The latest medical research on Prostate Cancer

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about prostate cancer gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Benign prostatic hyperplasia nodules in patients treated with celecoxib and/or finasteride have reduced levels of NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 3, a mitochondrial protein essential for efficient function of the electron transport chain.


Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a condition generally associated with advanced age in men that can be accompanied by bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) including intermittency, weak stream, straining, urgency, frequency, and incomplete bladder voiding. Pharmacotherapies for LUTS/BPH include alpha-blockers, which relax prostatic and urethral smooth muscle and 5ɑ-reductase inhibitors such as finasteride, which can block conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone thereby reducing prostate volume. Celecoxib is a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor that reduces inflammation and has shown some promise in reducing prostatic inflammation and alleviating LUTS for some men with histological BPH. However, finasteride and celecoxib can reduce mitochondrial function in some contexts, potentially impacting their efficacy for alleviating BPH-associated LUTS.

To determine the impact of these pharmacotherapies on mitochondrial function in prostate tissues, we performed immunostaining of mitochondrial Complex I (CI) protein NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 3 (NDUFS3) and inflammatory cells on BPH specimens from patients naïve to treatment, or who were treated with celecoxib and/or finasteride for 28 days, as well as prostate tissues from male mice treated with celecoxib or vehicle control for 28 days. Quantification and statistical correlation analyses of immunostaining were performed.

NDUFS3 immunostaining was decreased in BPH compared to normal adjacent prostate. Patients treated with celecoxib and/or finasteride had significantly decreased NDUFS3 in both BPH and normal tissues, and no change in inflammatory cell infiltration compared to untreated patients. Mice treated with celecoxib also displayed a significant decrease in NDUFS3 immunostaining and no change in inflammatory cell infiltration.

These findings suggest that celecoxib and/or finasteride are associated with an overall decrease in NDUFS3 levels in prostate tissues but do not impact the presence of inflammatory cells, suggesting a decline in mitochondrial CI function in the absence of enhanced inflammation. Given that BPH has recently been associated with increased prostatic mitochondrial dysfunction, celecoxib and/or finasteride may exacerbate existing mitochondrial dysfunction in some BPH patients thereby potentially limiting their overall efficacy in providing metabolic stability and symptom relief.

Survival of patients with lymph node versus bone versus visceral metastases according to CHAARTED/LATITUDE criteria in the era of intensified combination therapies for metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer.


The first approvals of novel systemic therapies within recent years for metastatic hormone-sensitive (mHSPC) were mainly based on improved overall survival (OS) and time to castration resistance (ttCRPC) in mHSPC patients stratified according to CHAARTED low (LV) versus high volume (HV) and LATITUDE low (LR) versus high-risk (HR) disease.

Relying on our institutional tertiary-care database we identified all mHSPC stratified according to CHAARTED LV versus HV, LATITUDE LR versus HR and the location of the metastatic spread (lymph nodes (M1a) versus bone (M1b) versus visceral/others (M1c) metastases. OS and ttCRPC analyses, as well as Cox regression models were performed according to different metastatic categories.

Of 451 mHSPC, 14% versus 27% versus 48% versus 12% were classified as M1a LV versus M1b LV versus M1b HV versus M1c HV with significant differences in median OS: 95 versus 64 versus 50 versus 46 months (p < 0.001). In multivariable Cox regression models HV M1b (Hazard Ratio: 2.4, p = 0.03) and HV M1c (Hazard Ratio: 3.3, p < 0.01) harbored significant worse than M1a LV mHSPC. After stratification according to LATITUDE criteria, also significant differences between M1a LR versus M1b LR versus M1b HR versus M1c HR mHSPC patients were observed (p < 0.01) with M1b HR (Hazard Ratio: 2.7, p = 0.03) and M1c HR (Hazard Ratio: 3.5, p < 0.01), as predictor for worse OS. In comparison between HV M1b and HV M1c, as well as HR M1b versus HR M1c no differences in ttCRPC or OS were observed.

Significant differences exist between different metastatic patterns of HV and LV and HR and LR criteria. Best prognosis is observed within M1a LV and LR mHSPC patients.

Impact of proton pump inhibitors on the efficacy of androgen receptor signaling inhibitors in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients.


Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used due to their affordability and minimal severe side effects. However, their influence on the efficacy of cancer treatments, particularly androgen receptor signaling inhibitors (ARSIs), remains unclear. This study investigates the impact of PPI usage on the treatment outcomes in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC).

