The latest medical research on Optometry

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about optometry gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Evaluation of Ocular Surface Characteristics in Dry Eye Disease With and Without Soft Contact Lens Wear: A Comparative Study.

Eye Contact Lens

To investigate ocular surface alterations and in vivo confocal microscopic characteristics of the cornea in dry eye disease (DED) with contact lens wear (CLW).

Sixty participants were divided into three groups: DED with CLW (n=20), DED without CLW (n=20), and normal control (n=20). Ocular surface parameters were evaluated. Basal tears and in vivo confocal microscopy images of the cornea were collected. Multiplex bead analysis was used to assess interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, nerve growth factor (NGF), and substance P (SP) in tears. Nerve morphology and dendritic cell density in corneal subbasal nerve images were calculated.

The DED with CLW group showed significantly higher ocular surface staining scores (P=0.022) and higher levels of IL-1β, NGF, and SP in tears (P=0.014, P=0.004 and P=0.025) than the DED without CLW group. Corneal dendritic cell density in the DED with CLW group was significantly higher than that in the normal controls (P=0.001) and DED without CLW group (P=0.043). Tear cytokine levels of IL-1β, NGF, and SP were correlated with ocular surface parameters in the DED with CLW group. Moreover, the years of CLW were positively correlated with corneal dendritic cell density (r=0.527, P=0.017) and negatively correlated with corneal nerve density (r=-0.511, P=0.021).

Patients with DED with CLW showed greater epithelial damage, elevated inflammatory cytokines and neuromediators in tears, and higher corneal dendritic cell density than patients with DED without CLW. The immune and nervous systems may be involved in contact lens-related DED.

Scleral Lens Thickness and Corneal Edema Under Closed Eye Conditions.

Eye Contact Lens

To examine the relationship between central lens thickness and central corneal edema during short-term closed eye scleral lens wear.

Nine participants (mean age 30 years) with normal corneas wore scleral lenses (Dk 141) under closed eye conditions on separate days with nominal center thicknesses of 150, 300, 600, and 1,200 μm. Epithelial, stromal, and total corneal edema were measured using high-resolution optical coherence tomography immediately after lens application and after 90 min of wear, before lens removal. Data were corrected for variations in initial fluid reservoir thickness and compared with predictions from theoretical modeling of overnight scleral lens wear.

Scleral lens-induced central corneal edema was primarily stromal in nature. The mean±standard error of corrected total corneal edema was 4.31%±0.32%, 4.55%±0.42%, 4.92%±0.50%, and 4.83%±0.22% for the 150-, 300-, 600-, and 1,200-μm lenses, respectively. No significant differences in the corrected total corneal edema were observed across all thickness groups (P=0.20). Theoretical modeling of overnight scleral lens wear seemed to overestimate the relative increase in central corneal edema as a function of decreasing lens Dk/t for values lower than 25.

The magnitude of scleral lens-induced central corneal edema during short-term closed eye lens wear did not vary significantly with increasing central lens thickness. Theoretical modeling of overnight closed eye scleral lens wear seems to overestimate the effect of increasing lens thickness.

Visual Outcomes of Patients With Peripheral Ulcerative Keratitis and the Effect of Immunosuppression-A 6-Year Experience in Queensland, Australia.

Eye Contact Lens

Peripheral ulcerative keratitis (PUK) can cause significant ocular morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to review the effects of systemic immunosuppression on visual outcomes.

A state-wide, retrospective case series based in Queensland, Australia, was performed. A review of patients who presented with PUK to the major tertiary ophthalmology referral centers between January 2015 and January 2021 was undertaken. Parameters recorded included clinical features at presentation, investigations undertaken, treatment provided, visual outcomes, and mortality outcomes. The effect of immunomodulatory therapy on the change in vision from presentation to the most recent review was analyzed.

