The latest medical research on Paediatric Surgery

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Validation of the Pediatric Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score and Evaluation of Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock Definitions in the Pediatric Emergency Department.

JAMA Pediatrics

Pediatric sepsis definitions have evolved, and some have proposed using the measure used in adults to quantify organ dysfunction, a Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score of 2 or more in the setting of suspected infection. A pediatric adaptation of SOFA (pSOFA) showed excellent discrimination for mortality in critically ill children but has not been evaluated in an emergency department (ED) population.

To delineate test characteristics of the pSOFA score for predicting in-hospital mortality among (1) all patients and (2) patients with suspected infection treated in pediatric EDs.

This retrospective cohort study took place from January 1, 2012, to January 31, 2020 in 9 US children's hospitals included in the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) Registry. The data was analyzed from February 1, 2020, to April 18, 2022. All ED visits for patients younger than 18 years were included.

ED pSOFA score was assigned by summing maximum pSOFA organ dysfunction components during ED stay (each 0-4 points). In the subset with suspected infection, visit meeting criteria for sepsis (suspected infection with a pSOFA score of 2 or more) and septic shock (suspected infection with vasoactive infusion and serum lactate level >18.0 mg/dL) were identified.

Test characteristics of pSOFA scores of 2 or more during the ED stay for hospital mortality.

A total of 3 999 528 (female, 47.3%) ED visits were included. pSOFA scores ranged from 0 to 16, with 126 250 visits (3.2%) having a pSOFA score of 2 or more. pSOFA scores of 2 or more had sensitivity of 0.65 (95% CI, 0.62-0.67) and specificity of 0.97 (95% CI, 0.97-0.97), with negative predictive value of 1.0 (95% CI, 1.00-1.00) in predicting hospital mortality. Of 642 868 patients with suspected infection (16.1%), 42 992 (6.7%) met criteria for sepsis, and 374 (0.1%) met criteria for septic shock. Hospital mortality rates for suspected infection (599 502), sepsis (42 992), and septic shock (374) were 0.0%, 0.9%, and 8.0%, respectively. The pSOFA score had similar discrimination for hospital mortality in all ED visits (area under receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.79-0.82) and the subset with suspected infection (area under receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.80-0.84).

In a large, multicenter study of pediatric ED visits, a pSOFA score of 2 or more was uncommon and associated with increased hospital mortality yet had poor sensitivity as a screening tool for hospital mortality. Conversely, children with a pSOFA score of 2 or less were at very low risk of death, with high specificity and negative predictive value. Among patients with suspected infection, patients with pSOFA-defined septic shock demonstrated the highest mortality.

Association Between High-Need Education-Based Funding and School Suspension Rates for Autistic Students in New Zealand.

JAMA Pediatrics

Autistic students often experience poor educational outcomes that have implications for later life, including unemployment, interactions with the criminal justice system, increased risk for substance abuse, and low socioeconomic status. Improving educational outcomes is critical for ensuring that autistic young people can reach their potential.

To quantify differences in suspension rates between autistic and nonautistic students and to assess whether high-need education-based funding for autistic students is associated with reduced rates of school suspension.

This national cohort study used linked health and education data from New Zealand's Integrated Data Infrastructure. Data were obtained for students aged 5 to 16 years from January 1 to December 31, 2018, and analyzed July 7, 2021, to January 1, 2022. A novel case identification method was used to identify autistic students.

High-need education-based funding (Ongoing Resourcing Scheme [ORS]) obtained before 2019.

Rates of suspension from school. Crude and adjusted analyses of the association between suspension rates and autism among the full population with adjustment made for sociodemographic characteristics (sex, age, ethnicity, deprivation, and urban or rural profile of residence) were conducted using complete-case, 2-level random intercept logistic multivariable regressions. To assess the association between ORS funding and suspension, analysis was restricted to autistic students.

