The latest medical research on Prostate Cancer

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about prostate cancer gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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PSA provocation by bipolar androgen therapy may predict duration of response to first-line androgen deprivation: Updated results from the BATMAN study.


Previously, we reported results from the Phase II BATMAN study (Bipolar Androgen Therapy for Men with Androgen-ablation Naïve prostate cancer). This study (NCT01750398) was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a treatment regimen consisting of a 6-month lead in-phase of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) followed by alternating 3-month intervals of bipolar androgen therapy (BAT) and ADT alone. Here we report > 5-year follow-up related to the duration of subsequent ADT, response to first-line androgen receptor inhibitors, safety, and survival in men with castration-sensitive prostate cancer treated on the BATMAN study.

Univariate Cox regression was utilized to compare overall survival between Responders who achieved a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of <4 ng/ml and Non-Responders who achieved a PSA level of ≥4 ng/ml after BAT/ADT. Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression were used to assess progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) on BAT and on subsequent abiraterone or enzalutamide and on the association between PSA peak during BAT and each time to event outcome.

Over median follow-up of 95 months, the median PFS on ADT for the entire cohort was 47.8. Median OS has not been reached (NR). Median OS for Non-Responders is 43 months versus NR (not reached) for responders (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.176, p = 0.002). Post-BAT, the PSA50 and PSA90 responses to abiraterone or enzalutamide were 94.4% and 66.7%, respectively and median PFS was 20.6 months. Patients with peak PSA level of ≥9 ng/ml after BAT had median PFS of 20.6 months versus NR for those having PSA < 9 ng/ml (HR: 0.122, p < 0.001). Median OS was 79.6 months for patients with PSA peak of ≥9 ng/ml versus NR for those having PSA peak of <9 ng/ml (HR: 0.409, p = 0.131).

The use of BAT as part of first-line hormonal therapy strategy does not induce adversely affect long-term survival or induce any significant long-term adverse sequelae in patients with prostate cancer. Cycling BAT may extend the duration of ADT response and enhance response to subsequent androgen ablative therapies. The magnitude of BAT-provoked increase in PSA may predict duration of ADT response and warrants further study.

Head-to-head comparison of 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT and 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/MRI in the detection of biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer: summary of head-to-head comparison studies.

Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases

Our meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT vs. 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/MRI for biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer.

We searched for relevant articles in PubMed and Embase until February 2022. Studies evaluating head-to-head comparison of 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT and 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/MRI in men with prostate cancer biochemical recurrence were included. The quality of each study was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Performance Studies-2 (QUADAS-2) tool.

A total of 5 studies with 219 patients were included in the analysis. The pooled overall detection rates of 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT and 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/MRI in detecting recurrent PCa after definitive treatment were 0.89 (95% CI: 0.65-1.00), 0.92 (95% CI: 0.77-1.00), while the detection rates were 0.20 (95% CI: 0.05-0.41) and 0.29 (95% CI: 0.10-0.53) in local recurrence, 0.51 (95% CI: 0.33-0.69) and 0.52 (95% CI: 0.44-0.61) in lymph node metastasis, 0.18 (95% CI: 0.07-0.33) and 0.20 (95% CI: 0.09-0.35) in bone metastasis. There was no significant difference between the two imaging modalities in the overall detection rate (P = 0.82). In addition, detection rates were also not significantly different in local recurrence, lymph node metastasis, or bone metastasis (P = 0.54, 1.00, 0.82).

68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT and 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/MRI seem to have equivalent performance in detecting biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer. However, the results of the meta-analysis were drawn from studies with small samples. Further larger studies in this setting are warranted.

Prognostic role of pan-immune-inflammation value in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer treated with androgen receptor-signaling inhibitors.


To assess the prognostic effect of pan-immune inflammation value (PIV) in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) treated with abiraterone acetate (AA) or enzalutamide.

Patients with mCRPC treated with AA or enzalutamide between January 2010 and June 2021 were included in this study. The most recently examined complete blood count values in the 1-month period before treatment were used for calculating PIV. The relationship between overall survival (OS) and PIV was evaluated by multivariate analysis. By using PIV and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels which had shown survival effect at multivariate analysis, PIV-LDH combined score was established.