A total of 117 mCRPC patients were retrospectively analyzed and divided into two groups based on the concomitant use of PPI at the initiation of ARSI treatment: PPI+ (n = 38) and PPI- (n = 79). Patient characteristics, including age at ARSI treatment administered, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value at ARSI treatment administered, International Society of Urological Pathology grade group at prostate biopsy, metastatic site at ARSI treatment administered, prior docetaxel (DTX) treatment, and type of ARSI (abiraterone acetate or enzalutamide) were recorded. Progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and PSA response rates were compared between the two groups. Patients were further stratified by clinical background to compare PFS and OS between the two groups.

The PPI- group exhibited significantly extended PFS and a trend toward improved OS. For PSA response (reduction of 50% or more from baseline), the rates were 62.3% and 45.9% in the PPI- group and the PPI+ group, respectively. For deep PSA response (reductions of 90% or more from baseline), the rates were 36.4% and 24.3% in the PPI- group and the PPI+ group, respectively. The effects were consistent across subgroups divided by prior DTX treatment and type of ARSI administered.

The administration of PPIs appears to diminish the therapeutic efficacy of ARSIs in mCRPC patients. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings and explore the biological mechanisms involved.

Rare histological prostate cancer subtypes: Cancer-specific and other-cause mortality.

Prostate Cancer

To assess cancer-specific mortality (CSM) and other-cause mortality (OCM) rates in patients with rare histological prostate cancer subtypes.

Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (2004-2020), we applied smoothed cumulative incidence plots and competing risks regression (CRR) models.

Of 827,549 patients, 1510 (0.18%) harbored ductal, 952 (0.12%) neuroendocrine, 462 (0.06%) mucinous, and 95 (0.01%) signet ring cell carcinoma. In the localized stage, five-year CSM vs. OCM rates ranged from 2 vs. 10% in acinar and 3 vs. 8% in mucinous, to 55 vs. 19% in neuroendocrine carcinoma patients. In the locally advanced stage, five-year CSM vs. OCM rates ranged from 5 vs. 6% in acinar, to 14 vs. 16% in ductal, and to 71 vs. 15% in neuroendocrine carcinoma patients. In the metastatic stage, five-year CSM vs. OCM rates ranged from 49 vs. 15% in signet ring cell and 56 vs. 16% in mucinous, to 63 vs. 9% in ductal and 85 vs. 12% in neuroendocrine carcinoma. In multivariable CRR, localized neuroendocrine (HR 3.09), locally advanced neuroendocrine (HR 9.66), locally advanced ductal (HR 2.26), and finally metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma patients (HR 3.57; all p < 0.001) exhibited higher CSM rates relative to acinar adenocarcinoma patients.

Compared to acinar adenocarcinoma, patients with neuroendocrine carcinoma of all stages and locally advanced ductal carcinoma exhibit higher CSM rates. Conversely, CSM rates of mucinous and signet ring cell adenocarcinoma do not differ from those of acinar adenocarcinoma.

Analysis of three primary prostatic sarcoma cases and literature review.


The objective of this study is to evaluate the clinical presentations, diagnostic approaches, and treatment modalities for primary prostate sarcoma postradical prostatectomy, aiming to enhance its diagnosis and management.

We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of three male patients diagnosed with primary prostate sarcoma at Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, affiliated with Capital Medical University, from February 2014 to February 2024. All patients underwent transrectal prostate biopsies, which informed the decision to proceed with laparoscopic radical prostatectomies. After surgery, one patient received a combination of epirubicin and ifosfamide as immunotherapy, along with external beam radiotherapy. After comprehensive discussions regarding potential benefits and risks, the remaining two patients decided against undergoing radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

Based on the pathological examination results, two patients were diagnosed with stromal sarcoma and one with spindle cell sarcoma, all classified as high-grade sarcomas. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that all three cases were positive for VIMENTIN, but other results did not show significant specificity. During the follow-up period, one patient died within 12 months, and two patients were lost to follow-up after 6 months. However, there were no evident signs of recurrence observed during the follow-up period.

Primary prostate sarcoma is extremely rare and typically has a poor prognosis once diagnosed. Early diagnosis should be based on pathological and immunohistochemical testing results, followed by prompt surgical treatment and adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Despite these measures, recurrence is common, underscoring the need for a detailed and appropriate treatment plan and systematic therapy for affected patients.

Development and validation of a clinical nomogram to predict prostatic inflammation in men with lower urinary tract symptoms.

Prostate Cancer

Prostatic inflammation is an important etiological component of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The Prostatic Inflammation Nomogram Study (PINS) aimed to develop and validate a nomogram for predicting the presence of prostatic inflammation in men with LUTS.

