The latest medical research on Endovascular Surgical Neuroradiology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about endovascular surgical neuroradiology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Diffusional kurtosis imaging in differentiating nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy from acute optic neuritis.

Neuroradiology

We aimed to determine the feasibility of using DKI to characterize pathological changes in nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) and to differentiate it from acute optic neuritis (ON).

Orbital DKI was performed with a 3.0 T scanner on 75 patients (51 with NAION and 24 with acute ON) and 15 healthy controls. NAION patients were further divided into early and late groups. The mean kurtosis (MK), axial kurtosis (AK), radial kurtosis (RK), mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD) were calculated to perform quantitative analyses among groups; and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were also performed to determine their effectiveness of differential diagnosis. In addition, correlation coefficients were calculated to explore the correlations of the DKI-derived data with duration of disease.

The MK, RK, and AK in the affected nerves with NAION were significantly higher than those in the controls, while the trend of FA, RD, and AD was a decline; in acute ON patients, except for RD, which increased, all DKI-derived kurtosis and diffusion parameters were significantly lower than controls (all P < 0.008). Only AK and MD had statistical differences between the early and late groups. Except for MD (early group) and FA, all other DKI-derived parameters were higher in NAION than in acute ON; and parameters in the early group showed better diagnostic efficacy in differentiating NAION from acute ON. Correlation analysis showed that time was negatively correlated with MK, RK, AK, and FA and positively correlated with MD, RD, and AD (all P < 0.05).

DKI is helpful for assessing the specific pathologic abnormalities resulting from ischemia in NAION by comparison with acute ON. Early DKI should be performed to aid in the diagnosis and evaluation of NAION.

Automatic generation of conclusions from neuroradiology MRI reports through natural language processing.

Neuroradiology

The conclusion section of a radiology report is crucial for summarizing the primary radiological findings in natural language and essential for communicating results to clinicians. However, creating these summaries is time-consuming, repetitive, and prone to variability and errors among different radiologists. To address these issues, we evaluated a fine-tuned Text-To-Text Transfer Transformer (T5) model for abstractive summarization to automatically generate conclusions for neuroradiology MRI reports in a low-resource language.

We retrospectively applied our method to a dataset of 232,425 neuroradiology MRI reports in Spanish. We compared various pre-trained T5 models, including multilingual T5 and those newly adapted for Spanish. For precise evaluation, we employed BLEU, METEOR, ROUGE-L, CIDEr, and cosine similarity metrics alongside expert radiologist assessments.

The findings are promising, with the models specifically fine-tuned for neuroradiology MRI achieving scores of 0.46, 0.28, 0.52, 2.45, and 0.87 in the BLEU-1, METEOR, ROUGE-L, CIDEr, and cosine similarity metrics, respectively. In the radiological experts' evaluation, they found that in 75% of the cases evaluated, the conclusions generated by the system were as good as or even better than the manually generated conclusions.

The methods demonstrate the potential and effectiveness of customizing state-of-the-art pre-trained models for neuroradiology, yielding automatic MRI report conclusions that nearly match expert quality. Furthermore, these results underscore the importance of designing and pre-training a dedicated language model for radiology report summarization.

Use of the pRESET LITE thrombectomy device in combined approach for medium vessel occlusions: A multicenter evaluation.

Neuroradiology

Our purpose was to assess the efficacy and safety of the pRESET LITE stent retriever (Phenox, Bochum, Germany), designed for medium vessel occlusion (MeVO) in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients with a primary MeVO.

We performed a retrospective analysis of the MAD MT Consortium, an integration of prospectively maintained databases at 37 academic institutions in Europe, North America, and Asia, of AIS patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy with the pRESET LITE stent retriever for a primary MeVO. We subcategorized occlusions into proximal MeVOs (segments A1, M2, and P1) vs. distal MeVOs/DMVO (segments A2, M3-M4, and P2). We reviewed patient and procedural characteristics, as well as angiographic and clinical outcomes.