A total of 114 patients were included in this study. At the median follow-up of 34.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 32.4-36.8), the median OS was 21 months (95% CI: 17.6-21.3). The median OS in the low-PIV group was significantly higher than in the high-PIV group (34.4 months (95% CI: 21.3-47.5) vs. 14.3 months (95% CI: 10.0-18.7), p < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis for OS, high PIV (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.11-3.13, p = 0.018) and LDH value 1.5 times the upper limit of normal and above (HR: 3.65 95%, CI: 1.86-7.16, p < 0.001) were associated with shorter OS. When survival analysis was performed according to the PIV-LDH combined score, the median OS was 34.4 months (95% CI: 22.2-46.6) in the low-risk group, 17.7 months (95% CI: 11.7-23.6) in the intermediate-risk group, and 8.4 months (95% CI: 5.1-11.7) in the high-risk group (p < 0.001). The C-index of the combined PIV-LDH score was higher than the C-index of PIV (0.65 vs. 0.61).

In this study, we demonstrated that PIV was an independent prognostic factor for OS in patients with mCRPC treated with AA or enzalutamide. Additionally, PIV-LDH combined score may be considered a promising composite peripheral blood-based biomarker to predict OS in those patients.

Comparison of 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT and mp-MRI in regard to local staging for prostate cancer with histopathological results: A retrospective study.


Imaging modalities are used to diagnose and clinical grading of clinically significant prostate cancer. In this study, 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT (PSMA) and multiparametric prostate MRI (mp-MRI) were compared in regard to locating intraprostatic tumor and locoregional staging.

After ethics committee approval, a total of 49 patients with prostate cancer who had mp-MRI and PSMA before radical prostatectomy were included. Preoperative and postoperative PSA, transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUS-Bx) ISUP grade, radical prostatectomy ISUP grade, body mass index (BMI), TRUS prostate volume, mp-MRI tumor mapping, PSMAtumor mapping, pathologic tumor mapping, extraprostatic extension (EPE), seminal vesicle invasion (SVI), lymph node invasion (LNI), and bladder neck invasion (BNI)were retrospectively evaluated. Index tumor was located by uroradiologist, nuclear medicine specialist, and uropathologist on a 12-sector prostate pathology map and compared with each other in terms of accuracy and locoregional clinical staging.

Mean age of the patients was 66.18 ± 6.67 years and the mean of preoperative PSA results was 21.11 ± 32.56 ng/ml. Nearly half of the patients' (44.9%) pathology was reported as ISUP grade 4 and 5% and 18.4% of patients were surgical margin positive. According to the pathological findings, 362 out of 588 sectors were tumor-positive, 174 out of 362 sectors were tumor-positive in mp-MRI, and 175 out of 362 sectors were tumor-positive in PSMA. Both PSMA and mp-MRI were comparable (p = 0.823) and accurate to detect the location of the intraprostatic index tumor (AUC = 0.66 vs. 0.69 respectively, p = 0.82). The sensitivity and the specificity of the PSMA and mp-MRI for localizing intraprostatic index tumors were 42.5% versus 49.5% and 90.7% versus 88.6% respectively. mp-MRI was more accurate than PSMA in terms of EPE (AUC = 0.8 vs. AUC = 0.57 respectively, p = 0.027) and both methods were comparable in terms of SVI (AUC = 0.75 vs. AUC = 0.75, p = 0.886) and BNI (AUC = 0.51 vs. AUC = 0.59, p = 0.597). PSMA and mp-MRI were comparable in terms of LNI (AUC = 0.76 vs. AUC = 0.64, p = 0.39).

mp-MRI should be considered for its high accuracy in the diagnosis of EPE, especially before decision-making for nerve-sparing surgery in high-risk patients. Both imaging modalities were accurate for localizing intraprostatic index tumor. PSMA is accurate for detecting LNI.

Association between duration of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist use and cardiovascular risks: A population-based competing-risk analysis.


Although androgen deprivation therapy has known cardiovascular risks, it is unclear if its duration is related to cardiovascular risks. This study thus aimed to investigate the associations between gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist use duration and cardiovascular risks.

