The latest medical research on Prostate Cancer

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about prostate cancer gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Composite urinary and sexual outcomes after Rezum: an analysis of predictive factors from an Italian multi-centric study.

Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases

The Rezum system is one of the latest minimally invasive surgical treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

We retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent the Rezum treatment in seven different Italian institutions. A successful urinary outcome was defined as: ≥50% improvement in the IPSS <7, improvement in peak flow ≥50% and/or more than 15 ml/s, ≥1-point improvement in the QoL questionnaire and in the absence of perioperative major complications (AUR, transfusion) or postoperative incontinence. A successful sexual outcome was defined as postoperative (latest follow up consultation) antegrade ejaculation or no variation in ejaculatory function and an increase, or stability or max 1 class reduction, in IIEF-5.

262 patients were enrolled with a follow-up period of 11 months (IQR 5-15). No early or late serious adverse events (Clavien III-IV) occurred. Early complications occurred in 39.3% of cases, with 4 cases of clot retention and one case of blood transfusion. Urge incontinence was reported by 6 patients (2.2%). A treatment failure requiring re-intervention occurred in 4 cases (1.5%). The preoperative antegrade ejaculation rate was 56.5%, and after the procedure it increased to 78.2%. The increase of ≥1-point in the QoL was achieved in 92.7% of the cases. Optimal urinary and sexual outcomes were achieved in 52.9% and 87.8%, respectively.

In our series, water vapor intraprostatic injections seem to be an effective and safe procedure.

Differential effects of omega-3 PUFAS on tumor progression at early and advanced stages in TRAMP mice.


In vitro studies evidenced antitumor effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ([n-3] PUFAs), but their effects on prostate cancer (PCa) remain controversial in epidemiological studies. Here we investigated whether an (n-3) PUFA-enriched diet affects tumor progression in transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP), at early (12 weeks age) and advanced stages (20 weeks age).

TRAMP mice were fed with standard rodent diet (C12, C20) or (n-3) PUFA-enriched diet containing 10% fish oil (T12, T20). A group of 8 weeks age animals fed standard diet was also used for comparison (C8). The ventral prostate was processed for histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses and serum samples submitted to biochemical assays.

At early stages, (n-3) PUFA increased the frequency of normal epithelium (3.8-fold) and decreased the frequency of high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (3.3-fold) and in situ carcinoma (1.9-fold) in the gland, maintaining prostate pathological status similar to C8 group. At advanced stages, 50% of the animals developed a large primary tumor in both C20 and T20, and tumor weight did not differ (C20: 2.2 ± 2.4; T20: 2.8 ± 2.9 g). The ventral prostate of T12 and of T20 animals that did not develop primary tumors showed lower cell proliferation, tissue expressions of androgen (AR) and glucocorticoid (GR) receptors, than their respective controls. For these animals, (n-3) PUFA also avoided an increase in the number of T-lymphocytes, collagen fibers, and αSMA immunoreactivity, and preserved stromal gland microenvironment. (n-3) PUFA also lowered serum triglycerides and cholesterol, regulating the lipid metabolism of TRAMP mice.

(n-3) PUFAs had a protective effect at early stages of PCa, delaying tumor progression in TRAMP mice, in parallel with reductions in cell proliferation, AR, and GR and maintenance of the stromal compartment of the gland. However, (n-3) PUFAs did not prevent the development of primary tumors for the T20 group, reinforcing the need for further investigation at advanced stages of disease.

CD47 (don't eat me signal) expression levels and its relationship with clinicopathologic features in early-stage prostate carcinoma.


Prostate cancer is a cancer with poor host immune response and could be defined as a non-T-cell inflamed tumor. Therefore, immunotherapy treatments could not be included in the treatment of prostate cancer until recently. Inadequate antitumoral response is one of the main reasons why tumor cells multiply rapidly and cause lethal results. It was shown that CD47 molecule, which is secreted at high levels by leukemia cells, reduces macrophage-mediated phagocytosis and thus facilitates escape from the antitumoral immune response. The aim of this study was to show don't eat me signaling in prostate carcinoma tissues and its relationship with macrophage polarization.

