The latest medical research on Pathology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about pathology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma syndrome-associated renal cell carcinoma: Morphological appraisal with a comprehensive review of differential diagnoses.

Indian Journal of Pathology and

Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC) is an autosomal dominant syndrome wherein affected individuals are at risk for the devel...

Diagnostic utility of immunohistochemical marker prostein for evaluation of primary and metastatic prostatic carcinomas.

Indian Journal of Pathology and

The diagnosis of prostatic adenocarcinoma on histopathology depends on architectural and cytomorphological features supported by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Though all the prostate markers show excellent specificity, the sensitivity and percentage positivity vary.

In this study, we aim to study the expression of prostein in normal, benign, and malignant (primary and metastatic) lesions with particular emphasis on its utility in the differential diagnosis of poorly differentiated and metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma along with a standard panel of IHC markers.

This was both a prospective and retrospective as well as descriptive and observational study.

All samples from patients with clinically suspected carcinoma prostate from both primary and metastatic sites from June 2015 to May 2016 were included in the study. Samples with difficulty in diagnosis on hematoxylin and eosin staining were subjected to a panel of IHC markers along with prostein.

Receiver operating curve analysis and Chi-square test.

Prostein showed a 100% sensitivity and specificity to identify normal prostatic epithelium, benign and premalignant lesions, and prostatic adenocarcinoma. Prostein showed a specificity of 100% in differentiating prostatic carcinoma from poorly differentiated urothelial carcinoma and in differentiating metastatic prostatic carcinoma from adenocarcinoma of nonprostatic origin.

Prostein is a new and promising prostate-specific marker that showed slightly more sensitivity and specificity than prostate-specific antigen. Thus, adding prostein to the IHC panel will greatly improve the detection of poorly differentiated primary and metastatic lesions of the prostate.

A grading dilemma; Gleason scoring system: Are we sufficiently compatible? A multi center study.

Indian Journal of Pathology and

Gleason scoring is the grading system which strongly predicts the prognosis of prostate cancer. However, even being one of the most commonly used systems, the presence of different interobserver agreement rates push the uropathologists update the definitons of the Gleason patterns. In this study, we aimed to determine the interobserver agreement variability among 7 general pathologists, and one expert uropathologist from 6 different centers.

A set of 50 Hematoxylin & Eosin stained slides from 41 patients diagnosed as prostate cancer were revised by 8 different pathologists. The pathologists were also grouped according to having their residency at the same institute or working at the same center. All pathologists' and the subgroups' Gleason scores were then compared for interobserver variability by Fleiss' and Cohen's kappa tests using R v3.2.4.

There were about 8 pathologists from 6 different centers revised all the slides. One of them was an expert uropathologist with experience of 18 years. Among 7 general pathologists 4 had surgical pathology experience for over 5 years whilst 3 had under 5 years. The Fleiss' kappa was found as 0.54 for primary Gleason pattern, and 0.44 for total Gleason score (moderate agreement). The Fleiss' kappa was 0.45 for grade grouping system.

Assigning a Gleason score for a patient can be problematic because of different interobserver agreement rates among pathologists even though the patterns were accepted as well-defined.

Immunoexpression of estrogen receptor-β and progesterone receptor in prostate adenocarcinoma, does it inhibit neoplastic proliferation and invasion?

Indian Journal of Pathology and

The roles of estrogen and progesterone in human prostate carcinogenesis have been only recently recognized.

This study was conducted to evaluate the expressions of esterone receptor-beta (ER-β), progesterone receptor (PR), and Ki-67 in benign and malignant lesions of the prostate.

The study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital. It was an analytical cross-sectional study.

We selected a total of 39 cases including 26 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia and 13 cases of adenocarcinoma prostate. The proportion of cases showing expression for ER-β, PR, and Ki-67 was noted for both groups. A difference in immunoexpression between benign and malignant cases was evaluated. Association between receptor expression and Gleason grade was evaluated for malignant cases.

To compare the difference in expressions of ER-β, PR, and Ki-67 Mann-Whitney U test was used. Association between ER-β, PR, and Ki-67 expression and Gleason grade was analyzed using the Chi-square test.