This retrospective cohort study included adult patients with prostate cancer receiving GnRH agonists in Hong Kong during 1999-2021. Patients who switched to GnRH antagonists, underwent bilateral orchidectomy, had <6 months of GnRH agonist, prior myocardial infarction (MI), or prior stroke was excluded. All patients were followed up until September 2021 for a composite endpoint of MI and stroke. Multivariable competing-risk regression using the Fine-Gray subdistribution model was used, with mortality from any cause as the competing event.

In total, 4038 patients were analyzed (median age 74.9 years old, interquartile range (IQR) 68.7-80.8 years old). Over a median follow-up of 4.1 years (IQR 2.1-7.5 years), longer GnRH agonists use was associated with higher risk of the endpoint (sub-hazard ratio per year 1.04 [1.01-1.06], p = 0.001), with those using GnRH agonists for ≥2 years having an estimated 23% increase in the sub-hazard of the endpoint (sub-hazard ratio 1.23 [1.04-1.46], p = 0.017).

Longer GnRH agonist use may be associated with greater cardiovascular risks.

Better preservation of erectile function in localized prostate cancer patients with modern proton therapy: Is it cost-effective?


Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has gradually been recognized as favorable curative treatment for localized prostate cancer (PC). However, the high rate of erectile dysfunction (ED) after traditional photon-based SBRT remains an ongoing challenge that greatly impacts the quality of life of PC survivors. Modern proton therapy allows higher conformal SBRT delivery and has the potential to reduce ED occurrence but its cost-effectiveness remains uninvestigated.

A Markov decision model was designed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of proton SBRT versus photon SBRT in reducing irradiation-related ED. Base-case evaluation was performed on a 66-year-old (median age of PC) localized PC patient with normal pretreatment erectile function. Further, stratified analyses were performed for different age groups (50, 55, 60, 65, 70, and 75 years) and threshold analyses were conducted to estimate cost-effective scenarios. A Chinese societal willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold (37,653 US dollars [$])/quality-adjusted life-year [QALY]) was adopted.

For the base case, protons provided an additional 0.152 QALY at an additional cost of $7233.4, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $47,456.5/QALY. Protons was cost-effective for patients ≤62-year-old at the WTP of China (≤66-year-old at a WTP of $50,000/QALY; ≤73-year-old at a WTP of $100,000/QALY). For patients at median age, once the current proton cost ($18,000) was reduced to ≤$16,505.7 or the patient had a life expectancy ≥88 years, protons were cost-effective at the WTP of China.

Upon assumption-based modeling, the results of current study support the use of proton SBRT in younger localized PC patients who are previously potent, for better preservation of erectile function. The findings await further validation using data from future comparative clinical trials.

Serum levels of chromogranin are not predictive of poorly differentiated prostate cancer: Results from a multicenter radical prostatectomy cohort.


Recently a possible link between elevated Chromogranin A (CgA) levels and poorly differentiated prostate cancer has been proposed. The aim of our study was to explore the association of CgA levels and the risk of poorly differentiated prostate cancer (PCa) in men undergoing radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP).

From 2012 onwards, 335 consecutive men undergoing RRP for PCa at three centers in Italy were enrolled into a prospective database. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated before RRP. Blood samples were collected and tested for total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and chromogranin A (CgA). We evaluated the association between serum levels of CgA and upstaging and upgrading using logistic regression analyses.

Median age and preoperative PSA levels were 65 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 60-69) and 7.2 ng/ml (IQR: 5.3-10.4), respectively. Median BMI was 26.1 kg/m2 (IQR: 24-29) with 56 (16%) obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 ). Median CgA levels were 51 (39/71). Overall, 129/335 (38,5%) presented an upstaging, and 99/335 (30%) presented an upgrading. CgA was not a predictor of upstaging or upgrading on RP.

In our multicenter cohort of patients, CgA is not a predictor of poorly differentiated PCa on radical prostatectomy. According to our experience, CgA should not be considered a reliable marker to predict poorly differentiated or advanced prostate cancer.

Prostate cancer grade downgrading at time of prostatectomy provides risk-stratification insight into future tumor behavior after prostatectomy.


Prostate biopsy (Bx) sampling-based diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) has well-described inaccuracy when compared against whole gland analysis upon prostatectomy. Although upgrading of PCa Grade Group (GG) is often described, the occurrence and prognostic implications of downgrading PCa GG at the time of radical prostatectomy (RP) is less understood. Our objective was to evaluate whether downgrading PCa GG at the time of RP was associated with future tumor behavior.

