The latest medical research on Diabetes & Metabolism

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about diabetes & metabolism gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Genetic Heterogeneity and Challenges in the Management of Permanent Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus: A Single-Centre Study from South India.

Indian Journal of Endocrinology and

1. To study the clinical outcome, growth and glycaemic control, 2. To study the frequency and type of genetic mutations.

This is a retrospective study with a review of data of medical records from 2008 till date.

Twelve patients (six males) with neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) were identified. Median (interquartile range - (IQR)) age at diagnosis was 72 (31-95) days with a history of consanguinity in 75%. The median birth weight (range) was 2345 (900-3300) g. Follow-up data were available for eight patients with a median age at (IQR) follow-up of 3.3 (3-5.3) years. At follow-up, the mean annual HbA1c was 8.2% at a mean insulin dose of 1.1 U/kg/d. One patient with Wolcott-Rallison syndrome (WRS) and 21α-hydroxylase deficiency had poor growth and intellectual difficulty. The rest demonstrated satisfactory growth with an increase of mean weight centile from 2nd to 13th, height centile from 6.5th to 20th and normal neuro-cognitive development. Eleven patients underwent genetic testing with a molecular diagnosis in 54% (6/11): EIF2AK3 (n = 2) and one each in INS, PDX1, IL2RA and FOXP3. None had variants in ABCC8 or KCNJ11. One with immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) syndrome underwent haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) and later succumbed.

Our study demonstrates good clinical outcomes among NDM patients without immune dysfunction. Molecular diagnosis was attained only in around half of the patients (54%) with a great genetic heterogeneity.

Utility of TSH Receptor Antibodies in the Differential Diagnosis of Hyperthyroidism in Clinical Practice.

Indian Journal of Endocrinology and

Graves' disease (GD) is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in iodine-sufficient areas. It is important to distinguish GD from other causes of hyperthyroidism for optimal management. Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibody (TRAb) test is a commonly used test for this purpose. However, the sensitivity for this test in routine clinical practice may be affected by various factors leading to fallacies in diagnosis.

A retrospective study was performed to assess the utility of an automated electrochemiluminescence TRAb immunoassay (Roche) in differentiating GD from non-Graves' disease (NGD) in routine clinical practice.

In 227 subjects, 146 had GD and 81 had NGD. Total T3, Total T4, Free T4, and TRAb were significantly higher in people with GD in comparison to NGD. The area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve for the assay was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.926 to 0.984, P < 0.0001). The optimal threshold for the test derived from the ROC was 3.37 IU/L, which is more than the cut-off of 1.75 IU/L suggested by the manufacturer. The sensitivity/specificity of TRAb in the diagnosis of GD at presentation was 98.4%/62.9% at 1.75 IU/L and 91.2%/90.12% at 3.37 IU/L, respectively.

The TRAb test is a sensitive test to differentiate between subjects with GD and NGD presenting with hyperthyroidism. However, the cutoff (1.75 IU/L) as per the kit manufacturer may lead to a lower specificity for diagnosis. A modified cut-off of 3.37 IU/L should be considered for optimizing the diagnostic efficacy of the test.

Role of Serum Irisin During Early Pregnancy to Predict The Development of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus at 24-28 Weeks of Pregnancy in high-risk patients.

Indian Journal of Endocrinology and

The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the role of serum irisin during early pregnancy to predict the development of GDM at 24-28 weeks in high-risk patients.

This study was conducted among the pregnant women attending the Department of Endocrinology and antenatal clinic of Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of MKCG Medical College for a period of one year with at least one risk factor for the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Blood samples were collected for measurement of fasting plasma glucose, serum insulin, serum irisin, lipids (TC, LDL, HDL, TG), and HbA1c. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed using 75 g of glucose during the first trimester and between 24-28 weeks of pregnancy. Patients were diagnosed as GDM based upon IADPSG criteria at 24-28 weeks. Serum irisin, glycemic parameters, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance during first trimester were analyzed for predicting GDM between 24-28 weeks.

Sixty-five patients were included in the study, out of which 20 (30.8%) patients developed GDM and the rest 45 patients had normal glucose tolerance (NGT). The first trimester mean serum irisin concentration was significantly lower in women who later developed GDM compared with women who had NGT (111.65 ± 25.43 μg/L vs 185.89 ± 28.89 μg/L). Serum irisin concentration was the best predictor with an optimal threshold value of 149 μg/L, which had sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 90%, 91.1%, 81.8%, 95.3%, respectively, for predicting GDM at 24-28 weeks of pregnancy.

