The latest medical research on Peripheral Vascular Disease

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about peripheral vascular disease gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Benefits and Risks Associated with Low-Dose Aspirin Use for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Control Trials and Trial Sequential Analysis.

Cardiovascular Drugs

The role of aspirin in cardiovascular primary prevention remains controversial. Moreover, evidence for the potential benefits of aspirin in patients with high cardiovascular risk remains limited.

The aim of this study was to explore the role of low-dose aspirin in primary prevention.

The PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and databases were searched for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) from the date of inception to August 2021. The efficacy outcomes were major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic stroke (IS), all-cause mortality, and cardiovascular mortality, whereas safety outcomes were major bleeding, intracranial hemorrhage, and gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Subgroup analyses were based on different cardiovascular risks and diabetes statuses. Pooled risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the fixed- and random-effects models, and trial sequential analysis (TSA) was conducted to determine the robustness of the results.

A total of 10 RCTs fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The use of aspirin was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of MACE (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.84-0.93), MI (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.78-0.95), and IS (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.76-0.93); however, aspirin also increased the risk of safety outcomes, i.e. major bleeding (RR 1.42, 95% CI 1.26-1.60), intracranial hemorrhage (RR 1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.59), and GI bleeding (RR 1.91, 95% CI 1.44-2.54). Subgroup analyses revealed that in the absence of a statistically significant interaction, a trend toward a net benefit of lower incidence of cardiovascular events (number needed to treat of MACE: high risk: 682 vs. low risk: 2191) and lesser risk of bleeding events (number needed to harm of major bleeding: high risk: 983 vs. low risk: 819) was seen in the subgroup of high cardiovascular risk. Meanwhile, the greater MACE reduction was also detected in the high-risk group of diabetes or nondiabetes patients. Furthermore, a post hoc subgroup analysis indicated a significant rate reduction in patients aged ≤ 70 years but not in patients aged > 70 years. TSA confirmed the benefit of aspirin for MACE up to a relative risk reduction of 10%.

The current study demonstrated that the cardiovascular benefits of low-dose aspirin were equally balanced by major bleeding events. In addition, the potential beneficial effects might be seen in the population ≤ 70 years of age with high cardiovascular risk and no increased risk of bleeding.

The Impact of Mavacamten on the Pathophysiology of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: A Narrative Review.

Cardiovascular Drugs

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a chronic, progressive disease of the cardiomyocyte with a diverse and heterogeneous clinical presentation and...

Safety and Effectiveness of Direct Oral Anticoagulants Versus Warfarin for Treating Left Ventricular Thrombus.

Cardiovascular Drugs

Patients with left ventricular thrombus are at high risk for ischemic stroke and systemic embolization. The mainstay of treatment is anticoagulation, but it remains unclear if direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are a safe and effective treatment strategy compared to warfarin. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of DOACs compared to warfarin in an integrated health system in the United States.

Consecutive patients with left ventricular thrombus on transthoracic echocardiogram from May 2010 to April 2020 were identified. Comparative effectiveness and safety of DOACs and warfarin were evaluated using multivariable Cox proportional hazard models and inverse probability of treatment weighting.

Among 433 patients with left ventricular thrombus, 134 (30.9%) were treated with DOACs and 299 (69.1%) were treated with warfarin. Patients were followed for a median of 3.4 years. For the primary effectiveness outcome of ischemic stroke, systemic embolism, and transient ischemic attack, no significant difference was observed between use of DOACs compared to warfarin (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] of 0.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.48-1.18, p = 0.21). For the primary safety outcome of intracranial hemorrhage, gastrointestinal bleeding, and other bleed requiring hospitalization, DOAC usage was associated with a lower risk of bleeding (HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.39-0.87, p = 0.0008).

In this diverse population-based cohort of patients, DOAC treatment for left ventricular thrombus appears to be as safe and effective as warfarin treatment. These findings support the use of DOACs for patients with left ventricular thrombus.

Hemodynamic Effects of Sacubitril/Valsartan in Patients with Reduced Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Over 24 Months: A Retrospective Study.

Cardiovascular Drugs

The effects of sacubitril/valsartan in patients with chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) were recently reported. However, the hemodynamic impact of this well-established treatment in patients with HFrEF has been poorly systematically researched.