Between September 2016 and December 2021, 227 patients were included (50% female, median age 78 [65-84] years), of whom 161 (71%) suffered proximal MeVO and 66 (29%) distal MeVO. Using a combined approach in 96% of cases, successful reperfusion of the target vessel (mTICI 2b/2c/3) was attained in 85% of proximal MeVO and 97% of DMVO, with a median of 2 passes (IQR: 1-3) overall. Periprocedural complications rate was 7%. Control CT at day 1 post-MT revealed a hemorrhagic transformation in 63 (39%) patients with proximal MeVO and 24 (36%) patients with DMVO, with ECASS-PH type hemorrhagic transformations occurring in 3 (1%) patients. After 3 months, 58% of all MeVO and 63% of DMVO patients demonstrated a favorable outcome (mRS 0-2).

Mechanical thrombectomy using the pRESET LITE in a combined approach with an aspiration catheter appears effective for primary medium vessel occlusions across several centers and physicians.

Removing outliers from the normative database improves regional atrophy detection in single-subject voxel-based morphometry.

Neuroradiology

Single-subject voxel-based morphometry (VBM) compares an individual T1-weighted MRI to a sample of normal MRI in a normative database (NDB) to detect regional atrophy. Outliers in the NDB might result in reduced sensitivity of VBM. The primary aim of the current study was to propose a method for outlier removal ("NDB cleaning") and to test its impact on the performance of VBM for detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD).

T1-weighted MRI of 81 patients with biomarker-confirmed AD (n = 51) or FTLD (n = 30) and 37 healthy subjects with simultaneous FDG-PET/MRI were included as test dataset. Two different NDBs were used: a scanner-specific NDB (37 healthy controls from the test dataset) and a non-scanner-specific NDB comprising 164 normal T1-weighted MRI from 164 different MRI scanners. Three different quality metrics based on leave-one-out testing of the scans in the NDB were implemented. A scan was removed if it was an outlier with respect to one or more quality metrics. VBM maps generated with and without NDB cleaning were assessed visually for the presence of AD or FTLD.

Specificity of visual interpretation of the VBM maps for detection of AD or FTLD was 100% in all settings. Sensitivity was increased by NDB cleaning with both NDBs. The effect was statistically significant for the multiple-scanner NDB (from 0.47 [95%-CI 0.36-0.58] to 0.61 [0.49-0.71]).

NDB cleaning has the potential to improve the sensitivity of VBM for the detection of AD or FTLD without increasing the risk of false positive findings.

The impact of image contrast, resolution and reader expertise on black hole identification in Multiple Sclerosis.

Neuroradiology

In the neuroradiological work-up of Multiple Sclerosis (MS), the detection of "black holes" (BH) represent an information of undeniable importance. Nevertheless, different sequences can be used in clinical practice to evaluate BH in MS. Aim of this study was to investigate the possible impact of different sequences, resolutions, and levels of expertise on the intra- and inter-rater reliability identification of BH in MS.

Brain MRI scans of 85 MS patients (M/F = 22/63; mean age = 36.0 ± 10.2 years) were evaluated in this prospective single-center study. The acquisition protocol included a 3 mm SE-T1w sequence, a 1 mm 3D-GrE-T1w sequence from which a resliced 3 mm sequence was also obtained. Images were evaluated independently by two readers of different expertise at baseline and after a wash-out period of 30 days. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated as an index of intra and inter-reader reliability.

For both readers, the intra-reader ICC analysis showed that the 3 mm SE-T1w and 3 mm resliced GrE-T1w images achieved an excellent performance (both with an ICC ≥ 0.95), while 1 mm 3D-GrE-T1w scans achieved a moderate one (ICC < 0.90). The inter-reader analysis showed that each of the three sequences achieved a moderate performance (all ICCs < 0.90).

The 1 mm 3D-GrE-T1w sequence seems to be prone to a greater intra-reader variability compared to the 3 mm SE-T1w, with this effect being driven by the higher spatial resolution of the first sequence. To ensure reliability levels comparable with the standard SE-T1w in BH count, an assessment on a 3 mm resliced GrE-T1w sequence should be recommended.

