The latest medical research on Pathology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about pathology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Recent updates in the diagnosis of soft tissue tumors: Newly described tumor entities, newer immunohistochemical and genetic markers, concepts, including "inter-tumor relationships".

Indian Journal of Pathology and

During the last two decades, there have been significant strides in the diagnosis of soft tissue tumors, including identification of various tumor ...

A study of CD10 positivity of stromal cells in core needle biopsy specimen of breast cancer patients and its relation with histological grade and lymphovascular invasion.

Indian Journal of Pathology and

In core needle biopsy (CNB) often the histological grade of invasive breast carcinoma is under-estimated due to heterogeneity of epithelial component. Stroma is relatively homogenous throughout the tumor and strong CD10 stromal positivity is proposed to be associated with high tumor grade.

The aim of this work was to study the expression of CD10 in stromal cells of invasive carcinoma of breast, no specific type (NST) in CNB specimens, and analyze its association with final histological grade and lymphovascular invasion (LVI).

A total of 50 cases of invasive carcinoma of breast, NST were studied for 18 months. CNB specimens were graded according to modified Scarff-Bloom-Richardson (SBR) system and CD10 positivity was assessed in stromal cells. Mastectomy specimens were also similarly graded. Relation of stromal CD10 positivity with histological grading and LVI was studied.

Associations between the variables were studied by Chi-square test. A value of P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.

On CNB 46% patients had a grade 2 tumor, followed by 30% grade 3 and 24% grade 1 tumor. Strong CD10 positivity was seen in 40% cases, 32% showed weak positivity and 28% were negative for CD10 in stromal cells in CNB specimen. On evaluation of mastectomy specimen 48% of the patients had a grade 2 tumor, followed by 40% grade 3 tumor and 12% grade 1 tumor. Strong CD10 positivity was found to be significantly associated with final grade 3 tumor (P < 0.001) and LVI (P = 0.005).

There was underestimation of histological grade on CNB, while strong stromal CD10 positivity in CNB was significantly associated with final grade 3 tumor and LVI.

Histopathological changes in the right atrial appendages triggering atrial fibrillation: A tertiary care center study.

Indian Journal of Pathology and

Atrial fibrillation(AF) is as an abnormal irregular rhythm with chaotic generation of electrical signals in the atria of the heart. Various studies in the West have proved that atrial substrates, like isolated atrial amyloidosis can trigger the development of atrial fibrillation. In India, these structural changes have been analyzed on autopsied hearts.

To determine the role of Atrial Amyloid as a substrate for Atrial fibrillation in ante mortem hearts.

Atrial appendages were obtained from seventy five patients undergoing open heart surgery at a tertiary care hospital in south India. They were stained with Hematoxylin &Eosin, Masson's Trichrome and Congo red stains and were examined for myocarditis, fibrosis and amyloidosis, respectively. 30 (40%) patients were in AF. Amyloid deposits were seen in 3 cases. All the three were in AF and had undergone mitral valve replacement (MVR) (P<0.05). 2 out of the 3 amyloid-positive cases showed active myocarditis and severe scarring but there was no statistically significant correlation between these factors.

Amyloid and myocarditis, independently act as an arrythmogenic substrates in the development of atrial fibrillation and are also increasingly associated with female gender and MVR. We hypothesize that the amyloid deposits are due to isolated atrial amyloidosis as they were seen only in young individuals. Some patients in sinus rhythm (SR) had large left atria and myocarditis and probably are at a higher risk for developing AF. Hence, follow-up of these patients is required for prevention of severe organ damage and timely therapeutic intervention.

Vascular tangle in the inter-atrial septum - Is it the source of cardiac myxoma?

Indian Journal of Pathology and

Cardiac myxomas (CMs) are the most common primary tumors of the heart, said to be derived from pluripotent cardiac stem cells. They are most often attached to the left side of the inter-atrial septum (IAS) and a feature noted at the site of attachment is a conglomeration of thick-walled vessels that has been noted to precede the development of myxomas.

The present study was conducted to compare histology of the normal inter-atrial septa to the septal flap excised with the myxomas and to evaluate the significance of this 'vascular tangle' in the histogenesis of these tumors.

In a 10-year retrospective analysis of all surgically excised CMs, tumors with attached septal sleeves were selected. This histology was compared to the serial sections of 25 normal age-matched septa obtained from normal hearts at autopsy.