We suggest the utility of serum irisin as an early biomarker to predict the development of GDM later in pregnancy in high-risk patients.

A Practitioner's Toolkit for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Counselling.

Indian Journal of Endocrinology and

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a frequently occurring health issue, has a significant effect on the cosmetic, metabolic, psychosocial and fertil...

Medullary Thyroid Cancer: An Experience from a Tertiary Care Hospital of a Developing Country.

Indian Journal of Endocrinology and

Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare type of thyroid cancer that occasionally occurs as part of MEN2A. The universal treatment of MTC is total thyroidectomy with central lymph node dissection. For disease progression, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and calcitonin (CTN) need to be followed. Our aim was to study the presence and patterns of the above-mentioned characteristics of MTC in our population.

This retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital of Pakistan in which data of thirty-two medullary thyroid cancer patients over the past 20 years were reviewed and analysed after fulfilment of inclusion criteria. Their clinical, pathological, biochemical and treatment modalities were recorded through a retrospective review of their medical record files.

The mean age of patients was 42.88 ± 2.67 years in our study, with a male-to-female ratio of 2:1. Patients with sporadic MTC were 68.8%, while 31.2% were familial. The rates of metastasis were highest in bones followed by lungs and liver. Total thyroidectomy was performed in 26 (81.2%) patients and among those chemotherapy and XRT were performed in one and two patients, respectively. Histologically, the mean tumour size was 7.62 ± 3.64 cm. Median pre-surgery calcitonin was 5756 pg/ml that decreased to 29.3 pg/ml post-surgery. Median pre-surgery CEA level was 246.5 ng/ml that decreased to 6.39 ng/ml post-surgery. Two patients were RET positive.

MTC usually presents in the fourth decade of life with male predominance and mostly sporadic occurrence. Total thyroidectomy with subsequent serial calcitonin and CEA levels thereafter are the mainstay of treatment and follow-up.

Clinical Profile of Addison's Disease in a Tertiary Care Institute, Southern India - The Changing Landscape.

Indian Journal of Endocrinology and

Clinical, biochemical, and radiological profiles of Addison's disease and to assess the various etiological spectrum of primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) in adults.

A retrospective cohort study was carried out in the Department of Endocrinology, Madurai Medical College, Madurai between January 2014 and January 2021 over a 7-year period.

All the patients with clinical symptoms and or signs of suspected PAI, such as hyperpigmentation, weight loss, persistent nausea or vomiting, fatigue, and hypotension, were recruited. All suspected cases underwent measurement of 8-AM plasma ACTH and cortisol levels. In possible cases and equivocal cortisol levels, patients underwent Co-syntropin/ACTH stimulation test. To know the underlying etiology of PAI, 21-hydroxylase autoantibodies (21OHAb), thyroid function test, Anti TPO, calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), LH and FSH, CT of chest and abdomen, and sputum AFB based on the clinical pattern of involvement were performed.

Patients with onset of PAI at infancy and childhood, secondary adrenal insufficiency or exogenous Cushing's syndrome, and central hypocortisolism, including Sheehan's syndrome, were excluded.

Thirty-six patients were diagnosed with PAI in this study; 19 (53%) were females and 17 were males (47%). The median age of diagnosis was 35 years. Patients were divided into acute presentation and subacute presentation. Twenty-six patients presented with acute presentation and ten were presented with progressive evolved symptoms. Non-tuberculous etiology was the predominant finding noted in our cohort study (87%, 31 out of 36 patients). The other causes of Addison disease included isolated auto-immune PAI, polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type 1 and II, APLA Syndrome, and adrenal metastasis.

Non-tuberculous causes of PAI are the leading etiology in our retrospective study. Autoimmune PAI and Polyglandular autoimmune syndromes are increasingly being recognized as the cause of Addison's disease. PAI individuals require lifelong surveillance for possible development of coexisting autoimmune syndromes and need for glucocorticoid/mineralocorticoid therapy.

Hypertensive Phenotypes and Pattern of Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Patients of Diabetes Mellitus of Kashmir Valley.

Indian Journal of Endocrinology and

Patients of diabetes mellitus (DM) with hypertension (HTN) have a fourfold increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) as compared to normotensive nondiabetic controls. However, many patients of DM who are normotensive or have controlled blood pressure on office BP measurement (OBPM) may assume that they do not have increased risk of CVD but may be having HTN or uncontrolled blood pressure on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM).