Usefulness of pituitary high-resolution 3D MRI with deep-learning-based reconstruction for perioperative evaluation of pituitary adenomas.

Neuroradiology

To evaluate the diagnostic value of T1-weighted 3D fast spin-echo sequence (CUBE) with deep learning-based reconstruction (DLR) for depiction of pituitary adenoma and parasellar regions on contrast-enhanced MRI.

We evaluated 24 patients with pituitary adenoma or residual tumor using CUBE with and without DLR, 1-mm slice thickness 2D T1WI (1-mm 2D T1WI) with DLR, and 3D spoiled gradient echo sequence (SPGR) as contrast-enhanced MRI. Depiction scores of pituitary adenoma and parasellar regions were assigned by two neuroradiologists, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was calculated.

CUBE with DLR showed significantly higher scores for depicting pituitary adenoma or residual tumor compared to CUBE without DLR, 1-mm 2D T1WI with DLR, and SPGR (p < 0.01). The depiction score for delineation of the boundary between adenoma and the cavernous sinus was higher for CUBE with DLR than for 1-mm 2D T1WI with DLR (p = 0.01), but the difference was not significant when compared to SPGR (p = 0.20). CUBE with DLR had better interobserver agreement for evaluating adenomas than 1-mm 2D T1WI with DLR (Kappa values, 0.75 vs. 0.41). The CNR of the adenoma to the brain parenchyma increased to a ratio of 3.6 (obtained by dividing 13.7, CNR of CUBE with DLR, by 3.8, that without DLR, p < 0.01). CUBE with DLR had a significantly higher CNR than SPGR, but not 1-mm 2D T1WI with DLR.

On the contrast-enhanced MRI, compared to CUBE without DLR, 1-mm 2D T1WI with DLR and SPGR, CUBE with DLR improves the depiction of pituitary adenoma and parasellar regions.

Abdominal computed tomography scoring systems and experienced radiologists in the radiological diagnosis of small bowel and mesenteric injury.

Emergency Radiology

Blunt bowel and/or mesenteric injury requiring surgery presents a diagnostic challenge. Although computed tomography (CT) imaging is standard following blunt trauma, findings can be nonspecific. Most studies have focused on the diagnostic value of CT findings in identifying significant bowel and/or mesenteric injury (sBMI). Some studies have described scoring systems to assist with diagnosis. Little attention, has been given to radiologist interpretation of CT scans. This study compared the discriminative ability of scoring systems (BIPS and RAPTOR) with radiologist interpretation in identifying sBMI.

We conducted a retrospective chart review of trauma patients with suspected sBMI. CT images were reviewed in a blinded fashion to calculate BIPS and RAPTOR scores. Sensitivity and specificity were compared between BIPS, RAPTOR, and the admission CT report with respect to identifying sBMI.

One hundred sixty-two patients were identified, 72 (44%) underwent laparotomy and 43 (26.5%) had sBMI. Sensitivity and specificity were: BIPS 49% and 87%, AUC 0.75 (0.67-0.81), P < 0.001; RAPTOR 46% and 82%, AUC 0.72 (0.64-0.79), P < 0.001; radiologist impression 81% and 71%, AUC 0.82(0.75-0.87), P < 0.001. The discriminative ability of the radiologist impression was higher than RAPTOR (P = 0.04) but not BIPS (P = 0.13). There was not a difference between RAPTOR vs. BIPS (P = 0.55).

Radiologist interpretation of the admission CT scan was discriminative of sBMI. Although surgical vigilance, including evaluation of the CT images and patient, remains fundamental to early diagnosis, the radiologist's impression of the CT scan can be used in clinical practice to simplify the approach to patients with abdominal trauma.

Acute Intraoperative Conversion from Endovascular to Open vs Planned Open Operation for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: A Propensity-Score Matched Study from the American College of Surgeons NSQIP Targeted Database.