This non-interventional, cross-sectional, prospective study was conducted in six secondary/tertiary centers across Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. Men (≥40 years) with BPH/LUTS scheduled to undergo prostatic surgery or transrectal ultrasound-guided (TRUS) prostate biopsy were included. Fifteen demographic and clinical participant characteristics were selected as possible predictors of prostatic inflammation. The presence of inflammation (according to Irani score) in the prostatic tissue samples obtained from surgery/TRUS biopsy was determined. The effect of each characteristic on the likelihood a prostate specimen demonstrated inflammation (classified by Irani score into two categories, 0-2 [no/minimal inflammation] or 3-6 [moderate/severe inflammation]) was assessed using multiple logistic regression. A nomogram was developed and its discriminatory ability and validity were assessed.

In total, 423 patients (mean age 68.9 years) were recruited. Prostate volume ultrasound (PVUS) > 50 mL, history of urinary tract infection (UTI) treatment, presence of diabetes, and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPPS) Storage score were statistically significant predictors of Irani classification. Logistic regression demonstrated a statistically significant effect for leucocytes detected via urine dipstick, presence of diabetes, PVUS > 50 mL, history of UTIs, and higher IPSS Storage score for the odds of an inflammatory score category of 3-6 versus 0-2. The nomogram had a concordance index of 0.71, and good internal validity.

The nomogram developed from PINS had good predictive ability and identified various characteristics to be predictors of prostatic inflammation. Use of the nomogram may aid in individualizing treatment for LUTS, by identifying individuals who are candidates for therapies targeting prostatic inflammation.

Impact of a rash management guide in patients receiving apalutamide for high-risk localized prostate cancer in the Apa-RP study.

Prostate Cancer

Based on the SPARTAN and TITAN studies, apalutamide is approved for patients with nonmetastatic castration-resistant and metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer. Skin rash was a common adverse reaction across indications. We hypothesized that earlier identification and intervention could improve rash outcomes.

A prespecified rash management guide outlining recommended skin care practices was provided to all patients enrolled in Apa-RP (NCT04523207). Rash-related safety data from Apa-RP were compared descriptively with data from SPARTAN and TITAN.

Patients in Apa-RP experienced improved rash-related outcomes vs those in SPARTAN and TITAN.

Increased vigilance and proactive management may reduce the incidence, severity, and duration of rash during apalutamide treatment.

A prospective evaluation of the prostate microbiome in malignant and benign tissue using transperineal biopsy.


The link between the prostate microbiome and prostate cancer remains unclear. Few studies have analyzed the microbiota of prostate tissue, and these have been limited by potential contamination by transrectal biopsy. Transperineal prostate biopsy offers an alternative and avoids fecal cross-contamination. We aim to characterize the prostate microbiome using transperineal biopsy.

Patients with clinical suspicion for prostate cancer who were to undergo transperineal prostate biopsy with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) fusion guidance were prospectively enrolled from 2022 to 2023. Patients were excluded if they had Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System lesions with scores ≤ 3, a history of prostate biopsy within 1 year, a history of prostate cancer, or antibiotic use within 30 days of biopsy. Tissue was collected from the MRI target lesions and nonneoplastic transitional zone. Bacteria were identified using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing.

Across the 42 patients, 76% were found to have prostate cancer. Beta diversity indices differed significantly between the perineum, voided urine, and prostate tissue. There were no beta diversity differences between cancerous or benign tissue, or between pre- and postbiopsy urines. There appear to be unique genera more abundant in cancerous versus benign tissue. There were no differences in alpha diversity indices relative to clinical findings including cancer status, grade, and risk group.

We demonstrate a rigorous method to better characterize the prostate microbiome using transperineal biopsy and to limit contamination. These findings provide a framework for future large-scale studies of the microbiome of prostate cancer.

Should systematic prostatic biopsies be discontinued?

Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases

The use of systematic biopsies in addition to targeted biopsies is based on multiple studies showing that 15-20% of "clinically significant" cancers are missed on targeted biopsies. Concern about these 'missed' cancers drives many interventions. This includes systematic biopsies in men with negative imaging and in men having targeted biopsies, and drives a preference for total gland treatment in men who may be candidates for partial gland ablation. This article summarizes recent genomic and clinical data indicating that, despite "clinically significant" histology, MRI invisible lesions are genomically and clinically favorable. These studies have demonstrated that the genetic aberrations associated with cancer visibility are the same aberrations that drive cancer invasiveness and metastasis. Thus invisible cancers, even if undiagnosed at baseline, are in most cases indolent and pose little threat to the patient. The implications are that patients should be monitored with imaging rather than systematic biopsy, and subject to repeat targeted biopsy for evidence of MR progression. Patients prefer this strategy. It has many advantages in terms of reduced burden of care, cost, psychological benefits, and less diagnosis of insignificant cancer.