A total of 263 patients with a diagnosis of prostatic adenocarcinoma after radical prostatectomy between 2015 and 2020 at our institute were included in the study. CD47, CD68, and CD163 expression levels were examined immunohistochemically (IHC) in these tissues. The relationship of these expression levels with unfavorable prognostic factors and survival for prostate carcinoma was investigated.

In this study, all the operated prostate carcinoma cases had CD47 expression in tumor tissue, but only 52.5% had a high level of expression. Of 263 prostate cancer tissues, 135 (51.3%) showed high expression of CD68 protein and 189 (71.9%) showed high expression of CD163 protein. There was a statistically strong relationship between CD47, CD68, and CD163.

The CD47 molecule is basically a molecule that inhibits macrophage activation. CD68 is mostly used for macrophage classification, while CD163 is used for tumor-associated macrophage classification. Unlike others, we IHC examined CD47, CD68, and CD163 expressions in the surgical materials of patients who were operated for prostate carcinoma. In addition, we concluded that strong CD47 expression was closely associated with strong CD68 and CD163 expression in all tumor samples. However, a significant relationship between these expression levels and survival could not be demonstrated.

Risk of progression following a negative biopsy in prostate cancer active surveillance.

Prostate Cancer

Currently, follow-up protocols are applied equally to men on active surveillance (AS) for prostate cancer (PCa) regardless of findings at their initial follow-up biopsy. To determine whether less intensive follow-up is suitable following negative biopsy findings, we assessed the risk of converting to active treatment, any subsequent upgrading, volume progression (>33% positive cores), and serious upgrading (grade group >2) for negative compared with positive findings on initial follow-up biopsy.

13,161 men from 24 centres participating in the Global Action Plan Active Surveillance Prostate Cancer [GAP3] consortium database, with baseline grade group ≤2, PSA ≤ 20 ng/mL, cT-stage 1-2, diagnosed after 1995, and ≥1 follow-up biopsy, were included in this study. Risk of converting to treatment was assessed using multivariable mixed-effects survival regression. Odds of volume progression, any upgrading and serious upgrading were assessed using mix-effects binary logistic regression for men with ≥2 surveillance biopsies.

27% of the cohort (n = 3590) had no evidence of PCa at their initial biopsy. Over 50% of subsequent biopsies in this group were also negative. A negative initial biopsy was associated with lower risk of conversion (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.42-0.49), subsequent upgrading (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 0.52; 95%CI: 0.45-0.62) and serious upgrading (OR: 0.74; 95%CI: 0.59-92). Radiological progression was not assessed due to limited imaging data.

Despite heterogeneity in follow-up schedules, findings from this global study indicated reduced risk of converting to treatment, volume progression, any upgrading and serious upgrading among men whose initial biopsy findings were negative compared with positive. Given the low risk of progression and high likelihood of further negative biopsy findings, consideration should be given to decreasing follow-up intensity for this group to reduce unnecessary invasive biopsies.

Seleno-aspirin compound AS-10 promotes histone acetylation ahead of suppressing androgen receptor transcription, G1 arrest, and apoptosis of prostate cancer cells.


The novel selenium-aspirin compound AS-10 was recently reported by us with a cancer cell killing potency three orders of magnitude greater than aspirin in pancreatic cancer cell lines with caspase-mediated apoptosis and a reasonable selectivity against malignant cells. Although we also observed its cytocidal activity against PC-3 and DU145 androgen receptor (AR)-negative and P53-null/mutant aggressive human prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines in NCI-60 screen, the potential involvement and targeting of AR and P53 pathways that are intact in early-stage prostate carcinogenesis has not been examined, nor its primary molecular signaling after exposure.

Human LNCaP PCa cells with functional AR and intact P53 were used to examine their cell cycle and cell fate responses to AS-10 exposure and upstream molecular signaling events including histone acetylation as a known aspirin effect. The AR-positive 22Rv1 human PCa cells were used to validate key findings.