American College of Surgeons

Evaluating outcomes for acute intraoperative conversion to open surgery during endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) was difficult due to low incidence. This study aimed to compare 30-day outcomes between patients with acute intraoperative conversion during EVAR and planned open surgery, and to identify risk factors associated with acute conversion.

Patients underwent EVAR or planned open AAA repair were identified in ACS-NSQIP targeted databases 2012-2021. Patients with acute intraoperative conversion during EVAR were selected. A 1:3 propensity-score matching was used to match demographics, baseline characteristics, surgical indications, aneurysm size and extent, and emergency cases between the conversion open and planned open groups. Thirty-day postoperative outcomes were assessed.

Out of 20,566 EVAR, 177 (0.86%) had acute intraoperative conversion to open surgery. The conversion open group was matched to 504 out of 5,249 planned open patients. Conversion open and planned open groups had comparable 30-day mortality (23.43% vs 17.46%, p=0.09) and organ system complications including MACE (14.86% vs 10.71%, p=0.17), pulmonary complications (17.71% vs 24.01%, p=0.09), and renal complications (8.57% vs 11.11%, p=0.39). The conversion open group had lower bleeding requiring transfusion (48.57% vs 75.60%, p<0.01), shorter operation time (p<0.01), and shorter length of stay (p<0.01). Other postoperative outcomes did not differ. Risk factors associated with acute intraoperative conversion included ruptured aneurysm with or without hypotension. Protective factors included hypertension and aortic distal aneurysm extent.

While this study does not endorse a universal "EVAR first" strategy for all patients with AAA, EVAR can be attempted first in eligible AAA patients. Even when EVAR is unsuccessful, intraoperative conversion to open surgery still appears to be safe compared to planned open repair.

Remission of Obesity-Related Sleep Apnea and Its Effect on Mortality and Cardiovascular Events After Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery: A Propensity Matched Cohort Study.

American College of Surgeons

While obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common among patients with obesity and linked to cardiovascular disease, there is a lack of studies evaluating the effects of reaching remission from OSA after metabolic and bariatric surgery (MBS).

A registry-based nationwide study including patients operated with sleeve gastrectomy or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass from 2007 until 2019 in Sweden. Patients who reached remission of OSA were compared to those who did not reach remission, and a propensity score matched control group of patients without OSA at the time of operation. Main outcome was overall mortality, secondary outcome was major cardiovascular events (MACE).

In total, 5892 patients with OSA and 11,552 matched patients without OSA completed a 1-year follow-up and were followed for a median of 6.8 years. Remission of OSA was seen for 4334 patients (74%). Patients in remission had a lower risk for overall mortality (cumulative incidence 6.0% v. 9.1%;p<0.001) and MACE (cumulative incidence 3.4% vs 5.8%;p<0.001) at 10-years after operation compared to those who did not reach remission. The risk was similar to that of the control group without OSA at baseline (cumulative incidence for mortality 6.0%, p=0.493, for MACE 3.7%, p=0.251).

The remission rate of OSA was high after MBS. This was in turn associated with reduced risk for death and MACE compared to patients who did not achieve remission reaching a similar risk seen among patients without OSA at baseline. A diligent follow-up of patients who do not reach remission remains important.

Refractory and Recurrent Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis Treatment: Adaptive, Randomized Clinical Trial.

American College of Surgeons

Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis (IGM) is mostly described as an autoimmune disease with high prevalence among Middle Eastern childbearing-age women. The current study aimed to evaluate the best treatment of choice in patients with resistant or recurrent IGM.

Patients with established recurrent or resistant IGM who were referred to the breast cancer research center from 2017 to 2020 were randomly assigned to either one of the following treatment groups: A (Best supportive care), B (corticosteroids: prednisolone), and C (methotrexate and low dose corticosteroids). This adaptive clinical trial evaluated radiological and clinical responses, as well as the possible side effects, on a regular basis in each group, with patients followed up for a minimum of 2 years.

