The latest medical research on General Medicine / Internal Medicine

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about general medicine / internal medicine gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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A "multi-omics" analysis of blood-brain barrier and synaptic dysfunction in APOE4 mice.

J Exp Med

Apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4), the main susceptibility gene for Alzheimer's disease, leads to blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown in humans and mice. R...

Routine Functional Testing or Standard Care in High-Risk Patients after PCI.

N Engl J

There are limited data from randomized trials to guide a specific follow-up surveillance approach after myocardial revascularization. Whether a follow-up strategy that includes routine functional testing improves clinical outcomes among high-risk patients who have undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is uncertain.

We randomly assigned 1706 patients with high-risk anatomical or clinical characteristics who had undergone PCI to a follow-up strategy of routine functional testing (nuclear stress testing, exercise electrocardiography, or stress echocardiography) at 1 year after PCI or to standard care alone. The primary outcome was a composite of death from any cause, myocardial infarction, or hospitalization for unstable angina at 2 years. Key secondary outcomes included invasive coronary angiography and repeat revascularization.

The mean age of the patients was 64.7 years, 21.0% had left main disease, 43.5% had bifurcation disease, 69.8% had multivessel disease, 70.1% had diffuse long lesions, 38.7% had diabetes, and 96.4% had been treated with drug-eluting stents. At 2 years, a primary-outcome event had occurred in 46 of 849 patients (Kaplan-Meier estimate, 5.5%) in the functional-testing group and in 51 of 857 (Kaplan-Meier estimate, 6.0%) in the standard-care group (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61 to 1.35; P = 0.62). There were no between-group differences with respect to the components of the primary outcome. At 2 years, 12.3% of the patients in the functional-testing group and 9.3% in the standard-care group had undergone invasive coronary angiography (difference, 2.99 percentage points; 95% CI, -0.01 to 5.99), and 8.1% and 5.8% of patients, respectively, had undergone repeat revascularization (difference, 2.23 percentage points; 95% CI, -0.22 to 4.68).

Among high-risk patients who had undergone PCI, a follow-up strategy of routine functional testing, as compared with standard care alone, did not improve clinical outcomes at 2 years. (Funded by the CardioVascular Research Foundation and Daewoong Pharmaceutical; POST-PCI number, NCT03217877.).

Efficacy and Safety of an Extravascular Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator.

N Engl J

The extravascular implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) has a single lead implanted substernally to enable pause-prevention pacing, antitachycardia pacing, and defibrillation energy similar to that of transvenous ICDs. The safety and efficacy of extravascular ICDs are not yet known.

We conducted a prospective, single-group, nonrandomized, premarket global clinical study involving patients with a class I or IIa indication for an ICD, all of whom received an extravascular ICD system. The primary efficacy end point was successful defibrillation at implantation. The efficacy objective would be met if the lower boundary of the one-sided 97.5% confidence interval for the percentage of patients with successful defibrillation was greater than 88%. The primary safety end point was freedom from major system- or procedure-related complications at 6 months. The safety objective would be met if the lower boundary of the one-sided 97.5% confidence interval for the percentage of patients free from such complications was greater than 79%.

A total of 356 patients were enrolled, 316 of whom had an implantation attempt. Among the 302 patients in whom ventricular arrhythmia could be induced and who completed the defibrillation testing protocol, the percentage of patients with successful defibrillation was 98.7% (lower boundary of the one-sided 97.5% confidence interval [CI], 96.6%; P<0.001 for the comparison with the performance goal of 88%); 299 of 316 patients (94.6%) were discharged with a working ICD system. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the percentage of patients free from major system- or procedure-related complications at 6 months was 92.6% (lower boundary of the one-sided 97.5% CI, 89.0%; P<0.001 for the comparison with the performance goal of 79%). No major intraprocedural complications were reported. At 6 months, 25 major complications were observed, in 23 of 316 patients (7.3%). The success rate of antitachycardia pacing, as assessed with generalized estimating equations, was 50.8% (95% CI, 23.3 to 77.8). A total of 29 patients received 118 inappropriate shocks for 81 arrhythmic episodes. Eight systems were explanted without extravascular ICD replacement over the 10.6-month mean follow-up period.

In this prospective global study, we found that extravascular ICDs were implanted safely and were able to detect and terminate induced ventricular arrhythmias at the time of implantation. (Funded by Medtronic; number, NCT04060680.).

Rivaroxaban in Rheumatic Heart Disease-Associated Atrial Fibrillation.

N Engl J

Testing of factor Xa inhibitors for the prevention of cardiovascular events in patients with rheumatic heart disease-associated atrial fibrillation has been limited.

We enrolled patients with atrial fibrillation and echocardiographically documented rheumatic heart disease who had any of the following: a CHA2DS2VASc score of at least 2 (on a scale from 0 to 9, with higher scores indicating a higher risk of stroke), a mitral-valve area of no more than 2 cm2, left atrial spontaneous echo contrast, or left atrial thrombus. Patients were randomly assigned to receive standard doses of rivaroxaban or dose-adjusted vitamin K antagonist. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of stroke, systemic embolism, myocardial infarction, or death from vascular (cardiac or noncardiac) or unknown causes. We hypothesized that rivaroxaban therapy would be noninferior to vitamin K antagonist therapy. The primary safety outcome was major bleeding according to the International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis.

