The latest medical research on Pathology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about pathology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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p16 as an independent marker for detection of high-risk HPV in oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Indian Journal of Pathology and

An alarming increase in incidence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) positive tumors in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) by 25% and 70% in oropharyngeal HNSCC cannot be ignored. The early oncogenes of HPV, E6, and E7 play a key role in carcinogenesis. HPV associated tumors have a better clinical outcome and a favorable prognosis. The p16 expression has high concordance with other methods of HPV detection, ascertaining p16 as a surrogate marker for HPV.

To assess the immunohistochemical expression of p16 in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) with and without coexistent OSF as a marker for high-risk HPV detection. Materials and.

Tissue blocks of 70 cases including normal, OSF, OSCC with and without OSF were subjected to IHC staining with a p16INK4A monoclonal antibody. (Biogenex, San Roman). The p16 expression was noted according to percent positivity and pattern. The data were tabulated, statistically analyzed using the Chi-square test and the P value was assessed.

The percentage of p16 positive cells raised from normal to OSF to OSCC with and without OSF. In addition, a shift from nuclear to cytoplasmic expression from normal to OSCC was noted with a statistical significance (P < 0.001). However, no statistical significance was established with any clinicopathologic parameters except age (P = 0.012) and habits (P= 0.023).

The presence of HPV using p16 was not detected in OSF but was positive in OSCC. Altered pattern of expression from normal to OSF to OSCC indicates promising use of p16 as a diagnostic marker.

Omics data-driven analysis identifies laminin-integrin-mediated signaling pathway as a determinant for cell differentiation in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Indian Journal of Pathology and

In recent years, high-throughput omics technologies have been widely used globally to identify potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets in various cancers. However, apart from large consortiums such as The Cancer Genome Atlas, limited attempts have been made to mine existing datasets pertaining to cancers.

In the current study, we used an omics data analysis approach wherein publicly available protein expression data were integrated to identify functionally important proteins that revealed consistent dysregulated expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Our analysis revealed members of the integrin family of proteins to be consistently altered in expression across disparate datasets. Additionally, through association evidence and network analysis, we also identified members of the laminin family to be significantly altered in head and neck cancers. Members of both integrin and laminin families are known to be involved in cell-extracellular matrix adhesion and have been implicated in tumor metastatic processes in several cancers. To this end, we carried out immunohistochemical analyses to validate the findings in a cohort (n = 50) of oral cancer cases. Laminin-111 expression (composed of LAMA1, LAMB1, and LAMC1) was found to correlate with cell differentiation in oral cancer, showing a gradual decrease from well differentiated to poorly differentiated cases.

This study serves as a proof-of-principle for the mining of multiple omics datasets coupled with selection of functionally important group of molecules to provide novel insights into tumorigenesis and cancer progression.

Collagen fibers in oral submucous fibrosis - A polarizing microscopy study using two special stains.

Indian Journal of Pathology and

Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), a well-recognized oral potentially malignant disorder, results due to increased collagen production and reduced collagen degradation.

To qualitatively compare the staining properties of collagen in OSMF using two special stains based on their birefringent property using polarizing microscopy. The study also assessed the distribution and orientation of collagen fibers in different grades of OSMF.

A total of 73 subjects with different clinical and histopathological staging of OSMF comprised the study population. Histopathological examination was done using hematoxylin and eosin stain, Van Gieson and picrosirius red. Collagen fibers were analyzed for polarization colors, distribution, and orientation.

Picrosirius red stained both thick and thin collagen fibers. Irrespective of the histopathological grades reddish orange and yellowish orange were the most predominant colors. Parallel arrangement of fibers was observed when stained with Van Gieson but picrosirius red stained sections showed a majority of parallel type I fibers with perpendicular type III fibers which increased with advancement in the histopathological grade. Yellowish orange and greenish yellow fibers were predominant in the lamina propria, while reddish orange fibers were predominant in the submucosa.

Picrosirius red was found to be a better stain. Histopathological grading and polarization colors showed no association with each other. Collagen fibers were more thickly and tightly packed in the submucosa indicating that the process of fibrosis began there. The increase in perpendicular type III fibers with advancing histopathological grades suggested their role in fibrosis.

Risk of malignancy in Thyroid "Atypia of undetermined significance/Follicular lesion of undetermined significance" and its subcategories - A 5-year experience.

Indian Journal of Pathology and

Atypia of undetermined significance/Follicular lesion of undetermined significance [AUS/FLUS] is a heterogeneous category with a wide range of risk of malignancy [ROM] reported in the literature. The Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology [TBSRTC], 2017 has recommended subcategorization of AUS/FLUS.