Of the 736 911 students in the study population, 9741 (1.3%) were identified as autistic (median [SD] age, 10 [3.2] years; 7710 [79.1%] boys), and 727 170 (98.7%) as nonautistic (median [SD] age, 10 [3.4] years; 369 777 [50.9%] boys). School suspension was experienced by 504 autistic students (5.2%) and 13 845 nonautistic students (1.9%). After adjustment for demographic characteristics, autistic students had significantly higher odds of suspension than their nonautistic peers (adjusted odds ratio, 2.81; 95% CI, 2.55-3.11). Of the 9741 autistic students, 2895 (29.7%) received high-need education-based (ORS) funding. Suspensions were experienced by 57 autistic students (2.0%) with high-need funding and 447 autistic students (6.5%) without high-need funding. After adjustment for demographic characteristics, co-occurring conditions, and level of disability support need, autistic students with high-need funding had significantly lower odds of suspension than autistic students without high-need funding (adjusted odds ratio, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.21-0.40).

In this cohort study, the findings of disparities in suspension rates between autistic and nonautistic students underscore the challenges faced in providing inclusive education for all young people, regardless of disability status. This study found that high-need funding was associated with reduced suspension rates among autistic students, suggesting that if appropriate supports are afforded to autistic students, a more inclusive education can be provided.

Clinical Impact of Intraoperative Margin Assessment in Breast-Conserving Surgery With a Novel Pegulicianine Fluorescence-Guided System: A Nonrandomized Controlled Trial.

JAMA Surgery

Positive margins following breast-conserving surgery (BCS) are often identified on standard pathology evaluation. Intraoperative assessment of the lumpectomy cavity has the potential to reduce residual disease or reexcision rate following standard of care BCS in real time.

To collect safety and initial efficacy data on the novel pegulicianine fluorescence-guided system (pFGS) when used to identify residual cancer in the tumor bed of female patients undergoing BCS.

This prospective single-arm open-label study was conducted as a nonrandomized multicenter controlled trial at 16 academic or community breast centers across the US. Female patients 18 years and older with newly diagnosed primary invasive breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ DCIS undergoing BCS were included, excluding those with previous breast cancer surgery and a history of dye allergies. Of 283 consecutive eligible patients recruited, 234 received a pegulicianine injection and were included in the safety analysis; of these, 230 were included in the efficacy analysis. Patients were enrolled between February 6, 2018, and April 10, 2020, and monitored for a 30-day follow-up period. Data were analyzed from April 10, 2020, to August 5, 2021.

Participants received an injection of a novel imaging agent (pegulicianine) a mean (SD) of 3.2 (0.9) hours prior to surgery at a dose of 1 mg/kg. After completing standard of care (SOC) excision, pFGS was used to scan the lumpectomy cavity to guide the removal of additional shave margins.

Adverse events and sensitivity, specificity, and reexcision rate.

Of 234 female patients enrolled (median [IQR] age, 62.0 [55.0-69.0] years), 230 completed the trial and 1 patient with a history of allergy to contrast agents had an anaphylactic reaction and recovered without sequelae. Correlation of pFGS with final margin status on a per-margin analysis showed a marked improvement in sensitivity over standard pathology assessment of the main lumpectomy specimen (69.4% vs 38.2%, respectively). On a per-patient level, the false-negative rate of pFGS was 23.7% (9 of 38), and sensitivity was 76.3% (29 or 38). Among 32 patients who underwent excision of pFGS-guided shaves, pFGS averted the need for reexcision in 6 (19%).

In this pilot feasibility study, the safety profile of pegulicianine was consistent with other imaging agents used in BCS, and was associated with a reduced need for second surgery in patients who underwent intraoperative additional excision of pFGS-guided shaves. These findings support further development and clinical performance assessment of pFGS in a prospective randomized trial.

ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03321929.

Comparison of Hepatic Arterial Infusion Pump Chemotherapy vs Resection for Patients With Multifocal Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma.

JAMA Surgery

Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) is often multifocal (ie, satellites or intrahepatic metastases) at presentation.

To compare the overall survival (OS) of patients with multifocal iCCA after hepatic arterial infusion pump (HAIP) floxuridine chemotherapy vs resection.