Twenty-two eyes of 26 patients with PUK (average age 69.81±14.54 years) were included and had a mean follow-up period of 577.73 days. Twelve patients (54.5%) had systemic autoimmune disease, one patient (4.5%) had positive syphilis serology, and nine patients (40.9%) had idiopathic PUK. Eighteen patients (81.8%) were treated with systemic steroids and 10 patients (45.5%) were treated with steroid-sparing immunomodulatory therapy. Average logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at presentation and final follow-up were 0.63±0.65 and 0.64±0.82, respectively. Those who were treated with immunomodulatory therapy had a nonstatistically significant improvement in BCVA (-0.10±0.29 with vs. +0.10±0.35 without), and a similar trend was seen for doxycycline (-0.08±0.09 with vs. +0.22±0.49 without). Four of five perforations (80%) were surgically managed. Four patients (18.2%) were deceased.

Peripheral ulcerative keratitis poses significant clinical challenges and requires intensive medical treatment, frequently involving systemic immunomodulatory therapy. Surgical treatment is required in a significant minority of cases. Ocular management alongside the use of doxycycline and immunomodulatory therapy in consultation with specialist physicians can optimize visual and systemic outcomes.

Conjunctival Histopathological Changes in Children With Vitamin D Deficiency.

Eye Contact Lens

The aim of this study was to investigate tear function-associated clinical findings and conjunctival histopathological changes in children with vitamin D (Vit-D) deficiency.

This study used a prospective case-control design. Group 1 (n=38) comprised pediatric patients with Vit-D deficiency, and group 2 (n=45) was the control group. Tear break-up times (TBUTs), Schirmer-1 test measurements, ocular surface disease index (OSDI) scores, and conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) results of the groups were compared.

The participant demographic characteristics, including the mean age and the male-to-female ratio, were similar (P>0.05). The median TBUT and Schirmer-1 test measurement were 10 s (5-15) and 12 mm (6-19) in group 1 and 11 s (6-16) and 15 mm (8-21) in group 2 (P=0.004 and P=0.013, respectively). The median OSDI scores were 16 (10-20) in group 1 and 17 (10-21) in group 2 (P=0.092). According to the CIC, 25 samples in group 1 and 40 samples in group 2 were categorized as grade 0, 11 samples in group 1 and 5 samples in group 2 were categorized as grade 1, and 2 samples in group 1 and no sample in group 2 were categorized as grade 2 (P=0.027).

Significant conjunctival histopathological changes occur in children with Vit-D deficiency, and these changes have effects on some tear function-associated clinical findings including the Schirmer-1 test and TBUT measurements.

Gut Microbiome and Its Influence On Ocular Surface and Ocular Surface Diseases.

Eye Contact Lens

The gut microbiome plays a substantial immunologic and pathophysiologic role in maintaining the health of the host, and dysregulation of this dynam...

Change in Risk Score and Behaviors of Soft Contact Lens Wearers After Targeted Patient Education.

Eye Contact Lens

To determine if targeted education can influence the behaviors and scores of soft contact lens (SCL) wearers via the Contact Lens Risk Survey (CLRS).

This was a multicenter, prospective, case-control study. Cases were symptomatic red eye SCL wearers (age, 18-39 years), and controls were age , sex, and site matched. Participants completed the CLRS and were provided targeted patient education at three time points: baseline, one, and six months. Change in scores and behaviors were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed rank test.

Forty-one cases and 71 controls were analyzed. The mean risk score (mean±SE) from baseline to follow-up improved (reduced) for all participants (-1.96±0.73; P=0.01), mostly driven by the improvement among cases (-2.55±1.32; P=0.05). Case subjects reported a decrease in frequency of wearing lenses while showering (-0.32±0.07; P<0.0001), discarding lens solution (-0.13±0.06; P=0.03), and rinsing lenses with tap water (-0.19±0.08; P=0.02) after targeted education.

Targeted patient education can influence some behaviors of SCL wearers, especially those who experienced a red eye event. Further study is needed to determine how to improve other risk behaviors and whether these changes are sustained long term.

Clinical Characteristics and Severity Distribution of Tertiary Eye Center Attendance by Ocular Chemical Injury Patients.

Eye Contact Lens

To report demographic characteristics, types and grades of injury, regional distribution of injury severity, clinical findings, and long-term results of acute ocular chemical burns.

Medical records of patients with chemical burns between 2010 and 2020 who were admitted to Ege University less than 72 hr after the injury were reviewed. Age, gender, cause of the burn, injury severity, initial and final best-corrected visual acuity, surgical intervention, and complications were recorded. The injury severity was graded according to Dua classification.

