The latest medical research on Upper GI

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about upper gi gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Performance validation of the ALPPS risk model.

HPB (Oxford)

Based on the International ALPPS registry, we have recently proposed two easily applicable risk models (pre-stage1 and 2) for predicting 90-day mortality in ALPPS but a validation of both models has not been performed yet.

The validation cohort (VC) was composed of subsequent cases of the ALPPS registry and cases of centers outside the ALPPS registry.

The VC was composed of a total of 258 patients including 70 patients outside the ALPPS registry with 32 cases of early mortalities (12%). Development cohort (DC) and VC were comparable in terms of patient and surgery characteristics. The VC validated both models with an acceptable prediction for the pre-stage 1 (c-statistic 0.64, P = 0.009 vs. 0.77, P < 0.001) and a good prediction for the pre-stage 2 model (c-statistic 0.77, P < 0.001 vs. 0.85, P < 0.001) as compared to the DC. Overall model performance measured by Brier score was comparable between VC and DC for the pre-stage 1 (0.089 vs. 0.081) and pre-stage 2 model (0.079 vs. 0087).

The ALPPS risk score is a fully validated model to estimate the individual risk of patients undergoing ALPPS and to assist clinical decision making to avoid procedure-related early mortality after ALPPS.

Neoadjuvant therapy and major arterial resection for potentially reconstructable arterial involvement by stage 3 adenocarcinoma of the pancreas.

HPB (Oxford)

Stage 3 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is defined by arterial involvement. This study objective was to evaluate outcomes for patients with stage 3 PDAC with potentially reconstructable arterial involvement, considered for neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) and pancreatic resection, and to compare outcomes following arterial (AR) and non-arterial resection (NAR).

This study included patients from 2009 to 2016 with biopsy-proven stage 3 PDAC who were offered NAT before surgical exploration. AR was performed if required to achieve R0 resection. Time to event outcomes were analysed from diagnosis date.

87/89 patients (97.8%) received NAT (chemotherapy 41.6%, chemotherapy/radiotherapy 56.2%). 46/89 (51.7%) underwent exploration; 31 underwent resection (AR n = 20, NAR n = 11). AR patients had longer operative time (681 vs. 563 min, p = 0.006) and more blood loss (1600 vs. 575 mL, p = 0.0004), with no difference for blood transfusion, pancreatic fistula, length of stay, reoperation, or mortality. R0 rate was 30/31. Post-resection 90-day mortality was 3.2%. Median overall survival was statistically comparable between the AR and NAR groups (19.7 vs. 28.4 months, p = 0.41).

AR had comparable clinical and oncologic outcomes to NAR. Following careful selection and non-progression after NAT, major AR may cautiously be considered if required to obtain a negative resection margin.

CA19.9 decrease >15% is a predictor of favourable outcome in patients treated for advanced pancreatic carcinoma: analysis of two independent cohorts.

HPB (Oxford)

Although carbohydrate antigen 19.9 (CA19.9) is widely used in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PA), no consensual cut-off value of CA19.9 decrease has been established for treatment monitoring.

This was a retrospective study including patients with a baseline CA19.9 ≥ 37 UI/ml and with locally advanced or metastatic PA from two French centers. CA19.9 measurements were performed at baseline and first CT-scan evaluation. The aim was to use a training set to determine the best cut-off of CA19.9 decrease for predicting progressive disease (PD) and to analyze its performance in an independent validation cohort.

A total of 95 and 93 patients were included in the training and validation sets, respectively. A ≤15% CA19.9 decrease was the best cut-off for predicting PD with a sensitivity (Se) = 68% and a specificity (Sp) = 90%. In the validation set, this threshold was associated with Se = 76% and Sp = 83%. A >15% CA19.9 decrease was significantly associated with improved PFS (median 8.3 versus 3.1 months, p < 0.0001) and OS (median 14 versus 7.2 months, p < 0.0001). A >15% CA19.9 decrease was also identified as a factor independently associated with OS (HRa = 0.25, 95% CI:0.14-0.44).