In this cohort study, patients with histologically confirmed, multifocal iCCA were eligible. The HAIP group consisted of consecutive patients from a single center who underwent HAIP floxuridine chemotherapy for unresectable multifocal iCCA between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2018. The resection group consisted of consecutive patients from 12 centers who underwent a curative-intent resection for multifocal iCCA between January 1, 1990, and December 31, 2017. Resectable metastatic disease to regional lymph nodes and previous systemic therapy were permitted. Patients with distant metastatic disease (ie, stage IV), those who underwent resection before starting HAIP floxuridine chemotherapy, and those who received a liver transplant were excluded. Data were analyzed on September 1, 2021.

Overall survival in the 2 treatment groups was compared using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test.

A total of 319 patients with multifocal iCCA were included: 141 in the HAIP group (median [IQR] age, 62 [53-70] years; 79 [56.0%] women) and 178 in the resection group (median [IQR] age, 60 [50-69] years; 91 [51.1%] men). The HAIP group was characterized by a higher percentage of bilobar disease (88.0% [n = 124] vs 34.3% [n = 61]), larger tumors (median, 8.4 cm vs 7.0 cm), and a higher proportion of patients with 4 or more lesions (66.7% [94] vs 24.2% [43]). Postoperative mortality after 30 days was 0.8% (95% CI, 0.0%-2.1%) in the HAIP group vs 6.2% (95% CI, 2.3%-9.7%) in the resection group (P = .01). The median OS for HAIP was 20.3 months vs 18.9 months for resection (P = .32). Five-year OS in patients with 2 or 3 lesions was 23.7% (95% CI, 12.3%-45.7%) in the HAIP group vs 25.7% (95% CI, 17.9%-37.0%) in the resection group. Five-year OS in patients with 4 or more lesions was 5.0% (95% CI, 1.7%-14.3%) in the HAIP group vs 6.8% (95% CI, 1.8%-25.3%) in the resection group. After adjustment for tumor diameter, number of tumors, and lymph node metastases, the hazard ratio of HAIP vs resection was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.55-1.03; P = .07).

This cohort study found that patients with multifocal iCCA had similar OS after HAIP floxuridine chemotherapy vs resection. Resection of multifocal intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma needs to be considered carefully given the complication rate of major liver resection; HAIP floxuridine chemotherapy may be an effective alternative option.

Association Between a Policy to Subsidize Supermarkets in Underserved Areas and Childhood Obesity Risk.

JAMA Pediatrics

The establishment and renovation of supermarkets may promote healthy diet practices among youth by increasing retail infrastructure for fresh foods.

To estimate the association between the Food Retail Expansion to Support Health (FRESH) program and the weight status of children and adolescents.

Using a difference-in-differences (DiD) design and including 12 months before and after a FRESH supermarket opened, data were analyzed for residentially stable public school students in kindergarten through 12th grade with objectively measured height and weight data from the academic years 2009 through 2016. Of the 8 FRESH-subsidized supermarkets in residential neighborhoods in New York City, New York, 5 were new and 3 were renovation projects between December 2011 and June 2014. Data were analyzed from June 2021 to January 2022.

The treatment group included students who resided within 0.50 miles of a FRESH-subsidized supermarket and had at least 1 body mass index (BMI) measurement within 12 months before and 3 to 12 months after the month a FRESH supermarket opened (n = 22 712 student-year observations). A 2-stage matching-weighting approach was used to construct a control group of students who resided more than 0.50 miles from a FRESH supermarket in a FRESH-eligible area (n = 86 744 student-year observations).

BMI z score was calculated using objectively measured height and weight data from FITNESSGRAM, an annual, school-based, standardized fitness assessment of every New York City public school student. Obesity was defined as 95th percentile or greater of the BMI z score using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts.