In addition to confirming AS-10's superior cytocidal potency than aspirin against all four PCa cell lines, we report a rapid (within 5 min) promotion of histone acetylation several hours ahead of the suppression of AR and prostate-specific antigen (PSA, coded by KLK3 gene) in LNCaP and 22Rv1 cells. AS-10 decreased AR and KLK3 mRNA levels without impacting pre-existing AR protein degradation or nuclear translocation in LNCaP cells. Sustained exposure to AS-10 arrested cells predominantly in G1 , and induced caspase-mediated apoptosis without necrosis. The death induced by AS-10 in LNCaP cells was attenuated by nontranscriptional activation of P53 protein or Jun N-terminal Kinase cellular stress signaling and was mitigated modestly by glutathione-boosting antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. AS-10 synergized with histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA to suppress AR/PSA abundance and kill LNCaP cells. RNA-seq confirmed AR suppression at the transcriptional level and suggested multiple oncogene, cyclin, and CDK/CKI transcriptional actions to contribute to the cellular consequences.

AS-10 promotes histone acetylation as its probable primary mechanism of action to induce PCa cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis, regardless of AR and P53 status. Nevertheless, the inhibition of AR signaling through mechanisms distinct from canonical AR antagonists may hold promise for combinatorial use with androgen deprivation therapy regimens or AR-axis targeting drugs.

Application of European-specific polygenic risk scores for predicting prostate cancer risk in different ancestry populations.


Polygenic risk score (PRS) has shown promise in predicting prostate cancer (PCa) risk. However, the application of PRS in non-European ancestry was poorly studied.

We constructed PRS using 68, 86, or 128 PCa-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified through a large-scale Genome-wide association study (GWAS) in the European ancestry population. A calibration approach was performed to adjust the PRS exact value for each ancestry. The study was conducted in East Asian (ChinaPCa Consortium, n = 2379), European (UK Biobank, n = 209,172), and African American (African Ancestry Prostate Cancer Consortium, n = 6016).

Individuals with the highest PRS (in >97.5th percentile) had over 2.5-fold increased risk of PCa than those with average PRS (in 40th-60th percentile) in both European (odds ratio [OR] = 3.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.46-4.16, p < 0.001) and Chinese (OR = 2.87, 95% CI = 1.29-6.40, p = 0.010), while slightly lower in African American (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.22-2.58, p = 0.008). Compared with the lowest PRS (in <2.5th percentile), increased PRS was also associated with the earlier onset of PCa (All log-rank p < 0.05). The highest PRS contributed to having about 5- to 12-fold higher lifetime risk and 5-10 years earlier at disease onset than the lowest category across different ancestry populations.

We demonstrated that European-GWAS-based PRS could also significantly predict PCa risk in Asian ancestry and African ancestry populations.

Prostate cancer cells demonstrate unique metabolism and substrate adaptability acutely after androgen deprivation therapy.


Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been the standard of care for advanced hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (PC), yet tumors invariably develop resistance resulting in castrate-resistant PC. The acute response of cancer cells to ADT includes apoptosis and cell death, but a large fraction remains arrested but viable. In this study, we focused on intensively characterizing the early metabolic changes that result after ADT to define potential metabolic targets for treatment.

A combination of mass spectrometry, optical metabolic imaging which noninvasively measures drug responses in cells, oxygen consumption rate, and protein expression analysis was used to characterize and block metabolic pathways over several days in multiple PC cell lines with variable hormone response status including ADT sensitive lines LNCaP and VCaP, and resistant C4-2 and DU145.

Mass spectrometry analysis of LNCaP pre- and postexposure to ADT revealed an abundance of glycolytic intermediates after ADT. In LNCaP and VCaP, a reduction in the optical redox ratio [NAD(P)H/FAD], extracellular acidification rate, and a downregulation of key regulatory enzymes for fatty acid and glutamine utilization was acutely observed after ADT. Screening several metabolic inhibitors revealed that blocking fatty acid oxidation and synthesis reversed this stress response in the optical redox ratio seen with ADT alone in LNCaP and VCaP. In contrast, both cell lines demonstrated increased sensitivity to the glycolytic inhibitor 2-Deoxy- d-glucose(2-DG) and maintained sensitivity to electron transport chain inhibitor Malonate after ADT exposure. ADT followed by 2-DG results in synergistic cell death, a result not seen with simultaneous administration.

Hormone-sensitive PC cells displayed altered metabolic profiles early after ADT including an overall depression in energy metabolism, induction of a quiescent/senescent phenotype, and sensitivity to selected metabolic inhibitors. Glycolytic blocking agents (e.g., 2-DG) as a sequential treatment after ADT may be promising.

Are higher pre-diagnosis follicle stimulating hormone levels associated with long-term prostate cancer risk?


Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a pituitary hormone that helps regulate testosterone homeostasis. Although it is generally accepted that FSH levels increase with LHRH-agonist therapy for prostate cancer (PC), the specific impact of FSH levels on risk of PC diagnosis is largely unknown. The objective of this study was to perform a population-level analysis to assess the association between FSH levels and PC diagnosis.

All men (n = 386,018) who had a pre-PC diagnosis FSH level and complete data were identified within the Veterans Affairs Health System between 1999 and 2018. The association between FSH level and time from FSH test to PC diagnosis was tested using stratified Cox proportional hazards models. Multivariable models were adjusted for age, year, race, body mass index, and Charlson comorbidity index. Due to nonproportional hazards over time, time to PC was modeled separately: ≤4 years after an FSH test and >4 years following an FSH test.

Median age at first FSH level was 64 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 54-72), median year of FSH was 2010 (IQR: 2005-2014), and 70% of the cohort was white. Median follow-up was 76 months (IQR: 38-126) during which 17,519 men (4.5%) were diagnosed with PC. On multivariable analysis, in the first 4 years after FSH test, there was no association between FSH and time to PC diagnosis. Starting from 4 years after FSH test, on multivariable analysis, a higher FSH level was associated with lower risk of PC with continuous modeling, but found no association with log continuous and categorical modeling.

In this population-level study among male veterans receiving an FSH test for an unknown clinical indication, associations between FSH levels and PC risk were inconsistent and likely driven by selection bias and confounding variables. Future studies should consider different study designs.

New strategy for the identification of prostate cancer: The combination of Proclarix and the prostate health index.


Prostate health index (PHI) and, more recently, Proclarix have been proposed as serum biomarkers for prostate cancer (PCa). In this study, we aimed to evaluate Proclarix and PHI for predicting clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa).

Proclarix and PHI were measured using samples of 344 men from two different centers. All patients underwent prostate biopsy, and among those, 188 men with PCa on biopsy had an additional radical prostatectomy (RP). All men had a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) between 2 and 10 ng/ml. Evaluation of area under the curve (AUC) and performance at predefined cut-offs of Proclarix and PHI risk scores as well as the linear combination thereof was performed to predict csPCa. PSA density was used as an independent comparator.

The cohort median age and PSA were 65 (interquartile range [IQR]: 60-71) and 5.6 (IQR: 4.3-7.2) ng/ml, respectively. CsPCa was diagnosed in 161 (47%) men based on the RP specimen. ROC analysis showed that Proclarix and PHI accurately predicted csPCa with no significant difference (AUC of 0.79 and 0.76, p = 0.378) but significantly better when compared to PSA density (AUC of 0.66, p < 0.001). When using specific cut-offs, Proclarix (cut-off 10) revealed higher specificity and positive predictive value than PHI (cut-off 27) at similar sensitivities. The combination of Proclarix and PHI provided a significant increase in the AUC (p ≤ 0.007) compared to the individual tests alone and the highest clinical benefit was achieved.

Results of this study show that both Proclarix and PHI accurately detect the presence of csPCa. The model combining Proclarix and PHI revealed the synergistic effect and improved the diagnostic performance of the individual tests.

Circulating microRNA profiling for prediction of oncological outcomes in prostate cancer patients following radical prostatectomy.


Although radical prostatectomy is associated with good long-term oncological outcomes, approximately 30% of patients present biochemical recurrence, whereupon salvage treatments are required. Identification of novel molecular biomarkers to predict cancer behavior is clinically important. Here, we developed a novel microRNA (miRNA)-based prognostic model for patients who underwent radical prostatectomy.

We retrospectively investigated the clinical records of 295 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy between 2009 and 2017. We randomly assigned these cases into training or validation sets. The prognostic model was constructed using Fisher linear discriminant analysis in the training set, and we evaluated its performance in the validation set.

Overall, 72 patients had biochemical recurrence. A prediction model was constructed using a combination of three miRNAs (miR-3147, miR-4513, and miR-4728-5p) and two pathological factors (pathological T stage and Gleason score). In the validation set, the predictive performance of the model was confirmed to be accurate (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.80; sensitivity: 0.78; specificity: 0.76). Additionally, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the patients with a low prediction index had significantly longer recurrence-free survival than those with a high index (p < 0.001).