A cross-sectional observational study to compare OBPM with ABPM and thus predict various hypertensive phenotypes like masked hypertension (MH) and white coat hypertension and pattern of blood pressure in diabetic patients of our population.

Two hundred patients of DM with or without HTN were included in this study. The cases were subjected to detailed history, clinical examination, OBPM, and ABPM.

Out of 200 patients of DM, 32 were normotensives, 46 were hypertensives controlled on antihypertensive treatment, 22 were hypertensives not on anti-hypertensive treatment, and 100 were hypertensives uncontrolled on anti-hypertensive treatment. Among 32 normotensive diabetics, 17 (53%) patients had MH on ABPM. Out of these 32 normotensive patients, 7 (21.8%) had isolated nocturnal hypertension, 3 (9.3%) had isolated day-time HTN (IDH) and 7 (21.8%) had day-time and nocturnal HTN (DNH). Patients with MH had higher BMI, an observation that was statistically significant. Non-dipping pattern was found in 53% of patients of masked HTN. Out of 46 hypertensive diabetics with controlled OBPM on antihypertensive treatment, 26 (56.5%) had masked effect or masked uncontrolled hypertension on ABPM. Out of 22 diabetics with treatment naïve HTN, 7 (32%) were found to have white coat hypertension on ABPM. Fifteen (15%) patients out of 100 hypertensive diabetics with uncontrolled OBPM despite on anti-hypertensive were found to have white coat effect on ABPM. Patients with white coat effect had higher body mass index an observation that was statistically significant (p = 0.039). Non-dipping pattern was significantly associated with longer duration of diabetes (≥ 120 months), retinopathy and neuropathy.

To rely exclusively on OBPM to diagnose HTN and monitor blood pressure may underestimate the CVD risk especially in diabetics. ABPM is a tool that may not only help clinicians in starting anti-HTN treatment perspicuously, but also may help in avoiding unnecessary anti-hypertensive treatment and/or withdrawing anti-hypertensive treatment as indicated and thus avoiding credulity.

Steroid Stewardship.

Indian Journal of Endocrinology and

Steroid stewardship is the systematic effort to prescribe and monitor glucocorticoids in a rational manner, while balancing benefit and potential r...

The Association of Vitamin K2 Level with the Glycaemic Status in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Case-Control Study.

Indian Journal of Endocrinology and

The target of this work was to investigate vitamin K2 level link to glycaemic status in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients.

Sixty T2DM patients were divided into 30 uncontrolled T2DM (group I), 30 controlled T2DM (group II) patients and 30 non-diabetic subjects as the control group. Vitamin K2 level, fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), fasting blood glucose (FBG), 2-h postprandial blood glucose (PPG), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting lipids were documented. Waist circumference (WC) was measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated.

A highly significant difference between groups was observed in vitamin K2 level (P < 0.001) being 1.61 ± 0.56 ng/ml, 2.04 ± 0.59 ng/ml and 2.96 ± 0.82 ng/ml for groups I, II and III, respectively. Among diabetics, a negative correlation was reported between serum vitamin K2 and FBG (r -0.428), 2-h PPBG (r -0.319), HbA1c (r -0.268), fasting insulin (r -0.49), HOMA-IR (r -0.5), total cholesterol (T-cholesterol) (r -0.335) and LDL-C (r -0.296) with P < 0.05. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve emphasized the utility of the discriminated potentiality of serum vitamin K2 as a biomarker for uncontrolled hyperglycaemia in T2DM. The multivariate linear regression has shown that FBG is the only significant independent predictor of serum levels of vitamin K2.

In T2DM patients, serum vitamin K2 level was significantly lower, especially with uncontrolled hyperglycaemia. This suggests that vitamin K2 level has an association with the glycaemic status in T2DM.

Long-acting Porcine Sequence ACTH (Acton Prolongatum) Stimulation Test is a Reliable Alternative Test as Compared to the Gold Standard Insulin Tolerance Test for the Diagnosis of Adrenal Insufficiency.

Indian Journal of Endocrinology and

As synacthen use is not licensed in India and there are concerns about the safety of the insulin tolerance test (ITT), an alternative dynamic test to diagnose adrenal insufficiency (AI) is required.

The study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the Acton Prolongatum stimulation test (APST) with a standard ITT for the diagnosis of AI.