The treatment group in the analytic sample had 11 356 students (22 712 student-year observations), and the control group had 43 372 students (86 744 student-year observations). The students were predominately Black (18.8%) and Hispanic and Latino (68.5%) and eligible for free or reduced-priced lunch (84.6%). There was a significant decrease in BMI z score among students who resided within 0.50 miles of a FRESH supermarket (vs control group students) in the 3- to 12-month follow-up period (DiD, -0.04; 95% CI, -0.06 to -0.02). This was true for those exposed to supermarkets that were either new (DiD, -0.07; 95% CI, -0.11 to -0.03) or renovated (DiD, -0.03; 95% CI, -0.06 to -0.01). A statistically significant decrease was also observed in the likelihood of obesity (DiD, -0.01; 95% CI, -0.02 to -0.002).

Government-subsidized supermarkets may contribute to a small decrease in obesity risk among children residing near those supermarkets, if part of a comprehensive policy approach.

Developmental Outcomes for Children After Elective Birth at 39 Weeks' Gestation.

JAMA Pediatrics

Elective births at 39 weeks' gestation are increasing. While this option may improve maternal and perinatal outcomes compared with expectant management, longer-term childhood developmental outcomes are uncertain.

To investigate the association between elective birth at 39 weeks' gestation and the risk of childhood developmental vulnerability.

For this cohort study, 2 causal inference analyses were conducted using Australian statewide, population-based data. Perinatal data from births between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2013, were linked to childhood developmental outcomes at age 4 to 6 years (assessed using multiple imputation via inverse probability-weighted regression adjustment). Data analyses were conducted between September 7 and November 9, 2021.

Two exposure groups were considered: (1) elective birth between 39 weeks and 0 days' and 39 weeks and 6 days' gestation vs expectant management and (2) birth via induction of labor vs planned cesarean delivery among those born electively at 39 weeks' gestation.

Childhood developmental vulnerability at school entry, defined as scoring below the 10th percentile in at least 2 of 5 developmental domains (physical health and well-being, social competence, emotional maturity, school-based language and cognitive skills, and communication skills and general knowledge).

Of 176 236 births with linked outcome data, 88 165 met the inclusion criteria. Among these, 15 927 (18.1%) were elective births at 39 weeks' gestation (induction of labor or planned cesarean delivery), and 72 238 (81.9%) were expectantly managed with subsequent birth between 40 and 43 weeks' gestation. Compared with expectant management, elective birth at 39 weeks' gestation was not associated with an altered risk of childhood global developmental vulnerability (adjusted relative risk [aRR], 1.03; 95% CI, 0.96-1.12) or with developmental vulnerability in any of the individual domains. In an analysis restricted to elective births at 39 weeks' gestation, induction of labor (n = 7928) compared with planned cesarean delivery (n = 7999) was not associated with childhood developmental vulnerability (aRR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.82-1.12) or with vulnerability in any individual domains.

In this cohort study, elective birth at 39 weeks' gestation was not associated with childhood developmental vulnerability. For those born electively at 39 weeks' gestation, birth after induction of labor or by elective cesarean delivery had similar developmental outcomes.

Volume-Outcome Associations for Parathyroid Surgery in England: Analysis of an Administrative Data Set for the Getting It Right First Time Program.

JAMA Surgery

Previous studies have suggested an association between surgical volume and patient outcomes for parathyroid surgery. However, most previous studies are relatively small and the literature is dominated by studies form the US, which might not be readily generalizable to other settings.

To investigate volume-outcome associations for parathyroid surgery in England.

Cohort study that included all National Health Service hospital trusts in England with secondary analysis of administrative data using International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10). Participants included all adult, elective hospital admissions for parathyroid surgery without a diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia, parathyroid cancer, or kidney disease over a 5-year period (April 2014-March 2019 inclusive).

The number of procedures conducted in the year prior to the index procedure by each surgeon and each hospital trust.

Repeat parathyroid surgery within 1 year of the index procedure.

This study included data for 17 494 participants who underwent parathyroidectomies conducted across 125 hospital trusts. The median (IQR) age of patients was 62 (53-71) years, and 13 826 were female (79.0%). Across the period, the number of surgeons conducting parathyroid surgery changed little (280 in 2014-2015 and 2018-2019), although the number of procedures conducted rose from 3331 to 3848 per annum. Repeat parathyroid surgery at 1 year was significantly associated with surgeon volume (odds ratio [OR], 0.99; 95% CI, 0.98-0.99), but not trust volume, in the previous 12 months. Extended length of stay (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.98-0.99), hypoparathyroidism/calcium disorder (OR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.99-1.0), and postprocedural complications (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.99-1.0) were also associated with lower surgeon volume.

