The latest medical research on Blood Cancer

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about blood cancer gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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A case of G6PD Utrecht associated with β-thalassemia responding to splenectomy.

Pediatric Blood and Cancer

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked genetic disease caused by a pathogenic G6PD mutation. An 8-year-old Chinese male...

Thrombosis and hemorrhage experienced by hospitalized children with SARS-CoV-2 infection or MIS-C: Results of the PICNIC registry.

Pediatric Blood and Cancer

Coagulopathy and thrombosis associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection are well defined in hospitalized adults and leads to adverse outcomes. Pediatric studies are limited.

An international multicentered (n = 15) retrospective registry collected information on the clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 and multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) in hospitalized children from February 1, 2020 through May 31, 2021. This sub-study focused on coagulopathy. Study variables included patient demographics, comorbidities, clinical presentation, hospital course, laboratory parameters, management, and outcomes.

Nine hundred eighty-five children were enrolled, of which 915 (93%) had clinical information available; 385 (42%) had symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, 288 had MIS-C (31.4%), and 242 (26.4%) had SARS-CoV-2 identified incidentally. Ten children (1%) experienced thrombosis, 16 (1.7%) experienced hemorrhage, and two (0.2%) experienced both thrombosis and hemorrhage. Significantly prevalent prothrombotic comorbidities included congenital heart disease (p-value .007), respiratory support (p-value .006), central venous catheter (CVC) (p = .04) in children with primary SARS-CoV-2 and in those with MIS-C included respiratory support (p-value .03), obesity (p-value .002), and cytokine storm (p = .012). Comorbidities prevalent in children with hemorrhage included age >10 years (p = .04), CVC (p = .03) in children with primary SARS-CoV-2 infection and in those with MIS-C encompassed thrombocytopenia (p = .001) and cytokine storm (p = .02). Eleven patients died (1.2%), with no deaths attributed to thrombosis or hemorrhage.

Thrombosis and hemorrhage are uncommon events in children with SARS-CoV-2; largely experienced by those with pre-existing comorbidities. Understanding the complete spectrum of coagulopathy in children with SARS-CoV-2 infection requires ongoing research.

How do we approach the management of medulloblastoma in young children?

Pediatric Blood and Cancer

Therapeutic strategies avoiding craniospinal irradiation were developed for young children with medulloblastoma to improve survival while protectin...

End-of-life care quality for children with cancer who receive palliative care.

Pediatric Blood and Cancer

We previously developed stakeholder-informed quality measures to assess end-of-life care quality for children with cancer. We sought to implement a subset of these quality measures in the multi-center pediatric palliative care (PPC) database.

We utilized the Shared Data and Research database to evaluate the proportion of childhood cancer decedents from 2017-2021 who, in the last 30 days of life, avoided chemotherapy, mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit admissions, and > 1 hospital admission; were enrolled in hospice services, and reported ≤ 2 highly distressing symptoms. We then explored patient factors associated with the attainment of quality benchmarks.

Across 79 decedents, 82% met ≥ 4 quality benchmarks. Most (76%) reported > 2 highly distressing symptoms; 17% were enrolled in hospice. In univariable analyses, patients with an annual household income ≤$50,000 had lower odds of hospice enrollment and avoidance of mechanical ventilation or intensive care unit admissions near end of life (odds ratio [OR] 0.10 [95% confidence interval (C.I.) 0.01, 0.86], p = 0.04; OR 0.13 [0.02, 0.64], p = 0.01; OR 0.36 [0.13, 0.98], p = 0.04, respectively). In multivariable analyses, patients with an income ≤$50,000 remained less likely to enroll in hospice, after adjusting for cancer type (OR 0.10 [0.01, 0.87]; p = 0.04).

Childhood cancer decedents who received PPC met a large proportion of quality measures near the end of their life. Yet, many reported highly distressing symptoms. Moreover, patients with lower household incomes appeared less likely to enroll in hospice and more likely to receive intensive hospital services near the end of life. This study identifies opportunities for palliative oncology quality improvement.

Multi-institutional analysis of central nervous system germ cell tumors in patients with Down syndrome.

Pediatric Blood and Cancer

Primary germ cell tumors (GCTs) are the most common central nervous system (CNS) neoplasm in patients with Down syndrome (DS). However, a standard of care has not been established due to paucity of data.

A retrospective multi-institutional analysis was conducted, in addition to a comprehensive review of the literature.

Ten patients from six institutions (five USA, one Brazil) were identified, in addition to 31 patients in the literature from 1975 to 2021. Of the 41 total patients (mean age 9.9 years; 61% male), 16 (39%) had non-germinomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs), 16 (39%) had pure germinomas, and eight (19.5%) had teratomas. Basal ganglia was the most common tumor location (n = 13; 31.7%), followed by posterior fossa (n = 7; 17%). Nine patients (22%) experienced disease relapse or progression, of which four died from tumor progression (one germinoma, three teratomas). Sixteen patients (39%) experienced treatment-related complications, of which eight (50%) died (five germinomas, three NGGCTs). Of the germinoma patients, two died from chemotherapy-related sepsis, one from postsurgery cardiopulmonary failure, one from pneumonia, and one from moyamoya following radiation therapy (RT). Of the NGGCT patients, one died from chemotherapy-related sepsis, one from postsurgical infection, and one from pneumonia following surgery/chemotherapy/RT. Three-year overall survival was 66% for all histological types: 62% germinomas, 79% for NGGCTs, and 53% for teratomas.