A CA 19.9 decrease >15% is a favourable predictor of outcome in patients treated for advanced PA.

Does attending a Delphi consensus conference impact surgeon attitudes? Survey results from the Americas HepatoPancreatoBiliary Association consensus conference on small asymptomatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

HPB (Oxford)

Management of asymptomatic small well-differentiated (panNET) <2 cm remains controversial. A consensus conference was held on this topic. The impact of attending the conference and participating in the audience response survey on surgeon's clinical approach to pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors was assessed.

Audience members were surveyed using a smartphone real-time response system at the beginning and end of the conference.

The majority of 75 attendees underwent fellowship training, and 30% had >10 years experience as attending surgeons. Previously published consensus statements on the topic were considered insufficient to guide surgical practice by 82% of attendees, and over 96% desired additional data. After review of the data, consensus statements, and decision-making process, a significant number of participants changed their opinions regarding indications for tissue biopsy (p = 0.001), size thresholds for excision (p = 0.002), and regional lymph node dissection (p = 0.002) independent of whether a consensus was reached by the content-expert panel.

This represented the first Delphi process consensus on the topic, and the survey confirmed the topic as well-chosen and timely. Attendees changed opinions on management of panNET regardless of whether formal consensus was reached. Therefore, statements of consensus combined with presentation of literature and live discussion served to impact attendees' approach to this disease.

Patient blood management for liver resection: consensus statements using Delphi methodology.

HPB (Oxford)

Blood loss and transfusion remain a significant concern in liver resection (LR). Patient blood management (PBM) programs reduce use of transfusions and improve outcomes and costs, but are not standardized for LR. This study sought to create an expert consensus statement on PBM for LR using modified Delphi methodology.

An expert panel representing hepato-biliary surgery, anesthesiology, and transfusion medicine was invited to participate. 28 statements addressing the 3 pillars of PBM were created. Panelists were asked to rate statements on a 7-point Likert scale. Three-rounds of iterative rating and feedback were completed anonymously, followed by an in-person meeting. Consensus was reached with at least 70% agreement.

The 35 experts panel recommended routine pre-operative transfusion risk assessment, and investigation and management of anemia with iron supplementation. Intra-operatively, restrictive fluid administration without routine central line insertion was recommended, along with intermittent hepatic pedicle occlusion and surgical techniques considerations. Specific criteria for restrictive intra-operative and post-operative transfusion strategy were recommended.

PBM for LR included medical and technical interventions throughout the perioperative continuum, addressing specificities of LR. Diffusion and adoption of these recommendations can standardize PBM for LR to improve patient outcomes and resource utilization.

Five year experience of gallbladder polyp surveillance and cost effective analysis against new European consensus guidelines.

HPB (Oxford)

Gallbladder polyp (GBP) surveillance seeks to identify early neoplasms, but practice varies amongst surgical units. Recent European consensus guidelines have recommended an evidence-based GBP surveillance strategy. In a tertiary centre Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary unit we examine GBP surveillance, malignant yield, and assess cost-effectiveness of the new European consensus guidelines.

Respective data were collected from all patients with ultrasonography-detected GBPs between January 2008 and January 2013.

558 patients had GBPs detected on ultrasonography. Following initial ultrasonography, 304 (54.5%) had further ultrasonography surveillance of which 168 were in a formal GBP surveillance programme. Pre-malignant/malignant pathology yield was 1.97% with an annual detection rate of 12.0 cases per 1000 GBPs surveyed. Cost-effectiveness analysis of European consensus guidelines calculated annual savings of £209 163 per 1000 GBPs surveyed. Compliance with these guidelines would result in an additional 12.5% of patients under surveillance requiring cholecystectomy.