In this cohort study, higher surgeon annual volume was associated with decreased rates of repeat parathyroid surgery. A minimum volume threshold of 20 procedures per annum should improve patient outcomes, although possible negative effects on access to services should be monitored.

Use of Machine Learning Consensus Clustering to Identify Distinct Subtypes of Black Kidney Transplant Recipients and Associated Outcomes.

JAMA Surgery

Among kidney transplant recipients, Black patients continue to have worse graft function and reduced patient and graft survival. Better understanding of different phenotypes and subgroups of Black kidney transplant recipients may help the transplant community to identify individualized strategies to improve outcomes among these vulnerable groups.

To cluster Black kidney transplant recipients in the US using an unsupervised machine learning approach.

This cohort study performed consensus cluster analysis based on recipient-, donor-, and transplant-related characteristics in Black kidney transplant recipients in the US from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2019, in the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network/United Network for Organ Sharing database. Each cluster's key characteristics were identified using the standardized mean difference, and subsequently the posttransplant outcomes were compared among the clusters. Data were analyzed from June 9 to July 17, 2021.

Machine learning consensus clustering approach.

Death-censored graft failure, patient death within 3 years after kidney transplant, and allograft rejection within 1 year after kidney transplant.

Consensus cluster analysis was performed for 22 687 Black kidney transplant recipients (mean [SD] age, 51.4 [12.6] years; 13 635 men [60%]), and 4 distinct clusters that best represented their clinical characteristics were identified. Cluster 1 was characterized by highly sensitized recipients of deceased donor kidney retransplants; cluster 2, by recipients of living donor kidney transplants with no or short prior dialysis; cluster 3, by young recipients with hypertension and without diabetes who received young deceased donor transplants with low kidney donor profile index scores; and cluster 4, by older recipients with diabetes who received kidneys from older donors with high kidney donor profile index scores and extended criteria donors. Cluster 2 had the most favorable outcomes in terms of death-censored graft failure, patient death, and allograft rejection. Compared with cluster 2, all other clusters had a higher risk of death-censored graft failure and death. Higher risk for rejection was found in clusters 1 and 3, but not cluster 4.

In this cohort study using an unsupervised machine learning approach, the identification of clinically distinct clusters among Black kidney transplant recipients underscores the need for individualized care strategies to improve outcomes among vulnerable patient groups.

Association of Food and Nonalcoholic Beverage Marketing With Children and Adolescents' Eating Behaviors and Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

JAMA Pediatrics

There is widespread interest in the effect of food marketing on children; however, the comprehensive global evidence reviews are now dated.

To quantify the association of food and nonalcoholic beverage marketing with behavioral and health outcomes in children and adolescents to inform updated World Health Organization guidelines.

Twenty-two databases were searched (including MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Embase, and The Cochrane Library) with a publication date limit from January 2009 through March 2020.

Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses reporting guidelines were followed. Inclusion criteria were primary studies assessing the association of food marketing with specified outcomes in children and adolescents (aged 0-19 years). Exclusion criteria were qualitative studies or those on advertising of infant formula. Of 31 063 articles identified, 96 articles were eligible for inclusion in the systematic review, and 80 articles in the meta-analysis (19 372 participants).

Two reviewers independently extracted data. Random-effects models were used for meta-analyses; meta-regressions, sensitivity analyses, and P curve analyses were also performed. Where appropriate, pooling was conducted using combining P values and vote counting by direction of effect. Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation was used to judge certainty of evidence.

Critical outcomes were intake, choice, preference, and purchasing. Important outcomes were purchase requests, dental caries, body weight, and diet-related noncommunicable diseases.