We aimed to investigate the hemodynamic effects of sacubitril/valsartan among patients with HFrEF.

Between 2016 and 2020, we retrospectively collected data for patients with HFrEF treated at the University Medical Center Mannheim, Germany. Data for 240 patients with HFrEF were available. We systematically analyzed echocardiographic parameters, all-cause hospitalization, and congestion rate.

The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) improved from a median (minimum; maximum) of 28% (3; 65) before initiation of sacubitril/valsartan to a median of 34% (13; 64) at 24-month follow-up (p < 0.001). Systolic pulmonary atrial pressure (PAPsys) decreased from a median of 30 mmHg (13; 115) to 25 mmHg (20; 80) at 24-month follow-up (p = 0.005). The median (minimum; maximum) tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion improved from 17 mm (3; 31) at baseline to 20 mm (9; 30) at 12-month follow-up (p = 0.007). The incidence of severe and moderate mitral, tricuspid, and aortic valvular insufficiency improved after treatment. Hospitalization and congestion rates reduced at 24-month follow-up. The mortality rate in echocardiographic and functional nonresponders was higher than in responders (12.1 vs. 5.2%; p = 0.1 and 11.3 vs. 3.1%; p = 0.01, respectively).

Follow-up 24 months after starting treatment with sacubitril/valsartan revealed sustained improvements in echocardiographic parameters, including LVEF, PAPsys, and cardiac valvular insufficiency. Rates of all-cause hospitalization and congestion had decreased significantly at follow-up. The mortality rate was higher in echocardiographic and functional nonresponders.

Annual Cardiovascular-Related Hospitalization Days Avoided with Tafamidis in Patients with Transthyretin Amyloid Cardiomyopathy.

Cardiovascular Drugs

Patients with transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy (ATTR-CM) experience infiltrative cardiomyopathy and heart failure symptoms requiring costly hospitalizations. The Transthyretin Amyloidosis Cardiomyopathy Clinical Trial (ATTR-ACT) demonstrated the efficacy of tafamidis on the frequency of cardiovascular (CV)-related hospitalizations in patients with ATTR-CM.

As length of stay can affect the total hospitalization burden, our study aimed to better understand the impact of tafamidis on the number of CV-related hospital days avoided in the management of ATTR-CM patients.

Data from ATTR-ACT were used to calculate the total burden of CV-related hospitalization (days) by treatment arm in this post hoc analysis.

In patients with ATTR-CM, tafamidis was associated with a lower rate of CV-related hospitalizations and shorter length of hospital stay. Timely diagnosis and treatment with tafamidis could further decrease the total number of CV-related hospitalization days per year.


Atrial Fibrillation Management: A Comprehensive Review with a Focus on Pharmacotherapy, Rate, and Rhythm Control Strategies.

Cardiovascular Drugs

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an increasingly common arrhythmia encountered in clinical practice that leads to a substantial increase in utilization ...

The Effect of Vasopressin and Methylprednisolone on Return of Spontaneous Circulation in Patients with In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Cardiovascular Drugs

Cardiac arrest is often fatal if not treated immediately by cardiopulmonary resuscitation to restore a normal heart rhythm and spontaneous circulation. We aim to evaluate the clinical benefits of vasopressin and methylprednisolone versus placebo for patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest.

We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared vasopressin and methylprednisolone to placebo. The main outcomes were the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and survival to hospital discharge.

A total of three RCTs, with a total of 869 patients, were included. The pooled risk ratios (RRs) were calculated along with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Our result showed an increase in ROSC in patients who received vasopressin and methylprednisolone (RR = 1.32; 95% CI = [1.18, 1.47], p < 0.00001) when compared with the placebo group. However, there was no difference between both groups regarding survival to hospital discharge (RR = 1.76; 95% CI = [0.68, 4.56], p= 0.25).

Among patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest, administration of vasopressin and methylprednisolone besides epinephrine is associated with increased ROSC compared with placebo and epinephrine. However, high-quality RCTs are necessary before drawing a firm conclusion regarding the efficacy of vasopressin and methylprednisolone for patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest.

Effects of Sodium/Glucose Cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors and Combined SGLT1/2 Inhibitors on Cardiovascular, Metabolic, Renal, and Safety Outcomes in Patients with Diabetes: A Network Meta-Analysis of 111 Randomized Controlled Trials.

