The latest medical research on Blood Cancer
The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about blood cancer gathered by our medical AI research bot.
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Patterns of neutralizing humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 infection among hematologic malignancy patients reveal a robust immune response in anti-cancer therapy-naive patients.Blood Cancer
Understanding antibody-based SARS-CoV-2 immunity in hematologic malignancy (HM) patients following infection is crucial to inform vaccination strat...
Psychosocial functioning of caregivers of pediatric brain tumor survivors.Pediatric Blood and Cancer
Assessment of caregiver needs is a recommended standard of care in pediatric oncology. Caregivers of pediatric brain tumor survivors (PBTS) are a subgroup that may be at highest psychosocial risk. This study examined psychosocial functioning of caregivers of PBTS in comparison to caregivers of youth without cancer history. We hypothesized that caregivers of PBTS would exhibit more psychological symptoms, higher caregiver burden, and lower perceptions of social support than caregivers of comparison youth.
As part of a five-site study, we utilized a matched sample design to evaluate psychosocial functioning of 301 caregivers of 189 PBTS (ages 8-15) who were 1-5 years post treatment, and 286 caregivers of 187 comparison youth matched for sex, race, and age. Caregivers completed measures of psychological symptoms, caregiver burden, and perceptions of social support. Repeated measures mixed models compared outcomes between groups and examined differences based on caregiver sex. Socioeconomic status (SES) was examined as a moderator of significant main effects.
Caregivers of PBTS reported similar levels of psychological symptoms to caregivers of comparison youth. Mothers of PBTS mothers reported higher caregiver burden and lower perceptions of social support than mothers of comparison youth. Low SES exacerbated group differences in caregiver burden.
Mothers of PBTS may have more caregiving responsibilities and perceive less social support, but reported similar levels of psychological symptoms to comparison mothers; fathers of PBTS were similar to comparison fathers. The mechanisms involved in this complex psychosocial dynamic require further investigation.
Pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with blinatumomab in a real-world setting: Results from the NEUF study.Pediatric Blood and Cancer
Prior to regulatory approval of blinatumomab in pediatric patients with relapsed/refractory Philadelphia chromosome-negative B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (R/R Ph- BCP-ALL), blinatumomab was made available via an expanded access program (EAP).
This retrospective observational study included patients receiving blinatumomab in the EAP between January 1, 2014 and June 30, 2017 who were followed until death, entry into a clinical trial, end of follow-up, or end of the study period (December 31, 2017), whichever occurred first.
Among 113 children enrolled, 72 were diagnosed with R/R Ph- BCP-ALL and 41 were minimal residual disease positive (MRD+, either Ph- or Ph+). In the R/R group, 38 (53%) patients achieved hematological response within two cycles. Of these, 19 (50%) proceeded to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) without bridging myelosuppressive therapy. Of 36 patients in the R/R group evaluable for MRD, 30 (83%) had an MRD response. In the R/R group, median relapse-free survival was 5.4 months and median overall survival (OS) was 8.2 months. Of 36 patients in the MRD+ group who were evaluable for MRD after two cycles, 27 (75%) had an MRD response. Overall, 24 (59%) of the MRD+ patients proceeded to HSCT without other bridging therapy. Median disease-free survival was 13.6 months; median OS was not reached.
In this real-world pediatric cohort, blinatumomab was effective within two cycles. Over half of patients with R/R Ph- BCP-ALL achieved hematological response and most achieved MRD response in the MRD+ group, confirming the efficacy of blinatumomab in pediatric trials.
Bladder function after conservative surgery and high-dose rate brachytherapy for bladder-prostate rhabdomyosarcoma.Pediatric Blood and Cancer
Conservative surgery (CS) brachytherapy (BT) techniques for local therapy in bladder-prostate rhabdomyosarcoma (BP-RMS) seek to retain organ function. We report bladder function after high-dose rate (HDR) BT combined with targeted CS for any vesical component of BP-RMS.
Prospective cohort of all BP-RMS patients between 2014 and 2019 receiving HDR-BT (iridium-192, 27.5 Gy in five fractions) with/without percutaneous endoscopic polypectomy (PEP) or partial cystectomy (PC). Functional assessment included frequency-volume chart, voided volumes, post-void residual, flow studies, continence status and ultrasound scanning; abnormalities triggered video urodynamics.
Thirteen patients (10 male), aged 9 months to 4 years (median 23 months), presented with localised fusion-negative embryonal BP-RMS measuring 23-140 mm (median 43 mm) in cranio-caudal extent. After induction chemotherapy, local treatment consisted of PC+BT in three, PEP+BT in four and BT alone in six. At a median 3.5 years (range 21 months to 7 years) follow-up, all were alive without relapse. At a median age of 6 years (4-9 years), the median bladder capacity was 86% (47%-144%) of that expected for age, including 75% (74%-114%) after PC. Radiation dose to the bladder was associated with urinary urgency, but not bladder capacity or nocturnal enuresis. Complications occurred in two: one urethral stricture and one vesical decompensation in a patient with pre-existing high-grade vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR). The remaining patients were dry by day; five with anticholinergic medication for urinary urgency. Three patients are enuretic.