A total of 104 patients (137 eyes) were included. The mean age was 42.69±17.39 (7-90) years with a male-to-female ratio of 86:18. The most common causes were home (32.6%) and industrial accidents (45.1%). The causative agent percentages for alkaline, acid, and neutral were 49.0%, 35.5%, and 5.7%, respectively. The percentages of eyes in each grade (1-6) were 16.0%, 16.0%, 15.3%, 16.7%, 17.5%, and 18.2%, respectively. Complications mostly occurred in eyes with grade 2 or higher injuries (83.7%). The relationship between injury grade and limbal stem-cell deficiency was statistically significant (P<0.001). Surgery was mostly needed in grade 4 or higher injuries (44 eyes).

The severity of the burn is one of the most important prognostic factors in chemical burns. It is important to determine the spreading of the regional injury severity beside the global one to predict complication risk of the injuries. In the present study, the injury distribution was homogeneous in all grades. Limbal stem-cell deficiency development took place mostly in grade 5 and 6 burns as expected.

Associations Between Lid Wiper Microvascular Responses, Lens Fit, and Comfort After One Day of Contact Lens Adaptation by Neophytes.

Eye Contact Lens

To determine associations between lid wiper microvascular responses, lens fit, and comfort after 1 day of contact lens adaptation by neophytes.

Functional slitlamp biomicroscopy was used to image the microvascular network of the upper tarsal conjunctiva, lid wiper, and bulbar conjunctiva. Fractal dimension was obtained to represent vessel density. Ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography was used to image the lens edge and fitting characteristics, including lens movement and lens-induced conjunctival indentation. Ocular comfort was rated using a 50-point visual analogue scale (VAS). Forty-nine healthy subjects without a history of contact lens wear were recruited. A contact lens was then fitted in the right eye. Imaging was taken at baseline and 6 hr after lens wear.

The changes of VAS comfort score were negatively related to the changes of the vessel density in the lid-wiper (R2=0.18, P=0.002) and bulbar conjunctiva (R2=0.13, P=0.009). However, the changes of VAS were positively related to the changes in vessel density of the tarsal conjunctiva (R2=0.11, P=0.02). The changes of ocular microvasculature were not related to the objective metrics of the lens-fitting characteristics (P>0.05). Similarly, the changes in the VAS comfort score were not related to the objective metrics of the lens-fitting characteristics (P>0.05).

Contact lens discomfort seemed to relate to lid wiper microvascular responses rather than fitting characteristics after 1 day of contact lens adaptation by neophytes.

Efficacy of the Image-Guided Alignment System for a Four-Haptic Hydrophobic Monofocal Toric Intraocular Lens.

Eye Contact Lens

To compare the difference in performance between the image-guided alignment system and the manual-marking method in the four-haptic hydrophobic monofocal toric intraocular lens (IOL).

Medical records of patients who underwent cataract surgery with a four-haptic hydrophobic monofocal toric IOL implantation between May 2020 and April 2021 and with 3-month visit data available were investigated. Toric IOL misalignment, residual astigmatism, and mean prediction errors between the two groups were compared.

This study included 49 eyes of 44 patients (women: 68%; mean age: 67.2±7.0 [range: 47-82] years). Twenty-nine eyes of 26 patients were treated with toric IOL implantation using the image-guided system and 20 eyes of 18 patients were treated using the manual-marking method. No statistical differences were observed regarding the baseline characteristics of the two groups. Three months after the surgery, the misalignment of the toric IOL was significantly lower in the image-guided group (2.18°±0.65°, range: 1.26°-3.95°) than in the manual; marking group (4.72°±0.74°, range: 3.44°-6.21°; P<0.001).

In comparison to the manual-marking method, the image-guided system reduced the misalignment of a four-haptic hydrophobic monofocal toric IOL.

Corneal oedema during open-eye fenestrated scleral lens wear.

Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics

Studies examining the effect of fenestrating soft and corneal rigid contact lenses upon corneal oedema have yielded conflicting results. Although often utilised in clinical practice, no studies have quantified the effect of fenestrating a scleral contact lens upon corneal oedema. Therefore, the aim of this experiment was to examine the effect of incorporating a single peripheral fenestration on central corneal oedema during short-term open-eye scleral lens wear, while controlling for potential confounding variables.