Circulating miRNA profiles can provide information to predict recurrence after prostatectomy. Our model may be helpful for physicians to decide follow-up strategies for patients.

Localization of macrophage subtypes and neutrophils in the prostate tumor microenvironment and their association with prostate cancer racial disparities.


Black men are two to three times more likely to die from prostate cancer (PCa) than White men. This disparity is due in part to discrepancies in socioeconomic status and access to quality care. Studies also suggest that differences in the prevalence of innate immune cells and heightened function in the tumor microenvironment of Black men may promote PCa aggressiveness.

We evaluated the spatial localization of and quantified CD66ce+ neutrophils by immunohistochemistry and CD68+ (pan), CD80+ (M1), and CD163+ (M2) macrophages by RNA in situ hybridization on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from organ donor "normal" prostate (n = 9) and radical prostatectomy (n = 38) tissues from Black and White men. Neutrophils were quantified in PCa and matched benign tissues in tissue microarray (TMA) sets comprised of 560 White and 371 Black men. Likewise, macrophages were quantified in TMA sets comprised of tissues from 60 White and 120 Black men. The phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and ETS transcription factor ERG (ERG) expression status of each TMA PCa case was assessed via immunohistochemistry. Finally, neutrophils and macrophage subsets were assessed in a TMA set comprised of distant metastatic PCa tissues collected at autopsy (n = 6) sampled across multiple sites.

CD66ce+ neutrophils were minimal in normal prostates, but were increased in PCa compared to benign tissues, in low grade compared to higher grade PCa, in PCa tissues from White compared to Black men, and in PCa with PTEN loss or ERG positivity. CD163+ macrophages were the predominant macrophage subset in normal organ donor prostate tissues from both Black and White men and were significantly more abundant in organ donor compared to prostatectomy PCa tissues. CD68,+  CD80,+ and CD163+ macrophages were significantly increased in cancer compared to benign tissues and in cancers with ERG positivity. CD68+ and CD163+ macrophages were increased in higher grade cancers compared to low grade cancer and CD80 expression was significantly higher in benign prostatectomy tissues from Black compared to White men.

Innate immune cell infiltration is increased in the prostate tumor microenvironment of both Black and White men, however the composition of innate immune cell infiltration may vary between races.

PSA provocation by bipolar androgen therapy may predict duration of response to first-line androgen deprivation: Updated results from the BATMAN study.


Previously, we reported results from the Phase II BATMAN study (Bipolar Androgen Therapy for Men with Androgen-ablation Naïve prostate cancer). This study (NCT01750398) was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a treatment regimen consisting of a 6-month lead in-phase of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) followed by alternating 3-month intervals of bipolar androgen therapy (BAT) and ADT alone. Here we report > 5-year follow-up related to the duration of subsequent ADT, response to first-line androgen receptor inhibitors, safety, and survival in men with castration-sensitive prostate cancer treated on the BATMAN study.

Univariate Cox regression was utilized to compare overall survival between Responders who achieved a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of <4 ng/ml and Non-Responders who achieved a PSA level of ≥4 ng/ml after BAT/ADT. Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression were used to assess progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) on BAT and on subsequent abiraterone or enzalutamide and on the association between PSA peak during BAT and each time to event outcome.

Over median follow-up of 95 months, the median PFS on ADT for the entire cohort was 47.8. Median OS has not been reached (NR). Median OS for Non-Responders is 43 months versus NR (not reached) for responders (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.176, p = 0.002). Post-BAT, the PSA50 and PSA90 responses to abiraterone or enzalutamide were 94.4% and 66.7%, respectively and median PFS was 20.6 months. Patients with peak PSA level of ≥9 ng/ml after BAT had median PFS of 20.6 months versus NR for those having PSA < 9 ng/ml (HR: 0.122, p < 0.001). Median OS was 79.6 months for patients with PSA peak of ≥9 ng/ml versus NR for those having PSA peak of <9 ng/ml (HR: 0.409, p = 0.131).

The use of BAT as part of first-line hormonal therapy strategy does not induce adversely affect long-term survival or induce any significant long-term adverse sequelae in patients with prostate cancer. Cycling BAT may extend the duration of ADT response and enhance response to subsequent androgen ablative therapies. The magnitude of BAT-provoked increase in PSA may predict duration of ADT response and warrants further study.