Of the 56 myxomas seen in 10 years, 38 tumors (all left atrial in location) were received with a flap of the IAS. All of these cases, irrespective of the sizes of the tumor, showed the presence of conglomeration of thick-walled blood vessels, many of which showed abrupt myxoid change in their walls. Another noteworthy feature in many vessels in all flaps was migration of the myxoid tissue through the vascular walls and the endocardium to mushroom out into the atrial lumen. Such vascular channels were not seen in any of the normal IAS.

Based on these findings, we propose a two-step hypothesis: an initial step that stimulates the pluripotent cells toward vasculogenesis with endothelial and smooth muscle differentiation, and a subsequent step leads to production of abundant mucopolysaccharides that splay apart the smooth muscle cells, which would explain rings, cords or nests of myxoma cells around endothelial lined spaces.

Expression of CD44 and CD133 stem cell markers in squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus.

Indian Journal of Pathology and

Role of cancer stem cells in the esophageal carcinogenesis is not clear.

To assess the expression of CD44 and CD133 cancer stem cell markers in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and its predisposing lesions by immunohistochemistry.

Prospective study as a part of an intramural research project.

Tissues samples were obtained with endoscopic biopsy and from surgically resected esophageal specimens. Fifty cases each of histopathologically diagnosed cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and its predisposing lesions (mild, moderate, and severe dysplasia and esophagitis) were evaluated for stem cell marker CD44 and C133 by immunohistochemistry using a scoring system.

Chi-square test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), post-hoc tests (Tukey-HSD) were used as appropriate for data analysis. Two sided P < 0.05 was considered as significant.

CD44 expression was significantly higher in ESCC as compared to dysplasia and esophagitis (mean IS 7.92 ± 1.45 vs. 6.34 ± 0.80 vs 5.15 ± 0.86 respectively, P < 0.001). CD133 expression was also significantly higher in ESCC as compared to dysplasia (mean IS 6.82 ± 1.57 vs. 1.00 ± 0.00 respectively, P < 0.001) while esophagitis showed no expression. CD44 and CD133 expressions were significantly higher in poorly differentiated ESCC than moderately differentiated and well differentiated lesions (CD44 mean IS 6.94 ± 1.44 vs 8.17 ± 1.38 vs. 8.63 ± 1.02 respectively, P < 0.001 and CD 133 mean IRS 5.63 ± 0.81 vs 6.00 ± 00 vs. 9.0 ± 00 respectively, P < 0.001).

Significantly higher expression of CD44 and CD133 cancer stem cell markers in ESCC as compared to its predisposing lesions (esophagitis and dysplasia) suggests its role in esophageal carcinogenesis.

Prognostic effect of perineural invasion in successive years in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer.

Indian Journal of Pathology and

The present study evaluates the prognostic significance of perineural invasion (PNI) on 2-year, 5-year, and overall survival in patients undergoing gastrectomy and D2 lymphadenectomy due to locally advanced gastric cancer.

Included in the study were 231 patients who underwent surgery between November 2006 and October 2018 due to stage 1B and over locally advanced gastric cancer, whose records were reviewed retrospectively.

The variables in the presence or absence of PNI were compared between the two groups with a Chi-square test, a Fisher's exact test, a likelihood ratio, and a Mann-Whitney U test. Overall survival data were evaluated with a Kaplan-Meier test. Prognostic factors were evaluated with a stepwise Cox regression analysis.

PNI was identified in 167 (72.3%) of the patients. The 2-year, 5-year, and overall survival rates at the end of the follow-up period were 85.9%, 70.3%, and 64.1% in those without PNI, and 52.7%, 38.3%, and 36.5% in those with PNI, respectively. In a multivariate analysis, PNI appeared to be a significant prognostic factor for 2-year survival (P = 0.04) but had no effect on 5-year and overall survival.

Survival was shorter in patients with PNI than in patients without PNI, and PNI had no effect on overall survival, although it was found to be of prognostic significance for 2-year survival.

Morphological evaluation of bulb and distal duodenal biopsies in pediatric celiac disease with clinical and serological correlation.

Indian Journal of Pathology and

An early correct diagnosis of celiac disease (CD) is fundamental to reversal of symptoms and prevention of complications in pediatric patients. Our aim was to evaluate the role of duodenal bulb biopsy by studying the degree of mucosal damage in the duodenal bulb (D1) and second part of the duodenum (D2) and correlating the findings with serum IgA anti-tTG levels.