Of 4565 enrolled patients, 4531 were included in the final analysis. The mean age of the patients was 50.5 years, and 72.3% were women. Permanent discontinuation of trial medication was more common with rivaroxaban than with vitamin K antagonist therapy at all visits. In the intention-to-treat analysis, 560 patients in the rivaroxaban group and 446 in the vitamin K antagonist group had a primary-outcome event. Survival curves were nonproportional. The restricted mean survival time was 1599 days in the rivaroxaban group and 1675 days in the vitamin K antagonist group (difference, -76 days; 95% confidence interval [CI], -121 to -31; P<0.001). A higher incidence of death occurred in the rivaroxaban group than in the vitamin K antagonist group (restricted mean survival time, 1608 days vs. 1680 days; difference, -72 days; 95% CI, -117 to -28). No significant between-group difference in the rate of major bleeding was noted.

Among patients with rheumatic heart disease-associated atrial fibrillation, vitamin K antagonist therapy led to a lower rate of a composite of cardiovascular events or death than rivaroxaban therapy, without a higher rate of bleeding. (Funded by Bayer; INVICTUS number, NCT02832544.).

Factors Associated With Mortality Among Homeless Older Adults in California: The HOPE HOME Study.

JAMA Internal Medicine

The population of homeless older adults is growing and experiences premature mortality. Little is known about factors associated with mortality among homeless older adults.

To identify the prevalence and factors associated with mortality in a cohort of homeless adults 50 years and older.

In this prospective cohort study (Health Outcomes in People Experiencing Homelessness in Older Middle Age [HOPE HOME]), 450 adults 50 years and older who were homeless at baseline were recruited via venue-based sampling in Oakland, California. Enrollment occurred in 2 phases, from July 2013 to June 2014 and from August 2017 to July 2018, and participants were interviewed at 6-month intervals.

Baseline and time-varying characteristics, including sociodemographic factors, social support, housing status, incarceration history, chronic medical conditions, substance use, and mental health problems.

Mortality through December 31, 2021, based on state and local vital records information from contacts and death certificates. All-cause mortality rates were compared with those in the general population from 2014 to 2019 using age-specific standardized mortality ratios with 95% CIs.

Of the 450 included participants, median (IQR) age at baseline was 58.1 (54.5-61.6) years, 107 (24%) were women, and 360 (80%) were Black. Over a median (IQR) follow-up of 55 (38-93) months, 117 (26%) participants died. Median (IQR) age at death was 64.6 (60.3-67.5) years. In multivariable analyses, characteristics associated with mortality included a first episode of homelessness at 50 years and older (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.62; 95% CI, 1.13-2.32), homelessness (aHR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.23-2.68) or institutionalization (aHR, 6.36; 95% CI, 3.42-11.82) at any follow-up compared with being housed, fair or poor self-rated health (aHR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.13-2.40), and diabetes (aHR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.06-2.26). Demographic characteristics, substance use problems, and mental health problems were not independently associated. All-cause standardized mortality was 3.5 times higher (95% CI, 2.5-4.4) compared with adults in Oakland. The most common causes of death were heart disease (n = 17 [14.5%]), cancer (n = 17 [14.5%]), and drug overdose (n = 14 [12.0%]).

The cohort study found that premature mortality was common among homeless older adults and associated factors included late-life homelessness and ongoing homelessness. There is an urgent need for policy approaches to prevent and end homelessness among older adults in the US.

The principle of the 3Rs between aspiration and reality.

Frontiers in Physiology

The Principle of the 3Rs is widely recognised as the methodological and ethical backbone of contemporary animal research. Different authors also st...

Contribution of muscle satellite cells to sarcopenia.

Frontiers in Physiology

Sarcopenia, a disorder characterized by age-related muscle loss and reduced muscle strength, is associated with decreased individual independence a...

Real-time metabolic monitoring under exhaustive exercise and evaluation of ventilatory threshold by breathomics: Independent validation of evidence and advances.

Frontiers in Physiology

Breath analysis was coupled with ergo-spirometry for non-invasive profiling of physio-metabolic status under exhaustive exercise. Real-time mass-sp...

Circle Method for Robust Estimation of Local Conduction Velocity High-Density Maps From Optical Mapping Data: Characterization of Radiofrequency Ablation Sites.

Frontiers in Physiology

Conduction velocity (CV) slowing is associated with atrial fibrillation (AF) and reentrant ventricular tachycardia (VT). Clinical electroanatomical...

The effectiveness of traditional vs. velocity-based strength training on explosive and maximal strength performance: A network meta-analysis.

Frontiers in Physiology

This network meta-analysis aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of different velocity-based (VBT) and traditional 1RM-based resistance training (T...

Tenets in Microbial Endocrinology: A New Vista in Teleost Reproduction.

Frontiers in Physiology

Climate vulnerability and induced changes in physico-chemical properties of aquatic environment can bring impairment in metabolism, physiology and ...

LAD-GCN: Automatic diagnostic framework for quantitative estimation of growth patterns during clinical evaluation of lung adenocarcinoma.

Frontiers in Physiology

Quantitative estimation of growth patterns is important for diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma and prediction of prognosis. However, the growth patte...