To evaluate the ROM in thyroid nodules categorized as AUS/FLUS, as well as separate ROM for each of the five subcategories.

Retrospective analytic study.

A retrospective audit was conducted for all thyroid fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) from January 2013 to December 2017. Slides for cases with follow-up histopathology were reviewed, classified into the five recommended subcategories, and differential ROM was calculated.

z test for comparison of proportions was done to evaluate the difference in ROM among different subcategories of AUS/FLUS. The P value of less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant.

Total number of thyroid FNACs reported was 1,630, of which 122 were AUS/FLUS (7.5%). Histopathology was available in 49 cases, out of which 18 were malignant (ROM = 36.7%). The risk of malignancy (ROM) for nodules with architectural and cytologic atypia was higher (43.8%) than ROM for nodules with only architectural atypia (16.7%).

The sub-classification of AUS/FLUS into subcategories as recommended by TBSRTC, 2017 may better stratify the malignancy risk and guide future management guidelines.

Loss of c-Cbl expression correlates with de-differentiation status and lymphatic metastasis in gastric cancer.

Indian Journal of Pathology and

C-Cbl is an important negative regulator of the cell signaling that acts as an adaptor protein and E3 ubiquitin ligase. The role of c-Cbl in development and regulation of human cancer has aroused intensive attention.

In this study, we aimed to assess the correlation between the expression of c-Cbl and clinicopathological parameters and explored the role of c-Cbl in the development and progression of GC.

This is a Pilot study.

In total, 84 tissue samples including 44 gastric cancers (GC) and 40 matched adjacent normal tissues were collected after surgery. Then tissue microarray (TMA) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) technology were combined to detect the protein expression of c-Cbl.

Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 22.0 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA).

We have studied the correlation between c-Cbl expression and clinicopathological parameters. Our study showed that c-Cbl has a low expression in 61.4% (27/44) of GC tissues, and the incidence of cases was significantly higher than that in adjacent normal tissues (P < 0.0001). In addition, the correlation between c-Cbl expression and gastric carcinoma subtype (P = 0.027), histological type (P = 0.033), Borrmann classification (P = 0.009), histological differentiation (P = 0.0005), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.007), and intravascular tumor thrombus (P = 0.036) has also been revealed.

Our results show that c-Cbl is down-regulated in GC tissues compared with normal gastric tissue, which may play an important role in the development and progression of GC.

Clinicopathological profile of hepatoblastoma: An experience from a tertiary care center in India.

Indian Journal of Pathology and

Hepatoblastoma is the most common primary hepatic malignancy in the pediatric population. Advances in pathological evaluation, imaging, risk stratification, neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, and surgery including transplantation have improved survival of these children in the western countries. However, a successful outcome in developing countries such as India with limited resources poses great challenges to the clinician and the family. Histology plays a major role in determining the prognosis of these patients.

A retrospective study was done on 10 children diagnosed with hepatoblastoma between January 2010 and December 2015 in our institution. Clinical, laboratory, radiological, histopathological diagnoses, treatment, and outcome data were collected and analyzed.

The median age of these children at diagnosis was 11 months, and only 1 child was premature at birth. Most children were presented with abdominal distension. One child had lung metastasis at presentation. Elevated alpha fetoprotein levels were present in 90% of the children. The histological types were fetal, embryonal, macrotrabecular, and mixed epithelial-mesenchymal types. SIOPEL risk stratification was done, which showed 40% of the children to be of high risk. Three children had PRETEXT 1, 2, and 4, respectively.

Our study is significant with respect to the information on PRETEXT staging, risk status, and histological favorability. In developing countries with limited resources and low-socioeconomic status, it is important to have a multidisciplinary team approach and tailor treatment to manage these patients effectively and improve the overall survival.

The role of p53, Ki-67 and laminin expression in the differential diagnosis of keratoacanthoma and well-differentiated SCC.

Indian Journal of Pathology and

We have aimed to evaluate the difference between the expression of p53, Ki-67, and laminin in keratoacanthoma and well-differentiated SCC (SCC) and to determine its importance in differential diagnosis.

This study totally included 46 cases consisting of 23 cases with keratoacanthoma and 23 with SCC. As well as age, gender, localization, and diameter of the lesion, the expression of p53, Ki-67 and laminin was evaluated.