Day-time dryness at a median 3.5 years after CS-HDR-BT was achieved in 92%, with 85% voiding urethrally, and 62% attaining day-and-night continence aged 4-9 years. We report reduced open surgery with minimally invasive percutaneous surgery, with HDR-BT or BT alone being suitable for many.
Implementation science in pediatric oncology: A narrative review and future directions.Pediatric Blood and Cancer
Implementation science (IS) has garnered attention within oncology, and most prior IS work has focused on adult, not pediatric, oncology. This narr...
Impact of treatment refusal and abandonment on survival outcomes in pediatric osteosarcoma in Southeast Asia: A multicenter study.Pediatric Blood and Cancer
Treatment refusal and abandonment (TxRA) are major barriers to improving outcomes among children with sarcomas of the extremities as curative treatment options bearing on amputation or disfiguring surgery, particularly in countries with limited resources. A multi-institutional retrospective study was conducted to determine the predictive factors for TxRA among patients with osteosarcoma associated with survival outcomes across Southeast Asia (SEA).
Pediatric patients with osteosarcoma treated between January 1998 and December 2017 in four SEA pediatric oncology centers from three countries were studied. Nelson-Aalen estimates, Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox's proportion hazard model were applied to address the cumulative incidence, survival outcomes, and to identify prognostic factors associated with TxRA.
From a total of 208 patients with osteosarcoma enrolled; 18 (8.7%) patients refused and 41 (19.7%) patients abandoned treatment. Income classification of countries, age at diagnosis, tumor size, disease extent, chemotherapy protocols, and types of surgery were associated with TxRA. Tumor size more than 15 cm was an independent risk factor associated with TxRA. The 5-year overall and relapse-free survivals were 49.4% and 50.4%, respectively. However, these rates declined further to 37.9% and 35.8%, respectively, when TxRA were considered as events. Tumor size larger than 15 cm and metastatic disease were independent risk factors associated with TxRA-sensitive outcomes.
The prevalence of TxRA was high in SEA, particularly in lower middle-income countries. Factors associated with TxRA related to tumor burden. Treatment outcomes could be substantially improved by lowering the refusal and abandonment rates.
Burden of central nervous system complications in sickle cell disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis.Pediatric Blood and Cancer
Sickle cell disease (SCD) patients are at high risk of central nervous system (CNS) complications and may experience significant morbidity. The stu...
Impact of locus of care on outcomes in adolescents and young adults with osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma treated at pediatric versus adult cancer centers: An IMPACT cohort study.Pediatric Blood and Cancer
Location of cancer care (LOC; pediatric vs. adult center) impacts outcomes in adolescents and young adults (AYA) with some cancer types. Data on the impact of LOC on survival in AYA with osteosarcoma (OSS) and Ewing sarcoma (EWS) are limited OBJECTIVES: To compare differences in demographics, disease/treatment characteristics, and survival in a population-based cohort of AYA with OSS or EWS treated at pediatric versus adult centers METHODS: The Initiative to Maximize Progress in Adolescent Cancer Therapy (IMPACT) cohort captured demographic, disease, and treatment data for all AYA (15-21 years old) diagnosed with OSS and EWS in Ontario, Canada between 1992 and 2012. Patients were linked to provincial administrative health care databases. Outcomes were compared between patients treated in pediatric versus adult centers.
One hundred thirty-seven AYA were diagnosed with OSS (LOC: 47 pediatric, 90 adult) and 84 with EWS (38 pediatric, 46 adult). AYA treated at pediatric centers were more likely to be enrolled in a clinical trial (OSS 55% vs. 1%, p < .001; EWS 53% vs. 2%, p < .001) and received higher cumulative chemotherapy doses. Five-year event-free survival (EFS ± standard error) in OSS and EWS were 47% ± 4% and 43% ± 5%, respectively. In multivariable analysis, the impact of LOC (pediatric vs. adult center) on EFS in OSS (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.58-2.27, p = .69) and EWS (adjusted HR 1.82, 95% CI: 0.97-3.43, p = .06) was not statistically significant.
Despite disparities in trial participation and chemotherapy doses, outcomes did not differ by LOC suggesting that AYA with bone tumors can be treated at either pediatric or adult centers.
Levofloxacin prophylaxis for pediatric leukemia patients: Longitudinal follow-up for impact on health care-associated infections.Pediatric Blood and Cancer
Bloodstream infections (BSIs) cause morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients with leukemia. Antibiotic prophylaxis during periods of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia may reduce the incidence of BSIs.