A total of 318 participants, with a mean age of 33.52 ± 6.77 years, were divided into groups A (10 patients), B (78 patients), and C (230 patients). In group A, no therapeutic response was observed; group B exhibited a mixed response, with 14.1% experiencing complete or partial responses, 7.7% maintaining stability, and 78.2% experiencing disease progression. Accordingly, groups A and B were terminated due to inadequate response. In group C, 94.3% achieved complete response, 3% partial remission, and 2.7% no response. Among the entire patient cohort, 11.6% tested positive for anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), 3.5% for angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and 12.3% for erythema nodosum (EN). Notably, hypothyroidism was a prevalent condition among the patients, affecting 7.2% of the cohort. Furthermore, the incidence of common side effects was consistent across all groups.

The most effective treatment option for patients with recurrent or resistant idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a combination therapy involving steroids and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs such as methotrexate.

Evaluating Outcomes of Non-Accidental Trauma in Military Children.

American College of Surgeons

Non-accidental trauma (NAT), or child abuse, is a leading cause of childhood injury and death in the United States. Studies demonstrate that military-affiliated individuals are at greater risk of mental health complications and family violence, including child maltreatment. There is limited information about the outcomes of military children who experience NAT. This study compares the outcomes between military-dependent and civilian children diagnosed with NAT.

A single institution, retrospective review was performed of children admitted with confirmed NAT at a Level I trauma center. Data was collected from the institutional trauma registry and the Child Abuse Team's database. Military affiliation was identified using insurance status and parental/caregiver self-reported active-duty status. Demographic and clinical data including hospital length of stay (LOS), morbidities, specialty consults, and mortality were compared.

Among 535 patients, 11.8% (n=63) were military-affiliated. The median age of military-associated patients, 3 months (IQR 1-7), was significantly younger than civilian patients, 7 months (IQR 3-18, p<.001). Military-affiliated patients had a longer LOS of 4 days (IQR 2-11) vs 2 days (IQR 1-7, p=0.041), increased morbidities/complications (3 vs 2 counts, p=0.002), and a higher mortality rate (10% vs 4%, p=0.048). There was no significant difference in number of consults or injuries, trauma activation, or need for surgery.

Military-affiliated children diagnosed with NAT experience more adverse outcomes than civilian patients. Increased LOS, morbidities/complications, and mortality suggest military-affiliated patients experience more life-threatening NAT at a younger age. Larger studies are required to further examine this population and better support at-risk families.

Abdominal Wall Tension and Early Outcomes after Posterior Component Separation with Transversus Abdominis Release: Does a "Tension-Free" Closure Really Matter?

American College of Surgeons

Ventral hernias result in fibrosis of the lateral abdominal wall muscles, increasing tension on fascial closure. Little is known about the effect of abdominal wall tension on outcomes after abdominal wall reconstruction. We aimed to identify an association between abdominal wall tension and early postoperative outcomes in patients who underwent posterior components separation (PCS) with transversus abdominis release (TAR).

Using a proprietary, sterilizable tensiometer, the tension needed to bring the anterior fascial elements to the midline of the abdominal wall during PCS with TAR were recorded. Tensiometer measurements, in pounds (lb), were calibrated by accounting for the acceleration of Earth's gravity. Baseline fascial tension, change in fascial tension, and fascial tension at closure were evaluated with respect to 30-day outcomes, including wound morbidity, hospital readmission, reoperation, ileus, bleeding, and pulmonary complications.

A total of 100 patients underwent bilateral abdominal wall tensiometry, for a total of 200 measurements (left and right side for each patient). Mean baseline anterior fascial tension was 6.78 lb (SD 4.55) on each side. At abdominal closure, the mean anterior fascial tension was 3.12 (SD 3.21) lb on each side. Baseline fascial tension and fascial tension after PCS with TAR at abdominal closure were not associated with surgical site infection, surgical site occurrence, readmission, ileus, and bleeding requiring transfusion. The event rates for all other complications were too infrequent for statistical analysis.

Baseline and residual fascial tension of the anterior abdominal wall do not correlate with early postoperative morbidity in patients undergoing PCS with TAR. Further work is needed to determine if abdominal wall tension in this context is associated with long-term outcomes, such as hernia recurrence.