Patients with DS treated for CNS GCTs are at an increased risk of treatment-related adverse events. A different therapeutic approach may need to be considered to mitigate treatment-related complications and long-term neurocognitive sequelae.

A phase 2 pharmacodynamic dose-finding, safety, and efficacy study of dalteparin for pediatric venous thromboembolism treatment in children with and without cancer.

Pediatric Blood and Cancer

Data from registrational trials of pediatric venous thromboembolism (VTE) treatment are sparse, especially among cancer patients. We conducted a pr...

Healthcare utilization and costs associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children with and without Down syndrome.

Pediatric Blood and Cancer

Children with Down syndrome (DS) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at increased risk of treatment-related morbidity and mortality compared to non-DS-ALL, requiring increased supportive care. We examined the healthcare utilization and costs in DS-ALL patients to inform future evaluations of novel therapies.

A provincial registry identified all children (1-17 years) diagnosed with B-lineage ALL in Ontario, Canada between 2002 and 2012. Detailed demographic, disease, treatment, and outcome data were abstracted. Linkage to population-based health services databases identified all outpatient and emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and physician billings. Healthcare utilization costs were available for patients diagnosed during 2006-2012 using validated algorithms (2018 Canadian dollars). Healthcare utilization rates and costs were compared between DS and non-DS patients using regression models, adjusting for all covariates.

Of 711 patients, 28 (3.9%) had DS. Adjusting for all covariates, children with DS-ALL experienced substantially higher rates of ED visits (rate ratio [RR] 1.5, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.2-2.0; p = .001) and inpatient days (RR 2.5, 95% CI: 1.4-4.5; p = .002) compared to non-DS children. Outpatient visit rates were similar (RR 1.1, 95% CI: 0.9-1.3; p = .41). Among patients with available cost data (N = 533, DS = 19), median 5-year healthcare utilization cost was $247,700 among DS patients (interquartile range [IQR]: 200,900-354,500) and $196,200 among non-DS patients (IQR: 148,900-280,300; p = .02). In adjusted analyses, DS-associated costs were 50% higher (RR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-1.9; p < .002).

Healthcare utilization and treatment costs of DS-ALL patients are substantially higher than those of non-DS-ALL. Our data provide a baseline for future DS-specific cost-effectiveness studies.

How I approach: Defining the scope of psychosocial care across disciplines in pediatric hematology-oncology.

Pediatric Blood and Cancer

To provide the standard of psychosocial care for children with cancer and hematological disorders and their families, multidisciplinary teams must ...

Polygenic early-onset colorectal cancer in pediatric patients.

Pediatric Blood and Cancer

Colorectal cancer in the pediatric population is a rare but transpirable phenomenon. The occurrence should prompt suspicion for underlying genetic ...

Brentuximab vedotin in the treatment of paediatric patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma: Results of a real-life study.

Pediatric Blood and Cancer

Brentuximab vedotin (BV) is an antibody drug-conjugated anti-CD30 approved for the treatment of adult classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), whereas it is considered as off-label indication in paediatrics. The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of BV to treat patients aged less than 18 years with refractory/relapsed HL.

In this multicentre, retrospective study, 68 paediatric patients who received at least one dose of BV between November 2011 and August 2020 were enrolled. A median of nine doses of BV were administered as monotherapy (n = 31) or combined with other therapies (n = 37). BV was administrated alone as consolidation therapy after stem cell transplantation (SCT) in 12 patients, before SCT in 18 patients, whereas in 15 patients it was used before and after SCT as consolidation therapy. Median follow-up was 2.8 years (range: 0.6-8.9 years).

The best response was observed in the 86% of patients; the overall response rate was 66%. The 3-year progression-free survival was 58%, whereas the overall survival was 75%. No statistically significant differences between patients treated with BV monotherapy or combination were highlighted. In multivariate analysis, patients with non-nodular sclerosis HL and not transplanted had an increased risk of failure. Overall, 46% of patients had grade 3-4 adverse events that led to BV discontinuation in five of them.

In conclusion, our study confirms that BV was a safe and effective drug, able to induce complete remission, either as monotherapy or in association with standard therapy.

Oncologic emergencies and urgencies: A comprehensive review.

Acute Myeloid Leukaemia

Patients with advanced cancer generate 4 million visits annually to emergency departments (EDs) and other dedicated, high-acuity oncology urgent ca...

No wrong decisions in an all-wrong situation. A qualitative study on the lived experiences of families of children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma.

Pediatric Blood and Cancer

Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a rare, but lethal pediatric brain tumor with a median survival of less than 1 year. Existing treatment may prolong life and control symptoms, but may cause toxicity and side effects. In order to improve child- and family-centered care, we aimed to better understand the treatment decision-making experiences of parents, as studies on this topic are currently lacking.

The data for this study came from 24 semistructured interviews with parents whose children were diagnosed with DIPG in two children's hospitals in Switzerland and died between 2000 and 2016. Analysis of the dataset was done using reflexive thematic analysis.

For most parents, the decision for or against treatment was relatively straightforward given the fatality of the tumor and the absence of treatment protocols. Most of them had no regrets about their decision for or against treatment. The most distressing factor for them was observing their child's gradual loss of independence and informing them about the inescapability of death. To counter this powerlessness, many parents opted for complementary or alternative medicine in order to "do something." Many parents reported psychological problems in the aftermath of their child's death and coping strategies between mothers and fathers often differed.

The challenges of DIPG are unique and explain why parental and shared decision-making is different in DIPG compared to other cancer diagnoses. Considering that treatment decisions shape parents' grief trajectory, clinicians should reassure parents by framing treatment decisions in terms of family's deeply held values and goals.