A levofloxacin prophylaxis guideline was implemented for pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia and relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We conducted a retrospective cohort study over 4 years (2 years pre and 2 years post implementation) of the practice guideline to assess the impact on central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) and BSI events. Secondary outcomes included incidence of Clostridioides difficile-associated diarrhea, bacteremia due to multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO), and bacteremia due to levofloxacin nonsusceptible organisms. STATA was used for data analysis.
Sixty-three and 72 patients met inclusion criteria for the pre- and postimplementation cohorts, respectively. Demographics were similar between the groups. We observed 60 BSI events in the pre-group versus 49 events in the post-group (p = .1). Bacteremia due to Gram-negative rods (risk ratio [RR] 0.37 [0.21, 0.66], p < .001) and National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) CLABSIs (RR 0.62 [0.44, 0.89], p = .01) were significantly reduced in the postimplementation group. The incidences of C. difficile-associated diarrhea and MDRO bacteremia were similar between groups. However, we observed an increase in the incidence of BSI due to Gram-negative rods that were nonsusceptible to levofloxacin (RR 3.38 [0.72, 6.65], p < .001).
Following implementation of a levofloxacin prophylaxis guideline, we observed a significant decrease in BSIs due to Gram-negative rods and NHSN CLABSIs. Vigilant monitoring of outcomes post guideline implementation is critical to track emergence of resistant organisms.
Access to early-phase clinical trials for children with relapsed and refractory neuroblastoma: A multicentre international study.Pediatric Blood and Cancer
Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial tumour in children, and prognosis for refractory and relapsed disease is still poor. Early-phase clinical trials play a pivotal role in the development of novel drugs. Ensuring adequate recruitment is crucial. The primary aim was to determine the rate of participation trials for children with refractory/relapsed neuroblastoma in two of the largest drug development European institutions.
Data from patients diagnosed with refractory/relapsed neuroblastoma between January 2012 and December 2018 at the two institutions were collected and analysed.
Overall, 48 patients were included. A total of 31 (65%) refractory/relapsed cases were enrolled in early-phase trials. The main reasons for not participating in clinical trials included not fulfilling eligibility criteria prior to consent (12/17, 70%) and screening failure (2/17, 12%). Median time on trial was 4.3 months (range 0.6-13.4). Most common cause for trial discontinuation was disease progression (67.7%). Median overall survival was longer in refractory (28 months, 95% CI: 20.9-40.2) than in relapsed patients (14 months, 95% CI: 8.1-20.1) (p = .034).
Although two thirds of children with refractory/relapsed neuroblastoma were enrolled in early-phase trials, recruitment rates can still be improved. The main cause for not participating on trials was not fulfilling eligibility criteria prior to consent, mainly due to performance status and short life expectancy. This study highlights the hurdles to access to innovative therapies for children with relapsed/refractory neuroblastomas, and identifies key areas of development to improve recruitment to early-phase trials.
Cancer statistics, 2022.Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths in the United States and compiles the most recent data ...
Outcomes of children and young adults with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma who present in critical status.Pediatric Blood and Cancer
Patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and lymphoma (T-ALL/LLy) commonly present with critical features such as hyperleukocytosis and mediastinal mass, which complicates completing a diagnostic and staging workup and prevents clinical trial enrollment.
Consecutive patients with T-ALL/LLy from 1999 to 2019 at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia were analyzed for pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission and various high-risk features as well as clinical trial enrollment and outcome.
We identified 153 patients newly diagnosed with T-ALL/LLy, 53 (35%) required PICU-level care within 24 hours and 73 (48%) within 7 days. Non-PICU patients had a significantly higher clinical trial enrollment rate (79.4%) versus PICU patients (56.1%, P = 0.016). Patients who enrolled on a clinical trial had similar relapse risk to those who did not enroll (relapse rate 20% vs 29%, P = 0.523). Nineteen patients were precluded from trial participation. Risk of relapse was increased for patients admitted to the PICU within 24 hours (26% vs 13%, P = 0.048). Forty-four patients with T-ALL presented with hyperleukocytosis, of which 30% relapsed versus 14% without (P = 0.082). Patients who underwent apheresis for hyperleukocytosis were statistically more likely to relapse (47% vs 15%, P = 0.007). Patients with elevated uric acid (20% vs 16%, P = 0.278), mediastinal mass (20% vs 14%, P = 0.501), or required emergent steroids (20% vs 16%, P = 0.626) had a similar relapse risk. A single second relapse patient survived.
Almost half of T-ALL/LLy patients required PICU-level care at diagnosis, making enrollment on clinical trials challenging, but trial enrollment predicted better outcome. Physicians should balance maintaining eligibility with safety to offer patients all options.