Prospective study comparing two diagnostic tests.

Six healthy volunteers and 53 suspected or known AI patients.

Serum cortisol response to ITT and APST.

The median (95% confidence interval [CI]) peak cortisol levels among healthy volunteers in ITT and APST were 17 (14.58-19.08) and 30.5 (22.57-34.5) μg/dL. Of the 53 patients (age: 39.6 ± 9.38 years; females: 38 [71.1%]), 34 had AI (peak ITT serum cortisol < 14.5 μg/dL) whereas 19 had a normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. In the receiver operator characteristic curve analysis, 60-min APST cortisol had an area under the curve of 0.984 (95% CI: 0.904-1.00, P < 0.0001). The best accuracy was obtained at a cut-off of 16.42 μg/dL (sensitivity: 97.7% [95% CI: 87.7-99.9%]; specificity: 100% [69.2-100%]). Forty-three of the 53 patients with suspected AI had hypoglycemic symptoms during ITT and two of them required intravenous dextrose, whereas, none had adverse events during APST. The ITT was incomplete in two patients whereas all completed APST.

APST is a simple, safe, and reliable alternative to ITT for the diagnosis of AI; 60-min serum cortisol of 16.42 μg/dL in APST best distinguishes the AI patients from those with adequate cortisol response.

Developing Clinical Decision Support System using Machine Learning Methods for Type 2 Diabetes Drug Management.

Indian Journal of Endocrinology and

Application of artificial intelligence/machine learning (AI/ML) for automation of diabetes management can enhance equitable access to care and ensure delivery of minimum standards of care. Objective of the current study was to create a clinical decision support system using machine learning approach for diabetes drug management in people living with Type 2 diabetes.

Study was conducted at an Endocrinology clinic and data collected from the electronic clinic management system. 15485 diabetes prescriptions of 4974 patients were accessed. A data subset of 1671 diabetes prescriptions of 940 patients with information on diabetes drugs, demographics (age, gender, body mass index), biochemical parameters (HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, creatinine) and patient clinical parameters (diabetes duration, compliance to diet/exercise/medications, hypoglycemia, contraindication to any drug, summary of patient self monitoring of blood glucose data, diabetes complications) was used in analysis. An input of patient variables were used to predict all diabetes drug classes to be prescribed. Random forest algorithms were used to create decision trees for all diabetes drugs.

Accuracy for predicting use of each individual drug class varied from 85% to 99.4%. Multi-drug accuracy, indicating that all drug predictions in a prescription are correct, stands at 72%. Multi drug class accuracy in clinical application may be higher than this result, as in a lot of clinical scenarios, two or more diabetes drugs may be used interchangeably. This report presents a first positive step in developing a robust clinical decision support system to transform access and quality of diabetes care.

Adrenal Incidentaloma Needs thorough Biochemical Evaluation - An Institutional Experience.

Indian Journal of Endocrinology and

Adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) are seen in around 2% of apparently healthy individuals. These require careful evaluation for the hormone excess state and the presence of malignancy prior to intervention.

To study the clinical, biochemical, and imaging characteristics of the patients with AI and correlate the diagnosis with the histopathology findings in patients undergoing surgery.

Retrospective observational study.

Patients with adrenal incidentaloma presenting between January 2017 and January 2021 were evaluated as per guidelines provided by the European Society of Endocrinology and the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors. Patients were given final diagnosis on the basis of imaging impression, hormonal activity, and biopsy results (when applicable).

Forty-eight patients were evaluated, with 25 being male, the mean age being 40.9 years (8-71), and the mean size of the mass being 6.21 (1.4-13.7) cm. Thirty-five (72.9%) of them underwent surgical excision. The most common diagnosis was myelolipoma (16), followed by pheochromocytoma (10) and adenoma (9). Nineteen patients were found to have hormone-secreting masses. Two patients with pheochromocytoma were normotensive. There was discordance between imaging diagnosis and hormonal status in two patients, with final diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. One patient with extramedullary erythropoiesis of the adrenal gland was subsequently diagnosed with sickle cell anemia and adrenal insufficiency.

The study highlights the rare possibility of discrepancy between non-contrast CT diagnosis and functional status of AI. There is also a rare possibility of extramedullary erythropoiesis presenting as AI with adrenal insufficiency. Specific evaluation for such rare possibilities should be considered in AI cases as per clinical scenario.