Pediatric patients (age <18 years) with clinical suspicion of CD and positive IgA anti-tTG titers were consecutively enrolled over a period of one year. Demographic variables, anthropometry, clinical history, laboratory values and endoscopic findings were studied. Endoscopic biopsies obtained from D1 and D2 were evaluated and assigned histopathologic grades that were correlated with serology.

Descriptive statistics were employed.

A total of 37 clinically suspected cases of pediatric CD were studied. The mean age was 6.7 years and the M:F ratio was 1:1.3. Thirty-two (32) children had varying degrees of growth impairment. Eight (8) children had only extra-intestinal symptoms. Thirty (30) children were anemic, hypoalbuminemia was seen in five (5) children while transaminitis was seen in two (2) children. IgA anti-tTG >300 U/ml was associated with Marsh-Oberhuber Grade 3 morphology at atleast one site.

Low positive serology values should be confirmed by histopathology. Biopsies should be taken even in the absence of endoscopic abnormality. Additional D1 biopsies placed in a separate container can increase the diagnostic yield.

PD-L1 Expression in colorectal carcinoma and its correlation with clinicopathological parameters, microsatellite instability and BRAF mutation.

Indian Journal of Pathology and

: Programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) is the key inhibitor of the cytotoxic immune response thus causing progression of tumors and adverse prognosis in many malignancies.

The current study investigates PD-L1 expression in colorectal carcinoma and its correlation with clinicopathological parameters, microsatellite instability, and BRAF mutation.

110 cases of colorectal carcinoma were evaluated for PD-L1 expression using SP263 clone in tissue microarray. Clinico-pathological characteristics and survival data were correlated with PD-L1 expression analyzed at different cut-offs of ≥1%, ≥10% and ≥50% in tumor cells and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes along with its correlation with BRAF expression and microsatellite instability status in these cases.

Mean age was 49 years with male to female ratio of 1.5:1. 52.7% cases presented with stage 3/4 disease and 14.7% with >10 cm tumor size. Tumor cells expressed PD-L1 in 40% and TILs in 45.4% cases at a cut off of ≥1% was 17.3%, at ≥10% was 15.5% and at ≥50% was 7.3%. Significant association was seen between tumor proportion score (TPS) and increasing age, histological type, histological grade, tumor size, higher T stage (p = 0.03), TILs (p = 0.04), lymph vascular invasion, and perineural invasion. PDL-1 correlated with BRAF expression and microsatellite instability (MLH-1/PMS-2 expression loss). The overall survival was significantly higher (p < 0.001) with negative PDL1 expression in cases of colorectal carcinoma.

Immunotherapy may be used as potential therapeutic option in colorectal carcinoma cases showing microsatellite instability and BRAF mutations which show poor response to conventional chemotherapy regimen and anti-EGFR therapy.

A tale of tripartite: An experience from a tertiary care center of Eastern India.

Indian Journal of Pathology and

Crescentic glomerulonephritis (Cr GN) is pattern of glomerular injury resulting from wide range of diseases sharing a common pathogenesis.

The objective of our study was to analyze the clinicopathological spectrum and outcome of Cr GN with special reference to its immunopathological subtypes using a panel of immunofluorescence stains.

Native renal biopsies with crescentic pattern of injury were included. Detailed Clinical and laboratory variables were analyzed along with the treatment protocol and renal outcome, wherever available. Renal biopsy slides were evaluated for various glomerular and extraglomerular features. Both qualitative and quantitative data were analyzed.

A total of 57 cases of Cr GN were included; majority (47.36%) of cases were pauci-immune in nature. Among clinical features, ranges of proteinuria and creatinine level were significantly different between subgroups. The various light microscopic parameters, including proportion of cellular crescents and capillary wall necrosis were different. Presence of arteriolar changes also showed association with unfavorable outcome. Three unusual associations, including IgA nephropathy, membranous glomerulonephritis and Hepatitis B infection were detected. Adequate follow-up information was available in 35 of the patients. Of these, 14 were dialysis-dependent at the last follow-up.

Type III Cr GN (pauci-immune Cr GN) was the commonest cause of Cr GN in our population. Adult patients required renal replacement therapy more frequently than pediatric cases those are chiefly infection associated. Critical appraisal of clinical, histopathological and immunofluorescence finding help to identify individual subtypes as treatment and outcome varies accordingly.

Recurrent DHA nephropathy in renal allograft-revisiting clinicopathological aspects of a rare entity.