Nine participants (mean age 30 years) with normal corneas wore a fenestrated (1 × 0.3 mm limbal fenestration) and non-fenestrated scleral lens (both lenses manufactured using a material Dk of 141 × 10-11  cm3 O2 (cm)/[(sec.)(cm2 )(mmHg)]) under open-eye conditions on separate days. Scleral lens thickness profiles were measured using a high-resolution optical coherence tomographer (OCT). Epithelial, stromal and total central corneal oedema were also measured using the OCT immediately after lens application and following 90 min of wear, prior to lens removal.

After adjusting for differences in initial central fluid reservoir thickness and scleral lens thickness between the two lens conditions, the mean (standard error) total corrected central corneal oedema was 0.50 (0.36)% for the fenestrated lens and 0.62 (0.16)% for the non-fenestrated lens. This small difference was not statistically significant (t8  = 2.31, p = 0.81) and represents a 19% relative reduction in central corneal oedema. Similarly, epithelial (t8  = 2.31, p = 0.82) and stromal (t8  = 2.31, p = 0.92) corneal oedema were not significantly different following the fenestrated and non-fenestrated wearing conditions.

Central corneal oedema in healthy corneas was comparable between fenestrated and non-fenestrated high Dk scleral lenses under short-term open-eye conditions when controlling for lens oxygen transmissibility and initial central fluid reservoir thickness.

An initiative to improve follow-up of patients with diabetic retinopathy.

Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics

This study describes the implementation of an electronic medical record (EMR)-based initiative aimed at identifying and reducing the number of patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) lost to follow-up (LTF).

Providers were enlisted to review the EMRs and re-engage patients with DR seen 1 year prior and who had not returned for care within the past 6 months. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify demographic, clinical and sociomedical factors associated with being LTF, as well as those predictive of re-engagement.

Out of 673 patients with DR, 78 (12%) were identified as LTF. Patients LTF were more likely to be younger (p = 0.001) and have poorly controlled haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c ≥ 8%, p = 0.04) and cholesterol (LDL ≥ 100 mg/dL, p < 0.001) levels. These patients were also more likely to have completed fewer ophthalmology appointments (p < 0.001), and less likely to have had retinal imaging within the last year (p < 0.001). Charts reviewed 1 month after the EMR-based initiative revealed that 22 patients (28%) had been successfully re-engaged by providers, while 56 patients (72%) remained LTF. History of prior treatment for DR was associated with re-engagement by providers (p = 0.04). One month following the provider-based intervention, the LTF rate dropped to 8.3%, and by 1 year only 3.6% of the patients remained LTF.

Electronic medical record-based tools can successfully identify DR patients as being LTF, offering an opportunity for providers to re-engage patients in a timely manner. Future studies are needed to determine the long-term impact of patient re-engagement on DR outcomes and efficiency of clinical practice.

Multifocal contact lens myopia control: central and peripheral retinal image quality.

Clinical & Exp Optometry

That myopic defocus, even if restricted to the peripheral retina, inhibits eye growth in young monkey eyes has motivated the therapy of myopia control through multifocal contact lens wear in children.

To understand how eye-length regulating mechanisms are triggered by light requires knowledge of retinal light spread. That is largely lacking for the multifocal contact lenses used in the therapy because empirical methods identifying just the defocus in dioptres are inadequate.

"Through-focus" diffraction computations in contact lens/eye models with typical normal eye parameters, including polychromatic light, the chromatic aberrations and an M-cone phototransduction layer, offer estimates of retinal image spread for a range of viewing distances.

Point- and edge-spread distributions of activation of phototransduction in the central retina show that the addition of multifocal zones produces some veiling for in-focus viewing and substantial improvement of image quality for near targets in the unaccommodated eye. These effects are much reduced in the retinal periphery.

Whatever therapeutic value there is in prescribing multifocal contact lenses for myopia control, it is not particularly dependent on the precise configuration of the multifocal zones, nor can it be ascribed to changes in image quality specific to the retinal periphery; its origin is more likely less blur for near targets, reducing the stimulus to accommodation.