/45 treated patients. Children with visual deterioration after primary observation are more likely to improve with treatment than children treated at diagnosis.

The analysis identified the importance of symptomatology, optic atrophy and history of vision loss as predictive factors for poor visual outcomes in children with NF1-OPG.

Synaptic Input to Brain Tumors: Clinical Implications.

Neuro-Oncology

The recent discovery of synaptic connections between neurons and brain tumor cells fundamentally challenges our understanding of gliomas and brain ...

Inhibition of eIF5A hypusination pathway as a new pharmacological target for stroke therapy.

J Cereb Blood

In eukaryotes, the polyamine pathway generates spermidine that activates the hypusination of the translation factor eukaryotic initiation factor 5A...

Emerging Immunotherapies for Malignant Glioma: From Immunogenomics to Cell Therapy.

Neuro-Oncology

As immunotherapy assumes a central role in the management of many cancers, ongoing work is directed at understanding whether immune-based treatment...

A prospective study of real-time identification of line of transection in robotic colorectal cancer surgery by ICG.

Journal of Robotic Surgery

Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer in women and the third most common cancer in men in the world. Surgical resection is the gold st...

European genetic ancestry associated with risk of childhood ependymoma.

Neuro-Oncology

Ependymoma is a histologically defined central nervous system tumor most commonly occurring in childhood. Population-level incidence differences by race/ethnicity are observed, with individuals of European ancestry at highest risk. We aimed to determine whether extent of European genetic ancestry is associated with ependymoma risk in US populations.

In a multi-ethnic study of Californian children (327 cases, 1970 controls), we estimated the proportions of European, African, and Native American ancestry among recently admixed Hispanic and African American subjects and estimated European admixture among non-Hispanic white subjects using genome-wide data. We tested whether genome-wide ancestry differences were associated with ependymoma risk and performed admixture mapping to identify associations with local ancestry. We also evaluated race/ethnicity-stratified ependymoma incidence data from the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS).

CBTRUS data revealed that African American and Native American children have 33% and 36%, respectively, reduced incidence of ependymoma compared with non-Hispanic whites. In genetic analyses, a 20% increase in European ancestry was associated with a 1.31-fold higher odds of ependymoma among self-reported Hispanics and African Americans (95% CI: 1.08-1.59, Pmeta = 6.7 × 10-3). Additionally, eastern European ancestral substructure was associated with increased ependymoma risk in non-Hispanic whites (P = 0.030) and in Hispanics (P = 0.043). Admixture mapping revealed a peak at 20p13 associated with increased local European ancestry, and targeted fine-mapping identified a lead variant at rs6039499 near RSPO4 (odds ratio = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.45-2.73; P = 2.2 × 10-5) but which was not validated in an independent set of posterior fossa type A patients.

Interethnic differences in ependymoma risk are recapitulated in the genomic ancestry of ependymoma patients, implicating regions to target in future association studies.

Association of Medicaid Expansion Under the Affordable Care Act With Breast Cancer Stage at Diagnosis.

JAMA Surgery

The expansion of Medicaid sought to fill gaps in insurance coverage among low-income Americans. Although coverage has improved, little is known about the relationship between Medicaid expansion and breast cancer stage at diagnosis.

To review the association of Medicaid expansion with breast cancer stage at diagnosis and the disparities associated with insurance status, age, and race/ethnicity.

This cohort study used data from the National Cancer Database to characterize the relationship between breast cancer stage and race/ethnicity, age, and insurance status. Data from 2007 to 2016 were obtained, and breast cancer stage trends were assessed. Additionally, preexpansion years (2012-2013) were compared with postexpansion years (2015-2016) to assess Medicaid expansion in 2014. Data were analyzed from August 12, 2019, to January 19, 2020. The cohort included a total of 1 796 902 patients with primary breast cancer who had private insurance, Medicare, or Medicaid or were uninsured across 45 states.

Percent change of uninsured patients with breast cancer and stage at diagnosis, stratified by insurance status, race/ethnicity, age, and state.

This study included a total of 1 796 902 women. Between 2012 and 2016, 71 235 (4.0%) were uninsured or had Medicaid. Among all races/ethnicities, in expansion states, there was a reduction in uninsured patients from 22.6% (4771 of 21 127) to 13.5% (2999 of 22 150) (P < .001), and in nonexpansion states, there was a reduction from 36.5% (5431 of 14 870) to 35.6% (4663 of 13 088) (P = .12). Across all races, there was a reduction in advanced-stage disease from 21.8% (4603 of 21 127) to 19.3% (4280 of 22 150) (P < .001) in expansion states compared with 24.2% (3604 of 14 870) to 23.5% (3072 of 13 088) (P = .14) in nonexpansion states. In African American patients, incidence of advanced disease decreased from 24.6% (1017 of 4136) to 21.6% (920 of 4259) (P < .001) in expansion states and remained at approximately 27% (27.4% [1220 of 4453] to 27.5% [1078 of 3924]; P = .94) in nonexpansion states. Further analysis suggested that the improvement was associated with a reduction in stage 3 diagnoses.