Indian Journal of Pathology and

Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) enzyme deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of purine metabolism affecting mainly the kidneys. It can present at any age with varying degrees of acute and chronic renal damage. Though xanthine dehydrogenase inhibitors offer effective control over the disease process, delay in diagnosis and treatment often lead to compromised function of native and even graft kidneys.

We have done a retrospective search of records of renal biopsies reported at our center during the 5-year period from 2014 to 2018 to identify biopsies with 2,8-dihydroxyadenine crystal deposits. The demographic, clinical, and histopathological findings in these cases were studied and reviewed in the light of available literature.

Of 9059 renal biopsies received during the study period, 3 cases had the rare 2,8- dihydroxyadenine (DHA) crystals. All of them were diagnosed for the first time on allograft biopsies.

A high index of clinical suspicion together with the characteristic microscopic appearance of crystals on renal biopsy and urine microscopy can clinch the diagnosis of this rare disease. Hence, improving awareness about this entity among clinicians and pathologists is extremely important.

Genetic and acquired blistering disorders of pediatric age group: An experience from Eastern India.

Indian Journal of Pathology and

Blistering or vesiculobullous disorders in pediatric population are either immunobullous or mechanobullous. Spectrum was analyzed using demographic details, clinical features, histopathology, direct immunofluorescence (DIF) and Immunofluorescence mapping (IFM).

This was a single institution based observational study in children below 18 years. The demographic details were collected using proforma containing particulars of the patient, history, complaints, and other parameters. Punch biopsy of the skin lesion was done. Biopsy samples were examined under light microscope followed by DIF using fluorescent conjugated polyclonal antibody against immunoglobulins IgG, IgM, IgA, and complement C3. The salt-split technique was also used in particular cases. IFM was done using anticytokeratin (CK) 5 & 14, antilaminin 332, anticollagen VII, and anticollagen IV antibodies.

Out of total 50 cases, linear IgA bullous dermatosis (LABD) was the commonest. The average concordance between clinical and final diagnosis (histopathological examination + DIF) was 87.5% and discordance was 12.5%. The agreement between histopathological examination and DIF was found to be substantially significant (κ = 0.6892). IFM depicted epidermolysis bullosa simplex with reduced CK 14 expression, dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa with reduced Collagen VII expression and junctional epidermolysis bullosa with absent laminin 5 expression.

The spectrum of bullous lesions in childhood was properly delineated and subcategorization of EB was done. Histopathological examination showed the hallmarks that were conclusive in most of the cases except in LABD and EB. DIF and IFM proved indispensable in those cases. Thus, DIF is not a substitute for histopathology but complementary to it.

Evaluation of role of HPLC (Merits & Pitfalls), in the diagnosis of various hemoglobinopathies & thalassemic syndromes.

Indian Journal of Pathology and

: HPLC is one of the most important tools for accurate diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies and thalassemias. The advantage of the HPLC system is the excellent resolution, reproducibility &quantification of several normal and abnormal hemoglobin.

BIO RAD Variant II analyzer was used. Sickle cell syndromes including double heterozygous states accounted for 56.13% of total cases. HbSS, HbS/β0-th, HbS/β+-th β-thal trait comprises 29%, 6.5%, 5.1%& 10% of total cases respectively with mean MCV (fl) = 84, 68,71,64 respectively. The Mean HbA2 for β-thal trait, HbE trait &HbE-β thal showed 5.1 ± 1.1, 19 ± 9 & 24 ± 8 respectively. HbF is increased in 8.6% case (excluding SC syndromes & β-thal disorders), of these 5.5% were infants & 12 cases of Aplastic Anemias. Peak P2 >7% (2.4% cases) was seen in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus which on quantification showed HbA1C = 8 ± 2.1 mmol/L.

: HPLC in correlation with CBC parameters & family studies can aid in the diagnosis of majority of Hemoglobinopathies and thalassemic syndrome. The CBC & HPLC parameters of the present study are in good correlation with the research conducted by Tejinder Sing, RiouJ & Alla Joutovsky. Present study showed HPLC comprehensively characterizing HbS, A, A2, F, S, C, D from each other & was also applicable for the quantification of HbA1c for the monitoring of Diabetes Mellitus.

: The merits of HPLC are small quantity of sample required, economical, less TAT, accurate categorization of HbS, HbA2 & F. But one has to be aware of the limitations and problems associated with this method due to variant hemoglobin within the same retention windows. The present findings show HPLC as an excellent & powerful diagnostic tool for the direct identification of hemoglobin variants with a high degree of precision in the quantification of normal and abnormal hemoglobin fractions.