No statistically significant difference was found between KA and well-differentiated SCC in terms of diameter, age, and localization. There was a statistically significant difference between KA and well-differentiated SCC in terms of p53 and Ki-67 staining (P < 0.001). Increased expression of p53 and Ki-67 was found in well-differentiated SCC. A statistically significant correlation was present between the expression of p53 and Ki-67 in KA. A statistically significant difference was detected between KA and well-differentiated SCC in terms of laminin staining (P = 0.018). Increased laminin expression was determined in well-differentiated SCC.

We have determined in this study that p53, Ki-67 and laminin may be used as adjuvant immunohistochemical markers in differential diagnosis of KA and well-differentiated SCC.

Morphological characterization and molecular profiling of malignant pericardial effusion in patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma.

Indian Journal of Pathology and

Malignant pericardial effusions (MPCEs) is a common complication observed in advanced pulmonary adenocarcinoma. In such cases, investigating molecular alterations can have significant therapeutic implication in determining anticancer drugs.

The objective was to evaluate the significance of cell block technique in the diagnosis of MPCE and further investigate the morphological and molecular profiles of MPCE in patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma.

Cytopathological and molecular profiles of 19 MPCE cases in patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma were retrospectively analyzed. The control group consisted of 14 malignant pleural effusion (MPE) cases in patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma.

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and tyrosine-protein kinase Met (C-MET) expression was evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) and K-Ras (KRAS) mutations were detected by ARMS real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

Associations between MPCE and MPE were analyzed using Fisher's exact test.

MPCE was found to have micropapillary and solid pattern predominant with mucin secretion compared to acinar patterns, as seen in MPE. Seventeen MPCE cases (89.5%) and all MPE cases (100%) underwent molecular analysis. Mutations in EGFR and KRAS, ALK rearrangement, and C-MET amplification were observed in MPCE and MPE with statistical differences. Additionally, two MPCE cases demonstrated EGFR T790M mutation and multiple insertions at L858.

MPCE shows micropapillary and solid cytological patterns predominant with mucin secretion. MPCE are suitable to analyze oncogenic mutations and to develop targeted therapy for patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Further molecular investigations may reveal novel molecular alterations.

Evaluation of high-fluorescence body fluid (HF-BF) parameter as a screening tool of malignancy in body fluids.

Indian Journal of Pathology and

Automated body fluid (BF) analysis is gradually replacing the traditional methods of cell counting in all BFs. This study was done to analyze the high-fluorescence (HF)-BF parameter generated on Sysmex XN-1000 and study its correlation with the presence of malignant cells in the body fluids. A correlation between manual and automated differential counts was also done.

A total of 1985 samples including 797 ascitic fluids (AF), 532 pleural fluids (PF), and 656 cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) were run on Sysmex XN-1000 in BF mode and cytopathology was available for 924 BFs including 389 AF, 379 PF, and 156 CSF. Both manual and automated methods were used for cell differential and cell morphology.

Of the 924 samples with corresponding cytopathology, malignancy was found in 59 samples. The HF-BF%/100 WBCs (24.8 ± 72.5) and HF-BF#/μL (329.86 ± 932.35) for malignant BF samples were found to be significantly higher than the nonmalignant samples (4.41 ± 8.1) and (19.57 ± 61.91), respectively. Receiver-operator-characteristic curve cutoffs for all BF for percentage and absolute HF-BF were 2.85%/100 WBCs and >12/μL. A good correlation was found between the manual and automated WBC differential counts in all fluids except CSF with total count < 5/μL.

BFs can be reliably analyzed on automated analyzers. HF-BF parameter is helpful in identifying malignant samples but cannot be totally relied upon. If HF-BF%/# are above the lab-generated cutoffs, microscopy should be done. A complete validation study on HF-BF parameter in BF mode is desired to set the standards for the analysis of serious effusions.

Role of procalcitonin, Il-6 and C- reactive protein in suspected cases of sepsis.

Indian Journal of Pathology and

To study the role of serum procalcitonin as a diagnostic biomarker in sepsis and to compare it with other sepsis markers (IL-6, CRP) in patients of suspected sepsis.

A total of 80 patients were included in this study from ICU and each patient was investigated for serum Procalcitonin, Interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein levels by ELISA along with blood cultures by BacT/Alert system.

Procalcitonin along with CRP is a better diagnostic tool for sepsis.

Metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma to the parotid gland: A diagnostic dilemma with review of the literature.

Indian Journal of Pathology and

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary hepatic malignancy and is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. It has a ver...

Primary epiglottic follicular variant of peripheral T-cell lymphoma.

Indian Journal of Pathology and

The follicular variant of peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified, is very rare. Primary epiglottic follicular variant of peripheral T-...