In this cohort study, expansion of Medicaid was associated with a reduced number of uninsured patients and a reduced incidence of advanced-stage breast cancer. African American patients and patients younger than 50 years experienced particular benefit. These data suggest that increasing access to health care resources may alter the distribution of breast cancer stage at diagnosis.

Engagement and Effectiveness of a Smoking Cessation Quitline Intervention in a Thoracic Surgery Clinic.

JAMA Surgery

Smoking quitline programs effectively promote smoking cessation in outpatient primary care settings.

To examine the factors associated with smoking quitline engagement and smoking cessation among patients undergoing thoracic surgery who consented to a quitline electronic referral.

A retrospective cohort study was conducted from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2018, among 111 active smoking patients referred to the quitline from a thoracic surgery outpatient clinic visit. Patients were divided into operative and nonoperative cohorts.

Primary outcomes were engagement rates in the quitline program and successful smoking cessation. Secondary outcomes were self-reported point prevalence abstinence at 1 month and 6 months after the smoking quit date.

Of 111 patients (62 men; mean [SD] age, 61.8 [11.2] years) who had a quitline referral, 58 (52%) underwent surgery, and 32 of these 58 patients (55%) participated in the program. Of the 53 nonoperative patients (48%), 24 (45%) participated in the program. In the operative cohort, there was no difference in the smoking cessation rate between quitline participants and nonparticipants (21 of 32 [66%] vs 16 of 6 [62%]; P = .79) or in point prevalence abstinence at 1 month (23 of 32 [72%] vs 14 of 25 [56%]; P = .27) or 6 months (14 of 28 [50%] vs 6 of 18 [33%]; P = .36). Similarly, in the nonoperative cohort, there was no difference in the smoking cessation rate between quitline participants and nonparticipants (8 of 24 [33%] vs 11 of 29 [38%]; P = .78) or in point prevalence abstinence at 1 month (7 of 24 [29%] vs 8 of 27 [30%]; P = .99) or 6 months (6 of 23 [26%] vs 6 of 25 [24%]; P = .99). Regardless of quitline participation, operative patients had a 1.8-fold higher proportion of successful smoking cessation compared with nonoperative patients (37 of 58 [64%] vs 19 of 53 [36%]; P = .004) as well as a 2.2-fold higher proportion of 1-month point prevalence abstinence (37 of 57 [65%] vs 15 of 51 [29%]; P < .001) and a 1.8-fold higher proportion of 6-month point prevalence abstinence (20 of 45 [44%] vs 12 of 48 [25%]; P = .05). Having surgery doubled the odds of smoking cessation (odds ratio, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.06-5.64; P = .04) and quitline engagement tripled the odds of remaining smoke free at 6 months (odds ratio, 3.57; 95% CI, 1.03-12.38; P = .04).

Patients undergoing thoracic surgery were nearly twice as likely to quit smoking as those who did not have an operation, and smoking quitline participation further augmented point prevalence abstinence. Improved smoking cessation rates, even among nonoperative patients, were associated with appropriate outpatient counseling and intervention.

Cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy is associated to neuronal senescence-like response.

Neuro-Oncology

Cisplatin-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy (CIPN) is a frequent serious dose-dependent adverse event that can determine dosage limitations for cancer treatment. CIPN severity correlates with the amount of platinum detected in sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). However, the exact pathophysiology of CIPN is poorly understood, so the chance of developing neuroprotective treatment is reduced. The aim of this study was to determine the exact mechanisms involved in CIPN development.

By single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNAseq), we have studied the transcriptomic profile of DRG sensory neurons from a well characterized neurophysiological mice model of CIPN.

Gene Ontology analysis of the scRNAseq data indicated that cisplatin treatment induces the up regulation of biological pathways related with DNA damage response (DDR) in the DRG neuronal population. Moreover, DRG neurons also upregulated the Cdkn1a gene, confirmed later by the measurement of its protein product p21. While apoptosis activation pathways were not observed in DRG sensory neurons of cisplatin-treated mice, these neurons did express several senescence hallmarks, including senescence-associated β-galactosidase, phospho-H2AX and nuclear Nfkb-p65 proteins.

In this study, we determined that after cisplatin-induced DNA damage, p21 appears as the most relevant downstream factor of the DDR in DRG sensory neurons in vivo, which survive in a non-functional senescence-like state.

Phase 0 and Window of Opportunity Clinical Trial Design in Neuro-Oncology: A RANO Review.

Neuro-Oncology

Glioblastoma is a devastating disease with poor prognosis. Few effective chemotherapeutics are currently available, and much effort has been extend...