ER-β expression was seen in all benign and malignant cases, whereas the majority of the malignant cases (61.54%) were negative for progesterone expression. Epithelial expressions of ER-β and PR were significantly higher in benign as compared with malignant lesions. Malignant cases showed a significantly higher expression of Ki-67. However, we did not find any association between the expressions of these markers with Gleason grade.

The expressions of ER-β and PR were significantly higher in the epithelium in benign cases as compared with malignant cases. Ki-67 expression was significantly higher in the malignant group as compared with the benign group.

Histopathology of nonspecific granulomatous prostatitis with special reference to eosinophilic epithelial metaplasia: Pathophysiologic, diagnostic and differential diagnostic correlations.

Indian Journal of Pathology and

Recently, we publish two case reports about association of nonspecific granulomatous prostatitis (NSGP) and eosinophilic metaplasia (EM) in benign prostatic epithelium. There is no investigation of large series of this association in medical literature. Aim of the current study is to investigate the frequency of association of NSGP and prostatic EM in a large series of cases and their relationship with the basic prostate pathology: benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), National Institutes of Health-category IV prostatitis (so-called histologic prostatitis (HP)), and prostatic adenocarcinoma (PCa).

A retrospective record review for NSGP was performed on a total of 2366 prostatic specimens of all types of material. All cases of NSGP were reviewed for the presence of EM, BPH, and HP. NSGP with EM-cases and control cases with high grade PCa with endocrine differentiation (so-called Paneth cell-like changes) were evaluated immunohistochemically.

NSGP was found in nine cases (0.38%). EM was detected in benign perigranulomatous secretory epithelial cells in 100% of cases with NSGP and were closely associated with BPH and HP. Immunohistochemically, in 55.5% of cases with EM, there was weak focal apical false-positive staining for p504s.

EM is a very common lesion in NSGP and reflects histologically a nonspecific cellular response, connected with repeated inflammation, in close relation with BPH and HP. We speculate that EM might serve as a morphological precursor of the immunologic phase of NSGP. This constant morphological finding could facilitate the histopathological differential diagnosis of NSGP with other types of granulomatous prostatitis and high grade PCa with or without endocrine differentiation.

Differential diagnosis and unusual diffuse cytokeratin expression in renal paraganglioma: A case report.

Indian Journal of Pathology and

Paraganglioma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor arising from undifferentiated cells of the primitive neural crest. We report a case of renal paragangl...

Primary renal angiosarcoma: A case report and a short review of literature.

Indian Journal of Pathology and

Primary renal angiosarcomas (AS) are uncommon tumors with poor prognosis. Aetiology is unknown but some unproven risk factors have been described. ...

Collagenofibrotic glomerulopathy - A rare disease diagnosed with the aid of transmission electron microscopy.

Indian Journal of Pathology and

Collagenofibrotic glomerulopathy (CFG) is a rare idiopathic kidney disease characterized by abnormal deposition of atypical Type III collagen fiber...

Rapidly progressing malignant phyllodes tumor of the prostate with normal prostate-specific antigen levels: A case report.

Indian Journal of Pathology and

Malignant phyllodes tumor of the prostate is a very rare entity. Here, we describe a 51-year-old patient with a malignant phyllodes tumor of the pr...

Paratesticular well-differentiated liposarcoma initially diagnosed as fibrous pseudotumour.

Indian Journal of Pathology and

Paratesticular tumours are relatively rare and mostly of the mesenchymal origin. Due to its rarity, general surgical pathologists might have limite...

Subtype specific biomarkers associated with chemoresistance in epithelial ovarian cancer.

Indian Journal of Pathology and

In spite of the advent of many high throughput technologies, tumor tissue biomarkers are still the gold standard for diagnosis and prognosis of dif...

Role of immunohistochemistry in gynec oncopathology including specific diagnostic scenarios with associated treatment implications.

Indian Journal of Pathology and

Over the years, immunohistochemistry has emerged as a powerful tool for a more precise diagnosis of certain tumors in gynecologic oncopathology and...