The SEER database was searched from 2010 to 2017 and patients were included if they were assigned pathological grades on both Bx and RP specimen. Patients were stratified into Bx GG > RP GG and Bx GG ≤ RP GG groups, and tumor behavior after treatment was examined. Cox regression was used for the survival analysis.

Here, 99,835 patients were included in this study. A total of 18,516 (18.5%) patients encountered downgrading from Bx GG to RP GG. A downgrading of 1 grade occurred in 13,969 (75.4%) of these patients and of 2 or more grades occurred in 4547 (24.6%) patients. A history of higher Bx GG compared with RP GG increased the risk of cancer-specific mortality (CSM) for each given RP GG controlling for age, race, preop prostate-specific antigen level, percentage of positive biopsy cores, and pathologic TNM stages. Specifically, a history of high Bx GG conferred a 45% increased risk of CSM for any given RP GG (hazard ratio = 1.45 95% confidence interval = 1.16-1.82, p < 0.001).

A history of higher Bx GG, and hence downgrading at the time of RP, demonstrates some value as a risk-stratification tool for future cancer outcomes after prostatectomy.

CXCR3 antagonist AMG487 ameliorates experimental autoimmune prostatitis by diminishing Th1 cell differentiation and inhibiting macrophage M1 phenotypic activation.


Chronic prostatitis and chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is an inflammatory immune disease that is characterized by infiltrating inflammatory cells in the prostate and pelvic or by perineal pain. Receptor CXCR3modulates immune and inflammatory responses; however, the effects of CXCR3 antagonist AMG487 in the context of CP/CPPS are unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effect of AMG487 in experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) mice and explored the potential functional mechanisms.

The EAP model was induced by intradermally injecting a mixture of prostate antigens and complete Freund's adjuvant on Days 0 and 28. To evaluate the effect of AMG487 on EAP mice, treatment with AMG487 and vehicle solution was conducted for the indicated period. Then, procedures were performed, including behavioral test, to evaluate the pain response to stimulation before the mice were killed and a histological assessment to evaluate the inflammation after the mice were killed. Immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, and Western blot assay were used to analyze the functional phenotype and regulation mechanism of AMG487 on T helper type 1 (Th1) cells and macrophages.

We found high expression of CXCR3 in human benign prostate tissues with inflammation and EAP mice. The elevated CXCR3 in prostate tissues correlates with the severity of inflammation. CXCR3 antagonist AMG487 treatment ameliorated the inflammatory changes and the pelvic pain of EAP mice. AMG487 inhibits Th1 cell differentiation through the IL-12/STAT4pathway and inhibits pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages through the lipopolysaccharide/NF-κB p65signaling. AMG487 could inhibit the secretion of inflammatory mediators in EAP mice.

CXCR3 antagonist AMG487 could ameliorate the inflammatory changes and the pelvic pain of EAP mice by diminishing Th1 cell differentiation and inhibiting macrophage M1 phenotypic activation. Thus, the results imply that AMG487 has the potential as an effective therapeutic agent in the prevention and treatment of EAP.

Pharmacotherapy vs. minimally invasive therapies as initial therapy for moderate-to-severe benign prostatic hyperplasia: a cost-effectiveness study.

Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases

Recently, minimally invasive therapies (MITs), such as water vapor thermal therapy (WVTT) and prostatic urethral lift (PUL) have become an alternative to surgery or pharmacotherapy to manage benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), offering symptom relief with a favorable safety profile. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost-utility of MITs (WVTT and PUL) compared to pharmacotherapy as initial treatment for patients with moderate-to-severe BPH.

In this model-based economic evaluation we simulated BPH progression in men (mean age 65 years, average International Prostate Symptom Score 16.6) over their lifetime and estimated healthcare costs (from the US public payer perspective) per quality-adjusted life year (QALY), discounted at 3% annually. Various clinical scenarios were evaluated given that most men undergo several lifelong therapies up to surgical intervention and potentially thereafter. As such, in the study model men could receive up to three lines of therapy: (1) initial pharmacotherapy with MIT as second-line, and transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) or pharmacotherapy as third-line; (2) initial MIT (WVTT or PUL) with MIT again, TURP or pharmacotherapy as second-line, and TURP as third-line. Model was populated using data from the published literature. Probabilistic analyses were performed.

