The latest medical research on International Health

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about international health gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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COVID 19

As the Biden administration took office last January, with the pandemic peaking at more than 130,000 COVID-19 hospitalizations in the United States...

Comparative analysis of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and Ad26.COV2.S SARS-CoV-2 vector vaccines.

COVID 19

Vector-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have been associated with vaccine-induced thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (VITT/TTS), but the causative ...

ENhAncing Lifestyle Behaviors in EndometriaL CancEr (ENABLE): A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

COVID 19

Endometrial cancer is associated with the highest comorbid disease burden of any cancer. The aim of this trial was to assess the feasibility and safety of an allied health intervention during adjuvant treatment.

A mixed-methods pilot randomized (2:1) controlled trial with concealed allocation and assessor-blinding. Eligibility criteria: adjuvant endometrial cancer treatment scheduled, disease stage I-IIIC1, ECOG 0-2 and able to perform unsupervised physical activity (PA). Participants received usual care and 8 sessions of weekly, individualized, lifestyle education (diet and PA) with behavior change and social support (intervention group), delivered predominantly by telehealth, or usual care alone. Feasibility outcomes: recruitment and consent rates, decline reasons, program acceptability, intervention adherence and retention.

22/44 eligible patients (50%, 95%CI: 36%, 64%) were recruited over 10 months (14 intervention, 8 usual care). The recruitment rate was 2.2 patients/month (95%CI: 1.4, 3.3). Patients who declined had too much going on (7/22, 32%) or were not interested (6/22, 27%). Mean (SD) age and BMI were 63.2 years (6.8) and 31.9 kg/m2 (6.7). A majority were FIGO stage I (15/22, 68%) and received vaginal brachytherapy (14/22, 64%). Adherence was high, 11/14 (79%, 95%CI: 52%, 92%) participants attended >70% of scheduled sessions. Retention was 100% (95%CI: 85%, 100%) at 9 weeks, however completion of objective measures was impacted by COVID-19 restrictions. Telehealth and online questionnaires enabled participation. No serious adverse events occurred.

The intervention was acceptable to participants with high levels of adherence and retention. Trial findings will be used to design a future RCT.

The trial was registered on www.anzctr.org.au (ACTRN12619000631101) 29/04/2019.

Seasonal variation in paediatric orthopaedic trauma Patients - A single centre experience from Turkey.

COVID 19

It is known that the incidence of paediatric orthopaedic trauma peaks in the summer months as a result of increased and uncontrolled physical activity. The aim of this study was to review the experience of a single centre with paediatric orthopaedic traumas and determine the relationship between the severity and the variations in the incidence of traumas in relation to the seasons and temperatures during the study period.

A single institutional review of the historical data of all patients aged 0-16 years who presented for orthopaedic trauma between January 2018 and December 2020 in the emergency department of Level 1 tertiary orthopaedic trauma centre was conducted. 65,182 paediatric orthopaedic trauma cases had been retrieved from the hospital data base during the 3 -year study period. We classified the traumas according to the variants of the patients' and by holidays, seasons, school days and weekends, months and in which part of the body it occurred.

After excluding the summer vacation, 77% of paediatric orthopaedic trauma patients attended to the hospital on weekdays and 23% on weekends. While it was observed that hot weather had a statistically positive effect on trauma attendance, rainy weather had an negative effect (p < 0.05). Trauma attendances were found to be statistically higher in summer months, except for injuries that may occur with indoor activities such as metacarpal fracture, phalanx fracture and pulled elbow (p < 0.05).

Orthopaedic trauma at a Level 1 tertiary health care trauma center do vary significantly with the weather and are highest in the summer season. Therefore, it should focus more attention on preventive strategies for paediatric trauma in the summer season.

S100A8 and S100A9, biomarkers of SARS-CoV-2-infection and other diseases, suppress HIV replication in primary macrophages.

COVID 19

S100A8 and S100A9 are members of the Alarmin family; these proteins are abundantly expressed in neutrophils and form a heterodimer complex and secr...

Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia After mRNA COVID Vaccine.

COVID 19

Discussion of the hematologic complications of vaccination for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (COVID-19) has primarily focused on ...

Low pre-vaccination SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in Finnish health care workers: a prospective cohort study.

COVID 19

Health care workers are at risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our aim was to study the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein and spike protein specific antibodies in health care workers with occupational exposure to COVID-19 in Turku, Finland, from May to December 2020.

Health care workers of Turku University Hospital units caring for COVID-19 patients or handling clinical SARS-CoV-2 samples were invited to participate in the study. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein and spike protein specific IgG antibodies were analysed with in-house enzyme immunoassay.