Cardiovascular Drugs

Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a class of anti-hyperglycemic drugs that has been steadily increasing in popularity due to its cardiovascular and renal benefits. Dual SGLT1/SGLT2 (SGLT1/2) inhibitors have potentially augmented anti-hyperglycemic action due to additional SGLT1 inhibition. This network meta-analysis aimed to compare the treatment effect across various outcomes between pure SGLT2 inhibitors and combined SGLT1/2 inhibitors in patients with diabetes.

Four electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and Scopus) were searched for randomized controlled trials published from inception to 15th January 2022. Frequentist network meta-analysis was conducted to summarize the treatment effects reported in individual trials, stratified by type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This meta-analysis was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42020222031).

Our meta-analysis included 111 articles, comprising a combined cohort of 103,922 patients. SGLT2 inhibitors (dapagliflozin, empagliflozin, canagliflozin, ipragliflozin, ertugliflozin, and luseogliflozin) and SGLT1/2 inhibitors (licogliflozin and sotagliflozin) were compared. Frequentist network meta-analysis demonstrated that in T2DM patients, SGLT1/2 inhibitors led to a decreased hazard rate of myocardial infarction (hazard ratio [HR] 0.74, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.98) and stroke (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.47-0.92) compared with SGLT2 inhibitors. SGLT2 inhibitors achieved a greater hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) reduction than SGLT1/2 inhibitors (0.16%, 95% CI 0.06-0.26). In patients with T2DM, the risk of diarrhea (risk ratio [RR] 1.42, 95% CI 1.07-1.88) and severe hypoglycemia (RR 5.89, 95% CI 1.41-24.57) were found to be higher with SGLT1/2 inhibitor use compared with SGLT2 inhibitor use. No differences were observed for cardiovascular, metabolic, and safety outcomes between SGLT1/2 inhibitors and SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with T1DM.

In patients with T2DM, compared with pure SGLT2 inhibitors, combined SGLT1/2 inhibitors demonstrated a lower risk of myocardial infarction and of stroke, but were associated with a higher risk of diarrhea and severe hypoglycemia.

A Horse, a Jockey, and a Therapeutic Dilemma: Choosing the Best Option for a Patient with Diabetes and Coronary Artery Disease.

Cardiovascular Drugs

Current guidelines for the management of hyperglycemia recommend the use of agents with proven cardiovascular (CV) benefit in patients with type 2 ...

Comparison of the Efficacy and Safety of Non-vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants with Warfarin in Atrial Fibrillation Patients with a History of Bleeding: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Cardiovascular Drugs

Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) require oral anticoagulation to prevent ischemic stroke. However, oral anticoagulation may cause bleeding, and patients with AF and a history of bleeding were excluded from pivotal trials comparing non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) and warfarin. We therefore aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of NOACs compared with warfarin in patients with AF and a history of bleeding.

We conducted a systematic review of retrospective studies and clinical trials using the PubMed, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases to May 2021.

Overall, 56,697 patients from six studies were included. NOACs significantly reduced the risk of ischemic stroke (hazard ratio [HR] 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.59-0.91; p = 0.005), fatal ischemic stroke (HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.39-0.61; p < 0.001), all-cause mortality (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.50-0.98; p = 0.04), major bleeding events (HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.67-0.84; p < 0.001), intracranial hemorrhage (ICH; HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.48-0.82; p < 0.001), fatal ICH (HR 0.33, 95% CI 0.20-0.56, p < 0.001), and gastrointestinal bleeding (HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.72-0.96; p = 0.01).

NOACs showed better efficacy and safety profile compared with warfarin in patients with AF and a history of bleeding. Randomized controlled trials are warranted to validate these findings.

Perindopril/Indapamide/Amlodipine in Hypertension: A Profile of Its Use.

Cardiovascular Drugs

The single-pill combination (SPC) of perindopril (PER)/indapamide (IND)/amlodipine (AML) is a valuable and convenient treatment option for patients...

A Comprehensive Approach to Managing Methamphetamine-Associated Cardiomyopathy.

Cardiovascular Drugs

Methamphetamines are illicit drugs of the amphetamine-type stimulant class that have been increasing in popularity, availability, and purity in rec...