Initial treatment with WVTT led to the highest QALYs (13.05) and the lowest cost ($15,461). The cumulative QALYs and lifetime costs were 12.92 QALYs and $20,280 for pharmacotherapy followed by WVTT, 12.87 QALYs and $22,424 for pharmacotherapy followed by PUL, 12.86 QALYs and $20,930 for initial treatment with PUL. In the cost-utility analysis, WVTT as initial treatment dominated all three strategies, i.e., generated more QALYs at a lower cost.

WVTT is an effective and cost-saving procedure, and may be an appropriate first-line alternative to pharmacotherapy for moderate-to-severe BPH patients who seek faster improvement and no lifelong commitment to daily medications.

The impact of enzalutamide on quality of life in men with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer based on prior therapy, risk, and symptom subgroups.


Enzalutamide plus androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) improved radiographic progression-free survival versus ADT alone in patients with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC) in ARCHES (NCT02677896). While health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was generally maintained in the intent-to-treat population, we further analyzed patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in defined subgroups.

ARCHES was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study. Patients with mHSPC received enzalutamide (160 mg/day) plus ADT (n = 574) or placebo plus ADT (n = 576). Questionnaires, including the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate, Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form, and EuroQol 5-Dimension, 5-Level (EQ-5D-5L), were completed at baseline, Week 13, and every 12 weeks until disease progression. PRO endpoints were time to first confirmed clinically meaningful deterioration (TTFCD) in HRQoL or pain. Subgroups included prognostic risk, pain/HRQoL, prior docetaxel, and local therapy (radical prostatectomy [RP] and/or radiotherapy [RT]).

There were several between-treatment differences in TTFCD for pain and functioning/HRQoL PROs. Enzalutamide plus ADT delayed TTFCD for worst pain in the prior RT group (not reached vs. 14.06 months; hazard ratio [HR]: 0.56 [95% confidence interval: 0.34-0.94]) and pain interference in low-baseline-HRQoL group (19.32 vs. 11.20 months; HR: 0.64 [0.44-0.94]) versus placebo plus ADT. In prior/no prior RP, prior RT, prior local therapy, no prior docetaxel, mild baseline pain, and low-risk subgroups, TTFCD was delayed for the EQ-5D-5L visual analog scale.

Enzalutamide plus ADT provides clinical benefits in defined patient subgroups versus ADT alone, while maintaining lack of pain and high HRQoL, with delayed deterioration in several HRQoL measures.

Validation of the prostate cancer comorbidity index in predicting cause-specific mortality in men undergoing radical prostatectomy.

Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases

Accurate prediction of competing risks of mortality remains a key component of prostate cancer treatment decision-making. We sought to validate the Prostate Cancer Comorbidity Index (PCCI) score for predicting other-cause mortality (OCM) and cancer outcomes in men undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP).

We sampled 4857 men with prostate cancer treated with RP in the VA from 2000-2018. Risks of OCM, 90-day all-cause mortality (ACM), prostate cancer-specific mortality, metastasis, and biochemical recurrence by PCCI score were assessed using Cox proportional hazards and logistic regression. We compared prediction of 90-day ACM between PCCI and the American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) score, a validated predictor of short-term mortality.

Over median follow-up of 6.7 years (IQR 3.7-10.3), there was a stepwise increase in risk of OCM with higher PCCI score, with hazards (95%CI) of 1.53 (1.14-2.04), 2.11 (1.55-2.88), 2.36 (1.68-3.31), 3.61 (2.61-4.98), and 4.99 (3.58-6.96) for PCCI 1-2, 3-4, 5-6, 7-9, and 10 + (vs. 0), respectively. Projected 10-year cumulative incidence of OCM was 8%, 12%, 16%, 19%, 26%, and 32% for scores of 0, 1-2, 3-4, 5-6, 7-9, and 10+ , respectively. Men with PCCI 7+ had greater odds of 90-day ACM (OR 3.48, 95%CI 1.26-9.63) while men with higher ASA did not. Higher PCCI score was associated with worse cancer outcomes, with the highest categories driving the associations.

The PCCI is a robust measure of short- and long-term OCM after RP, validated for use in clinical care and health services research focusing on surgical patient populations.