The latest medical research on Schizophrenia

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about schizophrenia gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Two Factors, Five Factors, or Both? External Validation Studies of Negative Symptom Dimensions in Schizophrenia.

Schizophrenia Bulletin

Negative symptom studies frequently use single composite scores as indicators of symptom severity and as primary endpoints in clinical trials. Factor analytic and external validation studies do not support this practice but rather suggest a multidimensional construct. The current study used structural equation modeling (SEM) to compare competing dimensional models of negative symptoms to determine the number of latent dimensions that best capture variance in biological, psychological, and clinical variables known to have associations with negative symptoms.

Three independent studies (total n = 632) compared unidimensional, two-factor, five-factor, and hierarchical conceptualizations of negative symptoms in relation to cognition, psychopathology, and community functioning (Study 1); trait emotional experience and defeatist performance beliefs (Study 2); and glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in the anterior cingulate cortex quantified using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (Study 3).

SEM favored the five-factor and hierarchical models over the unidimensional and two-factor models regardless of the negative symptom measure or external validator. The five dimensions-anhedonia, asociality, avolition, blunted affect, and alogia-proved vital either as stand-alone domains or as first-order domains influenced by second-order dimensions-motivation and pleasure and emotional expression. The two broader dimensions sometimes masked important associations unique to the five narrower domains. Avolition, anhedonia, and blunted affect showed the most domain-specific associations with external variables across study samples.

Five domains and a hierarchical model reflect the optimal conceptualization of negative symptoms in relation to external variables. Clinical trials should consider using the two dimensions as primary endpoints and the five domains as secondary endpoints.

Long-Term Outcomes of First-Admission Psychosis: A Naturalistic 21-Year Follow-Up Study of Symptomatic, Functional and Personal Recovery and Their Baseline Predictors.

Schizophrenia Bulletin

This study was aimed at characterizing long-term outcomes of first-admission psychosis and examining their baseline predictors. Participants were a...

White Matter Metabolite Relaxation and Diffusion Abnormalities in First-Episode Psychosis: A Longitudinal Study.

Schizophrenia Bulletin

Microstructural abnormalities in the white matter (WM) are implicated in the pathophysiology of psychosis. In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy ...

Characterization of Hemodynamic Alterations in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder and Their Effect on Resting-State fMRI Functional Connectivity.

Schizophrenia Bulletin

Common and distinct neural bases of Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP) have been explored using resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) functional c...

Agency Deficits in a Human Genetic Model of Schizophrenia: Insights From 22q11DS Patients.

Schizophrenia Bulletin

Schizophrenia is a chronic and disabling mental illness characterized by a disordered sense of self. Current theories suggest that deficiencies in ...

Functional Dysconnectivity in Ventral Striatocortical Systems in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

Schizophrenia Bulletin

22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder that represents one of the greatest known risk factors for psychosis...

Machine Learning Identifies Digital Phenotyping Measures Most Relevant to Negative Symptoms in Psychotic Disorders: Implications for Clinical Trials.

Schizophrenia Bulletin

Digital phenotyping has been proposed as a novel assessment tool for clinical trials targeting negative symptoms in psychotic disorders (PDs). However, it is unclear which digital phenotyping measurements are most appropriate for this purpose.

Machine learning was used to address this gap in the literature and determine whether: (1) diagnostic status could be classified from digital phenotyping measures relevant to negative symptoms and (2) the 5 negative symptom domains (anhedonia, avolition, asociality, alogia, and blunted affect) were differentially classified by active and passive digital phenotyping variables.

Participants included 52 outpatients with a PD and 55 healthy controls (CN) who completed 6 days of active (ecological momentary assessment surveys) and passive (geolocation, accelerometry) digital phenotyping data along with clinical ratings of negative symptoms.

Machine learning algorithms classifying the presence of a PD diagnosis yielded 80% accuracy for cross-validation in H2O AutoML and 79% test accuracy in the Recursive Feature Elimination with Cross Validation feature selection model. Models classifying the presence vs absence of clinically significant elevations on each of the 5 negative symptom domains ranged in test accuracy from 73% to 91%. A few active and passive features were highly predictive of all 5 negative symptom domains; however, there were also unique predictors for each domain.

These findings suggest that negative symptoms can be modeled from digital phenotyping data recorded in situ. Implications for selecting the most appropriate digital phenotyping variables for use as outcome measures in clinical trials targeting negative symptoms are discussed.

Trait Anhedonia in Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review and Comparative Meta-analysis.

Schizophrenia Bulletin

Anhedonia, the reduced capacity to experience pleasure, has long been considered a prominent feature of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Many doma...

Allosteric Modulation of the Sigma-1 Receptor Elicits Antipsychotic-like Effects.

Schizophrenia Bulletin

Allosteric modulation represents an important approach in drug discovery because of its advantages in safety and selectivity. SOMCL-668 is the firs...

Extracting Circadian and Sleep Parameters from Longitudinal Data in Schizophrenia for the Design of Pragmatic Light Interventions.

Schizophrenia Bulletin

Sleep and circadian rhythm dysfunction is prevalent in schizophrenia, is associated with distress and poorer clinical status, yet remains an under-...

Exploring the Relationship Between Schizophrenia and Cardiovascular Disease: A Genetic Correlation and Multivariable Mendelian Randomization Study.

Schizophrenia Bulletin

Individuals with schizophrenia have a reduced life-expectancy compared to the general population, largely due to an increased risk of cardiovascula...

Overlap and Mutual Distinctions Between Clinical Recovery and Personal Recovery in People With Schizophrenia in a One-Year Study.

Schizophrenia Bulletin

Recovery is a multidimensional construct that can be defined either from a clinical perspective or from a consumer-focused one, as a self-broadenin...