The latest medical research on Pain Medicine

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about pain medicine gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Evidence-Based Clinical Guidelines from the American Society of Pain and Neuroscience for the Use of Implantable Peripheral Nerve Stimulation in the Treatment of Chronic Pain.

Journal of Pain

The objective of this peripheral nerve stimulation consensus guideline is to add to the current family of consensus practice guidelines and incorpo...

Ginsenoside Rh2 Ameliorates Neuropathic Pain by inhibition of the miRNA21-TLR8-MAPK axis.

Molecular Pain

Ginsenoside Rh2 is one of the major bioactive ginsenosides in Panax ginseng. Although Rh2 is known to enhance immune cells activity for treatment o...

Spinal neurovascular coupling is preserved despite time dependent alterations of spinal cord blood flow responses in a rat model of chronic back pain: implications for functional spinal cord imaging.


Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to investigate nociceptive processes in patients with chronic pain. However, the results...

Estimating individualized treatment effects using a risk-modeling approach: an application to epidural steroid injections for lumbar spinal stenosis.


Conventional "1-variable-at-a-time" analyses to identify treatment effect modifiers are often underpowered and prone to false positive results. Thi...

Auditory disturbances in patients with complex regional pain syndrome.


Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is often associated with reduced sound tolerance (hyperacusis) on the affected side, but the mechanism of thi...

Research Trends of Moxibustion Therapy for Pain Treatment Over the Past Decade: A Bibliometric Analysis.

Journal of Pain

Accumulate evidence indicated that moxibustion has a positive effect on pain treatment. However, the bibliometric analysis of moxibustion on pain remains uncertain. Herein, this study aimed to explore the current hotspots and the research trends over the past decade to bring a great panorama in this field.

Publications were retrieved from the database Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC) related to moxibustion therapy for pain treatment from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2021. CiteSpace and Excel were applied to analyze the volume of publications, journals, cited journals, dual-map analysis, countries, institutes, authors, references, and keywords with citation bursts.

A total of 360 publications were retrieved from 2012 to 2021. The annual number of publications increased steadily with some fluctuations over the past 10 years. "The Evid Based Complement Alternat Med" and "the Gut" were the top-cited journals in frequency and centrality. China and Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine were the most prolific country and institutions, respectively. Among authors, Huangan Wu was the most active author with the highest cited frequency. Jun Xiong, Fanrong Liang and Guixing Xu held the articles with higher centrality. In the ranking of frequency and centrality in cited references, the top one was the article published by Shamseer L and Deng HY, respectively. "Acupuncture" was the keyword with the highest frequency. Pain disease (including rheumatoid arthritis, knee osteoarthritis, herpes zoster), research method (including randomized controlled trial), and risk (including quality of life, economic burden, physical and psychological problems) were the hotspots and frontier trends in this field.

This bibliometric study reveals the current status and research trend in the treatment of pain with moxibustion. The formulation with bibliometric analysis further elicits hot spots and frontier issues in this field.

Development and Testing of a Communication Intervention to Improve Chronic Pain Management in Primary Care: A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial.

Clin J Pain

Effective communication skills are essential for optimally managing chronic pain and opioids. This exploratory sequential mixed methods study tested the effect of a novel framework designed to improve pain-related communication and outcomes.

Study 1 developed a novel 5-step framework for helping primary care clinicians discuss chronic pain and opioids with patients. Study 2 pilot tested an intervention for teaching this framework using standardized patient instructors-actors trained to portray patients and provide immediate clinician feedback-deployed during regular clinic hours. Primary care physicians were randomized to receive either the intervention or pain management recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Primary outcomes were pain-related interference at 2 months and clinician use of targeted communication skills (coded from transcripts of audio-recorded visits); secondary outcomes were pain intensity at 2 mo, clinician self-efficacy for communicating about chronic pain, patient experience, and clinician-reported visit difficulty.

We enrolled 47 primary care physicians from 2 academic teaching clinics and recorded visits with 48 patients taking opioids for chronic pain who had an appointment scheduled with an enrolled physician. The intervention was not associated with significant changes in primary or secondary outcomes other than clinician self-efficacy, which was significantly greater in the intervention group.

This study developed a novel framework and intervention for teaching clinician pain-related communications skills. Although the intervention showed promise, more intensive or multi-component interventions may be needed to have a significant impact on clinicians' pain-related communication and pain outcomes.TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03629197.

The Association Between Sleep Disturbance and Health Outcomes in Chronic Whiplash-Associated Disorders: A Series of Mediation Analyses.

Clin J Pain

To investigate the association between sleep disturbance and clinical features of chronic whiplash-associated disorders. We also aimed to use a bootstrapped mediation analysis approach to systematically examine both direct and indirect pathways by which sleep disturbance may affect chronic pain and functional status.

