The latest medical research on General Medicine / Internal Medicine

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about general medicine / internal medicine gathered by our medical AI research bot.

The selection below is filtered by medical specialty. Registered users get access to the Plexa Intelligent Filtering System that personalises your dashboard to display only content that is relevant to you.

Want more personalised results?

Request Access

Matrix reboot: IL-17 signals CAFs to create a second tumor T cell checkpoint.

J Exp Med

Excessive collagen deposition by fibroblasts surrounding some tumors has seriously limited the efficacy of checkpoint inhibitor therapies. Chen et ...

Results of Two Cases of Pig-to-Human Kidney Xenotransplantation.

N Engl J

Xenografts from genetically modified pigs have become one of the most promising solutions to the dearth of human organs available for transplantation. The challenge in this model has been hyperacute rejection. To avoid this, pigs have been bred with a knockout of the alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase gene and with subcapsular autologous thymic tissue.

We transplanted kidneys from these genetically modified pigs into two brain-dead human recipients whose circulatory and respiratory activity was maintained on ventilators for the duration of the study. We performed serial biopsies and monitored the urine output and kinetic estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to assess renal function and xenograft rejection.

The xenograft in both recipients began to make urine within moments after reperfusion. Over the 54-hour study, the kinetic eGFR increased from 23 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area before transplantation to 62 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 after transplantation in Recipient 1 and from 55 to 109 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 in Recipient 2. In both recipients, the creatinine level, which had been at a steady state, decreased after implantation of the xenograft, from 1.97 to 0.82 mg per deciliter in Recipient 1 and from 1.10 to 0.57 mg per deciliter in Recipient 2. The transplanted kidneys remained pink and well-perfused, continuing to make urine throughout the study. Biopsies that were performed at 6, 24, 48, and 54 hours revealed no signs of hyperacute or antibody-mediated rejection. Hourly urine output with the xenograft was more than double the output with the native kidneys.

Genetically modified kidney xenografts from pigs remained viable and functioning in brain-dead human recipients for 54 hours, without signs of hyperacute rejection. (Funded by Lung Biotechnology.).

ATP spreads inflammation to other limbs through crosstalk between sensory neurons and interneurons.

J Exp Med

Neural circuits between lesions are one mechanism through which local inflammation spreads to remote positions. Here, we show the inflammatory sign...

Animal Models of Temporomandibular Joint Osteoarthritis: Classification and Selection.

Frontiers in Physiology

Temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJOA) is a common degenerative joint disease that can cause severe pain and dysfunction. It has a serious ...

Studying Cardiac Neural Network Dynamics: Challenges and Opportunities for Scientific Computing.

Frontiers in Physiology

Neural control of the heart involves continuous modulation of cardiac mechanical and electrical activity to meet the organism's demand for blood fl...

Low Omega-3 Levels in the Diet Disturbs Intestinal Barrier and Transporting Functions of Atlantic Salmon Freshwater and Seawater Smolts.

Frontiers in Physiology

Due to a limited access to marine raw materials from capture fisheries, Atlantic salmon feeds are currently based on mainly plant ingredients (75%)...

Muc5b Contributes to Mucus Abnormality in Rat Models of Cystic Fibrosis.

Frontiers in Physiology

Cystic fibrosis (CF) airway disease is characterized by excessive and accumulative mucus in the airways. Mucociliary clearance becomes defective as...

Autonomic Neural Circuit and Intervention for Comorbidity Anxiety and Cardiovascular Disease.

Frontiers in Physiology

Anxiety disorder is a prevalent psychiatric disease and imposes a significant influence on cardiovascular disease (CVD). Numerous evidence support ...

Cerebral Microvascular Senescence and Inflammation in Diabetes.

Frontiers in Physiology

Stress-induced premature senescence can contribute to the accelerated metabolic aging process in diabetes. Progressive accumulation of senescent ce...

Hemoglobin Mass and Blood Volume in Patients With Altitude-Related Polycythemia.

Frontiers in Physiology

Patients with chronic mountain sickness (CMS) have a high hemoglobin concentration [Hb] due to increased hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) and possibly reduced plasma volume (PV). The values of Hbmass, PV and blood volume (BV) have been described differently, and the relationships between [Hb] and Hbmass or PV are poorly understood. This study obtained representative Hbmass, PV and BV data from healthy, high-altitude residents and CMS patients and quantified the dependency of [Hb] on Hbmass and PV.

Eighty-seven subjects born at high altitude (∼3,900 m) were enrolled. Thirty-four had CMS (CMS), 11 had polycythemia without CMS (intermediate, IM), 20 were healthy highlanders (HH), and 22 living near sea level (SL, 420 m) served as the sea level (SL) control group. Hbmass, PV and BV were determined using a CO-rebreathing method modified for assessing polycythemia patients. Furthermore, [Hb], hematocrit (Hct), plasma erythropoietin concentration [EPO] and blood gas and acid-base status were determined.

In the HH group, Hbmass was 27% higher (940 ± 105 g) than in the SL group (740 ± 112 g) and 72% (1,617 ± 265 g) lower than in the CMS group. The PV in the HH group was similar to that in the SL group (-6%) and 15% higher than that in the CMS group (p < 0.001). In the HH group, the BV (5,936 ± 673 ml) did not differ from that in the SL group and was 28% lower than in the CMS group (7,606 ± 1075 ml, p < 0.001). Log [EPO] was slightly increased in the CMS group relative to the HH group (p < 0.01). All values in the IM group were between those in the HH and CMS groups. Hbmass and BV were positively correlated, and PV was negatively correlated with peripheral O2 saturation. Increased Hbmass and decreased PV contributed approximately 65 and 35%, respectively, to the difference in [Hb] between the HH (17.1 ± 0.8 g/dl) and CMS (22.1 ± 1.0 g/dl) groups.

In CMS patients, the decrease in PV only partially compensated for the substantial increase in Hbmass, but it did not prevent an increase in BV; the decrease in PV contributed to an excessively high [Hb].

Aging of the Peritoneal Dialysis Membrane.

Frontiers in Physiology

Long-term peritoneal dialysis as currently performed, causes structural and functional alterations of the peritoneal dialysis membrane. This decay ...

The Role and Mechanism of the Vascular Endothelial Niche in Diseases: A Review.

Frontiers in Physiology

Vascular endothelial cells, forming the inner wall of the blood vessels, participate in the body's pathological and physiological processes of immu...