GBP surveillance uptake was suboptimal at 32.8%. The incidence of pre-malignant/malignant lesions in GBPs emphasises the importance of surveillance for early detection and management with a view to avoiding the poor outcomes associated with more advanced gallbladder cancer. Adherence to the new European consensus guidelines would be clinically cost-effective with significant potential savings demonstrated in this study.

Impact of indocyanine green-fluorescence imaging on distal pancreatectomy with celiac axis resection combined with reconstruction of the left gastric artery.

HPB (Oxford)

We previously reported the usefulness of distal pancreatectomy with celiac axis resection (DP-CAR) with left gastric artery (LGA) reconstruction to prevent ischemic gastropathy. To evaluate the reconstruction quality, we performed intraoperative angiography with indocyanine green (ICG)-fluorescence imaging.

21 consecutive patients planned for DP-CAR with LGA reconstruction were enrolled in this prospective, exploratory single-arm study from 2014 to 2017. After LGA reconstruction, intraoperative angiography revealed continuous arterial flow passing through the anastomotic sites and gradually increasing tissue perfusion in the stomach.

Three patients were excluded. Among the remaining 18 patients, we obtained good flow in 11 patients and poor flow in 7 patients after initial LGA reconstruction. Among the seven patients with poor flow, five underwent LGA re-anastomosis, three recovered good flow. The incidence of grade B/C DGE was 14% (2/14) in the finally good flow group and 75% (3/4) in the poor flow group (p = 0.019). Ischemic gastropathy occurred in two patients (50%) in the poor flow group (p = 0.039), including one with a gastric perforation.

Our data show that intraoperative angiography with ICG-fluorescence imaging can evaluate the reconstruction quality, thus contributing to improvements in the short-term outcome of DP-CAR with LGA reconstruction.

18F-FDG PET/CT predicts microvascular invasion and early recurrence after liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma: A prospective observational study.

HPB (Oxford)

This study assessed the prognostic value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in the prediction of MVI and early recurrence following resection.

This prospective study ( ID: NCT02145013) included 78 consecutive HCC patients who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT before curative-intent resection from 2014 to 2017. Prognostic factors available before surgery for predicting MVI and early recurrence (≤2 years) were identified by univariate and multivariate analyses.

The 18F-FDG PET/CT result was positive in 30 (38%) patients. MVI was present in 33% (26/78) of specimens. Early recurrence occurred in 19% (14/74) of surviving patients. PET/CT positivity was the sole independent predictor of MVI (odds ratio [OR] = 3.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-11.2; p = 0.03), with a specificity and sensitivity for predicting MVI of 73% and 62%, respectively. Analysis of variables available before surgery showed that PET/CT positivity (hazard ratio [HR] = 5.8, 95% CI = 1.6-20.4; p = 0.006) and the male sex (HR = 6.6; 95% CI = 1.8-24.2; p = 0.005) were independent predictors of early recurrence.

18F-FDG PET/CT predicts MVI and early recurrence after surgery for HCC and could be used to select patients for neoadjuvant treatment.

Conditional survival in patients with spontaneous tumor rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma after partial hepatectomy: a propensity score matching analysis.

HPB (Oxford)

Spontaneous tumor rupture (STR) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a life-threatening condition. This study investigates the influences of STR on the observed survival and conditional survival of patients received hepatectomy.

A retrospective cohort of patients who underwent hepatectomy from 2009 to 2013 was divided into tumor rupture group and non-rupture group. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used for comparison of the observed survival and conditional survival probabilities between these two groups.

89 pairs of patients who had comparable background and tumor characteristics were created using PSM analysis. There was significant association between STR and increased risk of OS no matter when before or after PSM (p < 0.01). STR was significantly associated with increased risks of PFS before, while not after PSM. Multivariate Cox regression analyses demonstrated that STR was an independent risk factor associated with OS. There were significant differences in two groups for conditional probabilities of OS and PFS for an additional 6 months and 1 year before PSM, while not after PSM.

This study identified STR but not PFS as an independent risk factor influencing OS, in patients with HCC following hepatectomy. In selected patients with STRHCC, hepatectomy should be performed with acceptable outcomes.