One hundred and sixty-five people (63% female) with chronic whiplash-associated disorders and not taking medications for sleep disturbance completed questionnaires evaluating sleep disturbance, pain intensity, pain interference, disability, physical and mental health quality of life, stress, anxiety, depression, pain catastrophizing, and posttraumatic stress severity.

Greater sleep disturbance was associated with increased duration of symptoms, higher levels of pain and disability, higher levels of emotional distress and pain catastrophizing, and functional impairment (reduced health-related quality of life). Mediation analyses demonstrated that sleep disturbance influenced chronic pain intensity and interference through both direct and indirect associations inclusive of stress, anxiety and pain catastrophizing. Similarly, sleep disturbance was associated with higher levels of disability and poor health-related quality of life, both directly and also through its negative association with pain intensity and interference.

Sleep disturbance in chronic WAD was associated with worse health outcomes and demonstrated both direct and indirect effects on both chronic pain and function.

Factors Associated with Rebound Pain After Patient-controlled Epidural Analgesia in Patients Undergoing Major Abdominal Surgery: A Retrospective Study.

Clin J Pain

Although patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) is an effective form of regional analgesia for abdominal surgery, some patients experience significant rebound pain after the discontinuation of PCEA. However, risk factors for rebound pain associated with PCEA in major abdominal surgery remain unknown. This study evaluated the incidence of rebound pain related to PCEA and explored potential associated risk factors.

We performed a retrospective review of 236 patients using PCEA following hepatobiliary and pancreas surgery between 2018 and 2020 in a tertiary hospital in South Korea. Rebound pain was defined as an increase from well-controlled pain (numeric rating scale <4) during epidural analgesia to severe pain (numeric rating scale ≥7) within 24 hours of discontinuation of PCEA. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the factors associated with rebound pain.

A total of 236 patients were included in this study. Patients were categorized into the non-rebound pain group (170 patients; 72%) and the rebound pain group (66 patients; 28%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that preoperative prognostic nutritional index (PNI) below 45 (odds ratio [OR]=2.080, 95% confidential interval [CI]=1.061-4.079, P=0.033) and intraoperative transfusion (OR=4.190, 95% CI=1.436-12.226, P=0.009) were independently associated with rebound pain after PCEA discontinuation.

Rebound pain after PCEA occurred in approximately 30% of patients who underwent major abdominal surgery, resulting in insufficient postoperative pain management. Preoperative low PNI and intraoperative transfusion may be associated with rebound pain after PCEA discontinuation.

Insights into the pleiotropic relationships between chronic back pain and inflammation-related musculoskeletal conditions: rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporotic abnormalities.


The ageing process includes the development of debilitating musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions, including chronic back pain (CBP), rheumatoid arthrit...

Neural mechanisms underlying the conditioned pain modulation response: a narrative review of neuroimaging studies.


Processing spatially distributed nociceptive information is critical for survival. The conditioned pain modulation (CPM) response has become a comm...

Non-Surgical and Rehabilitative Interventions in Patients with Frozen Shoulder: Umbrella Review of Systematic Reviews.

Journal of Pain

Frozen shoulder (FS) is a painful condition characterized by progressive loss of shoulder function with passive and active range of motion reduction. To date, there is still no consensus regarding its rehabilitative treatment for pain management.

The aim of this umbrella review of systematic reviews was to analyze the literature, investigating the effects of non-surgical and rehabilitative interventions in patients suffering from FS.

A review of the scientific literature was carried out from 2010 until April 2020 using the following search databases: PubMed, Medline, PEDro, Scopus and Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews. A combination of terms was used for the search: frozen shoulder OR adhesive capsulitis AND systematic review OR meta-analysis AND rehabilitation NOT surgery NOT surgical intervention. We included systematic reviews that specifically dealt with adults with FS, treated with non-surgical approaches. All the systematic reviews and meta-analyses included in the study that met the inclusion criteria were assessed using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews as a quality assessment tool.

Out of 49 studies, only 14 systematic reviews respected the eligibility criteria and were included in this study. Their results showed an important heterogeneity of the studies and all of them agree on the lack of high-quality scientific work to prove unequivocally which rehabilitative treatment is better than the other. Due to this lack of gold standard criteria, there may be also a heterogeneity in the diagnosis of the reviews analyzed.

Non-surgical and rehabilitative interventions are undoubtedly effective in treating FS, but there is no evidence that one approach is more effective than the other regarding the methods reported. Future high-quality RCTs are needed to standardize the treatment modalities of each physiotherapy intervention to provide strong recommendations in favor.