Participants totaled 19 372 from 80 included articles. Food marketing was associated with significant increases in intake (standardized mean difference [SMD], 0.25; 95% CI, 0.15-0.35; P < .001), choice (odds ratio, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.26-2.50; P < .001), and preference (SMD, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.12-0.49; P = .001). Substantial heterogeneity (all >76%) was unexplained by sensitivity or moderator analyses. The combination of P values for purchase requests was significant but no clear evidence was found for an association of marketing with purchasing. Data on dental health and body weight outcomes were scarce. The certainty of evidence was graded as very low to moderate for intake and choice, and very low for preference and purchasing.

In this systematic review and meta-analysis, food marketing was associated with increased intake, choice, preference, and purchase requests in children and adolescents. Implementation of policies to restrict children's exposure is expected to benefit child health.

Association of Diagnostic Stewardship for Blood Cultures in Critically Ill Children With Culture Rates, Antibiotic Use, and Patient Outcomes: Results of the Bright STAR Collaborative.

JAMA Pediatrics

Blood culture overuse in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) can lead to unnecessary antibiotic use and contribute to antibiotic resistance. Optimizing blood culture practices through diagnostic stewardship may reduce unnecessary blood cultures and antibiotics.

To evaluate the association of a 14-site multidisciplinary PICU blood culture collaborative with culture rates, antibiotic use, and patient outcomes.

This prospective quality improvement (QI) collaborative involved 14 PICUs across the United States from 2017 to 2020 for the Bright STAR (Testing Stewardship for Antibiotic Reduction) collaborative. Data were collected from each participating PICU and from the Children's Hospital Association Pediatric Health Information System for prespecified primary and secondary outcomes.

A local QI program focusing on blood culture practices in the PICU (facilitated by a larger QI collaborative).

The primary outcome was blood culture rates (per 1000 patient-days/mo). Secondary outcomes included broad-spectrum antibiotic use (total days of therapy and new initiations of broad-spectrum antibiotics ≥3 days after PICU admission) and PICU rates of central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), Clostridioides difficile infection, mortality, readmission, length of stay, sepsis, and severe sepsis/septic shock.

Across the 14 PICUs, the blood culture rate was 149.4 per 1000 patient-days/mo preimplementation and 100.5 per 1000 patient-days/mo postimplementation, for a 33% relative reduction (95% CI, 26%-39%). Comparing the periods before and after implementation, the rate of broad-spectrum antibiotic use decreased from 506 days to 440 days per 1000 patient-days/mo, respectively, a 13% relative reduction (95% CI, 7%-19%). The broad-spectrum antibiotic initiation rate decreased from 58.1 to 53.6 initiations/1000 patient-days/mo, an 8% relative reduction (95% CI, 4%-11%). Rates of CLABSI decreased from 1.8 to 1.1 per 1000 central venous line days/mo, a 36% relative reduction (95% CI, 20%-49%). Mortality, length of stay, readmission, sepsis, and severe sepsis/septic shock were similar before and after implementation.

Multidisciplinary diagnostic stewardship interventions can reduce blood culture and antibiotic use in the PICU. Future work will determine optimal strategies for wider-scale dissemination of diagnostic stewardship in this setting while monitoring patient safety and balancing measures.

Association of Complex Multimorbidity and Long-term Survival After Emergency General Surgery in Older Patients With Medicare.

JAMA Surgery

Although nearly 1 million older patients are admitted for emergency general surgery (EGS) conditions yearly, long-term survival after these acute diseases is not well characterized. Many older patients with EGS conditions have preexisting complex multimorbidity defined as the co-occurrence of at least 2 of 3 key domains: chronic conditions, functional limitations, and geriatric syndromes. The hypothesis was that specific multimorbidity domain combinations are associated with differential long-term mortality after patient admission with EGS conditions.

To examine multimorbidity domain combinations associated with increased long-term mortality after patient admission with EGS conditions.

This cohort study included community-dwelling participants aged 65 years and older from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey with linked Medicare data (January 1992 through December 2013) and admissions for diagnoses consistent with EGS conditions. Surveys on health and function from the year before EGS conditions were used to extract the 3 domains: chronic conditions, functional limitations, and geriatric syndromes. The number of domains present were summed to calculate a categorical rank: no multimorbidity (0 or 1), multimorbidity 2 (2 of the 3 domains present), and multimorbidity 3 (all 3 domains present). Whether operative treatment was provided during the admission was also identified. Data were cleaned and analyzed between January 16, 2020, and April 29, 2021.