It is now appropriate to abandon systematic biopsies in most patients.

Image-guided multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging-transrectal ultrasound fusion biopsy augmented with a sextant versus an extended template random biopsy: Comparison of cancer detection rates, complication and functional outcomes.


To compare the efficacy of a novel fusion template "reduced six-core systemic template and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging/transrectal ultrasound (mpMRI/TRUS) fusion targeted biopsy" (TBx+6c), with mpMRI/TRUS fusion-targeted biopsy and 12-core systematic biopsy template (TBx+12c) in the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa).

This is an institutional review board approved single-center observational study involving adult men undergoing fusion-targeted biopsies for the diagnosis of PCa. Patients were sorted into cohorts of TBx+6c or TBx+12c based on the systematic biopsy template used. The study's main objective was to determine the cancer detection rate (CDR) for overall PCa and clinically significant PCa (csPCa) and the secondary objectives were to compare complication rates and functional outcome differences between the cohort.

A total of 204 patients met study's inclusion criteria. TBx+6c group had 120 patients, while TBx+12c cohort had 84 patients. The groups had similar baseline characteristics and overall CDR in the TBx+6c cohort was 71.7% versus 79.8%, compared to the TBx+12c (p = 0.18) whereas, the csPCa detection rate in the TBx+6c group was 50.8% versus 54.8% in the TBx+12c group (p = 0.5). TBx+6c cohort had lower overall complication rate of 3% versus 13%, (p = 0.01) and ≥ grade 2 complication rates (1 (1%) vs. 3(4%), p = 0.03) compared to the TBx+12c cohort. There were no differences in IIEF-5 (p = 0.5) or IPSS (p = 0.1) scores at baseline and 2-weeks and 6-weeks post-biopsy.

TBx+6c cohort, when compared to the TBx+12c cohort, demonstrated comparable diagnostic performance along with similar functional outcomes and lower complication rates. These results suggest the importance of further exploring the clinical implications of adopting a TBx+6c schema for PCa diagnosis in comparison to the widely used TBx+12c schema through a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

The predictive impact of hematological inflammatory markers in detecting prostate cancer in patients with PI-RADS 3 lesions on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging.


The diagnostic accuracy of suspicious lesions that are classified as PI-RADS 3 in multiparametric prostate magnetic-resonance imaging (mpMRI) is controversial. This study aims to assess the predictive capacity of hematological inflammatory markers such as neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), pan-immune-inflammation value (PIV), and systemic immune-response index (SIRI) in detecting prostate cancer in PI-RADS 3 lesions.

276 patients who underwent mpMRI and subsequent prostate biopsy after PI-RADS 3 lesion detection were included in the study. According to the biopsy results, the patients were distributed to two groups as prostate cancer (PCa) and no cancer (non-PCa). Data concerning age, PSA, prostate volume, PSA density, PI-RADS 3 lesion size, prostate biopsy results, monocyte counts (109/L), lymphocyte counts (109/L), platelet counts (109/L), neutrophils count (109/L) were recorded from the complete blood count. From these data; PIV value is obtained by monocyte × neutrophil × platelet/lymphocyte, NLR by neutrophil/lymphocyte, and SIRI by monocyte number × NLR.

Significant variations in neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte levels between PCa and non-PCa patient groups were detected (p = 0.009, p = 0.001, p = 0.005 respectively, p < 0.05). NLR, PIV, and SIRI exhibited significant differences, with higher values in PCa patients (p = 0.004, p = 0.001, p < 0.001 respectively, p < 0.05). The area under curve of SIRI was 0.729, with a cut-off value of 1.20 and with a sensitivity 57.70%, and a specificity of 68.70%.

SIRI outperformed NLR and PIV in detecting PCa in PI-RADS 3 lesions, showcasing its potential as a valuable biomarker. Implementation of this parameter to possible future nomograms has the potential to individualize and risk-stratify the patients in prostate biopsy decision.

ChatGPT can help guide and empower patients after prostate cancer diagnosis.

Prostate Cancer

Patients often face uncertainty about what they should know after prostate cancer diagnosis. Web-based information is common but is at risk of being of poor quality or readability.

We used ChatGPT, a freely available Artificial intelligence (AI) platform, to generate enquiries about prostate cancer that a newly diagnosed patient might ask and compared to Google search trends. Then, we evaluated ChatGPT responses to these questions for clinical appropriateness and quality using standardised tools.

ChatGPT generates broad and representative questions, and provides understandable, clinically sound advice.

AI can guide and empower patients after prostate cancer diagnosis through education. However, the limitations of the ChatGPT language-model must not be ignored and require further evaluation and optimisation in the healthcare field.