At study enrolment, only one of the 222 (0.5%) study participants was seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 protein specific antibodies. Two additional study participants (2/222, 0.9%) seroconverted during the follow-up. All these participants were diagnosed with a RT-PCR-positive COVID-19 infection before turning seropositive.

In our study population, the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity remained low. The absence of seropositive cases without previous RT-PCR confirmed infections demonstrate good access to diagnostics. In addition to high vaccine coverage, high standards of infection prevention practices and use of standard personal protective equipment seem sufficient in preventing occupational SARS-CoV-2 infection in a setting with low number of circulating virus. However, it remains unclear whether similar protective practices would also be effective against more transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants.

B cell Receptor Signatures Associating with Strong and Poor SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Response.

COVID 19

Breakthrough infection of SARS-CoV-2 is a serious challenge, as increased cases of infections were documented in fully-vaccinated individuals. Reci...

The effect of COVID-19 lockdown on the glycemic control of children with type 1 diabetes.

COVID 19

Between March 18th and May 13th 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak in Finland resulted in the closure of schools and the limitation of daycare (i.e. lockdown). Social distancing changed the daily routines of children with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Healthcare professionals were forced to adapt to the pandemic by replacing physical outpatient visits with virtual visits. However, the influence of the lockdown on glycemic control in these patients remained unknown.

In this retrospective register study from a pediatric diabetes outpatient clinic, we analyzed the glycemic data of T1D patients (n = 245; aged 4 to 16 years) before and under the lockdown. All the participants used continuous glucose monitoring (rtCGM or iCGM), two-thirds were on insulin pumps (CSII), and one-third on multiple daily insulin injections (MDI) therapy.

In our patient cohort, time in range (TIR, n = 209) and mean glucose levels (n = 214) were similar prior to and under the lockdown (mean change 0.44% [95%CI: -1.1-2.0], p = 0.56 and -0.13 mmol/mol [95%CI: -0.3-0.1], p = 0.17, respectively). However, children treated with CSII improved their glycemic control significantly during the lockdown: TIR improved on average 2.4% [0.6-4.2] (p = 0.010) and mean blood glucose level decreased -0.3 mmol/mol [-0.6-(-0.1)] (p = 0.008). The difference was more pronounced in girls, adolescents and patients using conventional insulin pumps.

The glycemic control in T1D children did not deteriorate under the lockdown, and patients on CSII even improved their control, which suggests that social distancing might have allowed families to use the insulin pump more accurately as out-of-home activities were on hold.

Mortality among Italians and immigrants with COVID-19 hospitalised in Milan, Italy: data from the Luigi Sacco Hospital registry.

COVID 19

To compare differences in the probability of COVID-19-related death between native Italians and immigrants hospitalised with COVID-19.

This retrospective study of prospectively collected data was conducted at the ASST Fatebenefratelli-Sacco Hospital in Milan, Italy, between 21 February and 31 November 2020. Uni- and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the impact of the patients' origin on the probability of COVID-19-related death.

The study population consisted of 1,179 COVID-19 patients: 921 Italians (78.1%) and 258 immigrants (21.9%) who came from Latin America (99, 38%), Asia (72, 28%), Africa (50, 19%) and central/eastern Europe (37, 14%). The Italians were significantly older than the immigrants (median age 70 years, interquartile range (IQR) 58-79 vs 51 years, IQR 41-60; p < 0.001), and more frequently had one or more co-morbidities (79.1% vs 53.9%; p < 0.001). Mortality was significantly greater among the Italians than the immigrants as a whole (26.6% vs 12.8%; p < 0.001), and significantly greater among the immigrants from Latin America than among those from Asia, Africa or central/eastern Europe (21% vs 8%, 6% and 8%; p = 0.016). Univariable analysis showed that the risk of COVID-19-related death was lower among the immigrants (hazard ratio [HR] 0.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.30-0.63; p < 0.0001], but the risk of Latin American immigrants did not significantly differ from that of the Italians (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.47-1.15; p = 0.183). However, after adjusting for potential confounders, multivariable analysis showed that there was no difference in the risk of death between the immigrants and the Italians (adjusted HR [aHR] 1.04, 95% CI 0.70-1.55; p = 0.831), but being of Latin American origin was independently associated with an increased risk of death (aHR 1.95, 95% CI 1.17-3.23; p = 0.010).

Mortality was lower among the immigrants hospitalised with COVID-19 than among their Italian counterparts, but this difference disappeared after adjusting for confounders. However, the increased risk of death among immigrants of Latin American origin suggests that COVID-19 information and prevention initiatives need to be strengthened in this sub-population.