Multicenter validation of a score to predict prognosis after the development of HCC recurrence following liver transplantation.

HPB (Oxford)

HCC recurrence after LT impacts negatively on survival. A recent study detected late recurrence (≥12 months), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) <100 ng/mL at recurrence and being amenable for curative-intent treatments as good prognostic factors. With these variables a prognostic score was proposed. The objective of this study was to validate the prognostic score for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence following liver transplantation (LT).

Data from the University of California, San Francisco, the University Hospital of Birmingham and Instituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan including patients with HCC recurrence after LT were analyzed. The previous reported score was applied to this cohort.

From June 2002-December 2014, 1328 patients had a confirmed HCC in their explanted liver. The study group comprised 130 patients (9.8%) diagnosed with HCC recurrence after LT. Overall median survival after HCC recurrence was 12.4 (95% CI 10.2-16.3) months. Application of the previously reported score showed a significantly superior survival for the good prognosis group compared to moderate and poor prognosis groups (p < 0.0001).

The score continues to identify a group of patients who would benefit from aggressive treatment and experience significant improved survival following recurrent HCC after LT.

A nationwide cohort study of resection rates and short-term outcomes in open and laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy.

HPB (Oxford)

Distal pancreatectomy (DP) is increasingly done by laparoscopy but data from routine practise are scarce. We describe practise in a national cohort.

Data from the Norwegian Patient Register of all patients undergoing DP from 2012 to 2016. National resection rates were analysed. Short-term outcomes include length of stay, reoperation, readmissions and 90-day mortality. Risk is reported as odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (c.i.).

Of 554 procedures, 327 (59%) were laparoscopic. Median age was 66 years (iqr 55-72) and 52% were women. Resection rates increased during the period for all DP (from 1.76 to 2.39 per 100.000/yr), and significantly for laparoscopic DP (adjusted R-square 0.858; P = 0.015). Elderly patients had more resection (r2 = 0.11; P = 0.019). Splenectomy (n = 427; 77%) was less likely with laparoscopy (laparoscopy 72% vs open 84%, respectively; OR 0.64, 95% c.i. 0.42-0.97; P = 0.035). Multivisceral resections occurred more often in open DP (5.3% vs 1.2% for laparoscopy, OR 4.51, 1.44-14.2; P = 0.008). Reoperation occurred in 34 (6%), readmission in 109 (20%), and mortality in 8 (1.4%). Hospital stay was shorter for laparoscopic DP.

Use of DP increases in the population, particularly in the elderly, with use of laparoscopic access and an association with a reduced hospital stay.

Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalins (NGALs) predict acute kidney injury post liver transplant.

HPB (Oxford)

Acute Kidney Injury, a common complication of liver transplant, is associated with a significant increase in the risk of morbidity, mortality and graft loss. Current diagnostic criteria leaves a delay in diagnosis allowing further potential irreversible damage. Early biomarkers of renal injury are of clinical importance and Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalins (NGALs) and Syndecan-1 were investigated.

AKI was defined according to the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria. Urine and blood samples were collected pre-operatively, immediately post-op and 24 h post reperfusion to allow measurement of NGAL and Syndecan-1 levels.

13 of 27 patients developed an AKI. Patients who developed AKI had significantly higher peak transaminases. Urinary NGAL, plasma NGAL and Syndecan-1 levels were significantly elevated in all patients post reperfusion. Urinary NGAL levels immediately post-op were significantly higher in patients who developed an AKI than those that didn't [1319 ng/ml vs 46.56 ng/ml, p ≤ 0.001]. ROC curves were performed and urinary NGAL levels immediately post-op were an excellent biomarker for AKI with an area under the curve of 0.948 (0.847-1.00).

Urinary NGAL levels measured immediately post-op accurately predict the development of AKI and their incorporation into clinical practise could allow early protocols to be developed to treat post transplant AKI.