Mutually exclusive multimorbidity domain combinations (functional limitations and geriatric syndromes; functional limitations and chronic conditions; chronic conditions and geriatric syndromes; or functional limitations, geriatric syndromes, and chronic conditions).

Time to death (up to 3 years from EGS conditions admission) in patients with multimorbidity combinations was analyzed using a Cox proportional hazards model and compared with those without multimorbidity; hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs are presented. Models were adjusted for age, sex, and operative treatment.

Of 1960 patients (median [IQR] age, 79 [73-85] years; 1166 [59.5%] women), 383 (19.5%) had no multimorbidity, 829 (42.3%) had 2 multimorbidity domains, and 748 (38.2%) had all 3 domains present. A total of 376 (19.2%) were known to have died in the follow-up period, with a median (IQR) follow-up of 377 (138-621) days. Patients with chronic conditions and geriatric syndromes had a mortality risk similar to those without multimorbidity. However, all domain combinations with functional limitations were associated with significantly increased risk of death: functional limitations and chronic conditions (HR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.03-3.23); functional limitations and geriatric syndromes (HR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.37-6.18); and functional limitations, geriatric syndromes, and chronic conditions (HR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.49-2.89).

Findings of this study suggest that a patient's baseline complex multimorbidity level efficiently identifies risk stratification groups for long-term survival. Functional limitations are rarely considered in risk stratification paradigms for older patients with EGS conditions compared with chronic conditions and geriatric syndromes. However, functional limitations may be the most important risk factor for long-term survival.

Quality Indicators Targeting Low-Value Clinical Practices in Trauma Care.

JAMA Surgery

The use of quality indicators has been shown to improve injury care processes and outcomes. However, trauma quality indicators proposed to date exclusively target the underuse of recommended practices. Initiatives such as Choosing Wisely publish lists of practices to be questioned, but few apply to trauma care, and most have not successfully been translated to quality indicators.

To develop a set of evidence and patient-informed, consensus-based quality indicators targeting reductions in low-value clinical practices in acute, in-hospital trauma care.

This 2-round Research and Development/University of California at Los Angeles (RAND/UCLA) consensus study, conducted from April 20 to June 9, 2021, comprised an online questionnaire and a virtual workshop led by 2 independent moderators. Two panels of international experts from Canada, Australia, the US, and the UK, and local stakeholders from Québec, Canada, represented key clinical expertise involved in trauma care and included 3 patient partners.

Panelists were asked to rate 50 practices on a 7-point Likert scale according to 4 quality indicator criteria: importance, supporting evidence, actionability, and measurability.

Of 49 eligible experts approached, 46 (94%; 18 experts [39%] aged ≥50 years; 37 men [80%]) completed at least 1 round and 36 (73%) completed both rounds. Eleven quality indicators were selected overall, 2 more were selected by the international panel and a further 3 by the local stakeholder panel. Selected indicators targeted low-value clinical practices in the following aspects of trauma care: (1) initial diagnostic imaging (head, cervical spine, ankle, and pelvis), (2) repeated diagnostic imaging (posttransfer computed tomography [CT] and repeated head CT), (3) consultation (neurosurgical and spine), (4) surgery (penetrating neck injury), (5) blood product administration, (6) medication (antibiotic prophylaxis and late seizure prophylaxis), (7) trauma service admission (blunt abdominal trauma), (8) intensive care unit admission (mild complicated traumatic brain injury), and (9) routine blood work (minor orthopedic surgery).

In this consensus study, a set of consensus-based quality indicators were developed that were informed by the best available evidence and patient priorities, targeting low-value trauma care. Selected indicators represented a trauma-specific list of practices, the use of which should be questioned. Trauma quality programs in high-income countries may use these study results as a basis to select context-specific quality indicators to measure and reduce low-value care.