The latest medical research on Urology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about urology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Composite urinary and sexual outcomes after Rezum: an analysis of predictive factors from an Italian multi-centric study.

Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases

The Rezum system is one of the latest minimally invasive surgical treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

We retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent the Rezum treatment in seven different Italian institutions. A successful urinary outcome was defined as: ≥50% improvement in the IPSS <7, improvement in peak flow ≥50% and/or more than 15 ml/s, ≥1-point improvement in the QoL questionnaire and in the absence of perioperative major complications (AUR, transfusion) or postoperative incontinence. A successful sexual outcome was defined as postoperative (latest follow up consultation) antegrade ejaculation or no variation in ejaculatory function and an increase, or stability or max 1 class reduction, in IIEF-5.

262 patients were enrolled with a follow-up period of 11 months (IQR 5-15). No early or late serious adverse events (Clavien III-IV) occurred. Early complications occurred in 39.3% of cases, with 4 cases of clot retention and one case of blood transfusion. Urge incontinence was reported by 6 patients (2.2%). A treatment failure requiring re-intervention occurred in 4 cases (1.5%). The preoperative antegrade ejaculation rate was 56.5%, and after the procedure it increased to 78.2%. The increase of ≥1-point in the QoL was achieved in 92.7% of the cases. Optimal urinary and sexual outcomes were achieved in 52.9% and 87.8%, respectively.

In our series, water vapor intraprostatic injections seem to be an effective and safe procedure.

The Safety and Efficacy of Fluoxetine for the Treatment of Refractory Primary Monosymptomatic Nocturnal Enuresis in Children: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

J Urol

We investigated the efficacy and safety of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, for treating refractory primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis in children.

Children 8-18 years old with severe primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis unresponsive to alarm therapy, desmopressin, and anticholinergics were screened for eligibility. After excluding children with daytime urinary symptoms, constipation, underlying urological, neuropsychiatric, endocrinological, or cardiac conditions, patients were randomly and equally assigned to 10 mg fluoxetine once daily or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was treatment response according to the International Children's Continence Society terminology. Treatment-related adverse effects and nighttime arousal were secondary outcomes.

A total of 150 children were enrolled, of whom 110 (56 in fluoxetine group and 54 in placebo group) with a mean age of 11.8 (SD 2.46) years were finally analyzed. After 4 weeks, 7.1% and 66.1% of the fluoxetine group achieved complete response and partial response (defined as 50%-99% reduction of the number of wet nights), respectively, versus 0% and 16.7% of the placebo group (P < .001). At 12 weeks, complete and partial responses were achieved in 10.7% and 21.4% of the fluoxetine group, respectively (vs 0% and 14.8% of the placebo group, P = .023). Fluoxetine-treated patients had fewer wet nights (4.7 [SD 4.2] fortnightly vs 9.7 [SD 3.5] at 4 weeks, P < .001; 5.7 [SD 4.4] vs 9.9 [SD 3.4] at 8 weeks, P < .001; 7.5 [SD 4.6] vs 9.9 [SD 3.4] at 12 weeks, P = .003). Fluoxetine was associated with improved nighttime arousal (P = .017), and minor and rapidly reversible adverse effects in 5 (8.9%) patients.

Fluoxetine is safe treatment for refractory primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis in children with good initial response that declines at 12 weeks.

Differential effects of omega-3 PUFAS on tumor progression at early and advanced stages in TRAMP mice.


In vitro studies evidenced antitumor effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ([n-3] PUFAs), but their effects on prostate cancer (PCa) remain controversial in epidemiological studies. Here we investigated whether an (n-3) PUFA-enriched diet affects tumor progression in transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP), at early (12 weeks age) and advanced stages (20 weeks age).

TRAMP mice were fed with standard rodent diet (C12, C20) or (n-3) PUFA-enriched diet containing 10% fish oil (T12, T20). A group of 8 weeks age animals fed standard diet was also used for comparison (C8). The ventral prostate was processed for histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses and serum samples submitted to biochemical assays.

At early stages, (n-3) PUFA increased the frequency of normal epithelium (3.8-fold) and decreased the frequency of high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (3.3-fold) and in situ carcinoma (1.9-fold) in the gland, maintaining prostate pathological status similar to C8 group. At advanced stages, 50% of the animals developed a large primary tumor in both C20 and T20, and tumor weight did not differ (C20: 2.2 ± 2.4; T20: 2.8 ± 2.9 g). The ventral prostate of T12 and of T20 animals that did not develop primary tumors showed lower cell proliferation, tissue expressions of androgen (AR) and glucocorticoid (GR) receptors, than their respective controls. For these animals, (n-3) PUFA also avoided an increase in the number of T-lymphocytes, collagen fibers, and αSMA immunoreactivity, and preserved stromal gland microenvironment. (n-3) PUFA also lowered serum triglycerides and cholesterol, regulating the lipid metabolism of TRAMP mice.

(n-3) PUFAs had a protective effect at early stages of PCa, delaying tumor progression in TRAMP mice, in parallel with reductions in cell proliferation, AR, and GR and maintenance of the stromal compartment of the gland. However, (n-3) PUFAs did not prevent the development of primary tumors for the T20 group, reinforcing the need for further investigation at advanced stages of disease.

Current status and future perspectives of the managements of metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer.

World Journal of Diabetes

The therapeutic landscape for metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC) has changed dramatically. Here, we provide the current status and future prospective of the management of mHSPC.

We reviewed recent literature of landmark studies on the managements of mHSPC.

Upfront docetaxel or androgen receptor signaling inhibitor (ARSi) in addition to ADT has improved survival in mHSPC patients and has become the new standard of care. Triplet therapy with docetaxel, ARSi and ADT also improved survival. In the future, triplet therapy may become the standard of care. Oligometastatic mHSPC patients could benefit from local therapy. The inclusion of risk factors or the genetic biomarkers will provide the best treatment for individual mHSPC patients.

Strong systemic therapy in the first-line treatment of mHSPC has been shown to improve survival and quality of life. Currently, several clinical trials are evaluating novel compounds such as PARP inhibitor, AKT inhibitor, and immune checkpoint inhibitor. The therapeutic landscape of mHSPC management will change dramatically.

Functional and surgical outcomes of Aquablation in elderly men.

World Journal of Diabetes

As benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an age-related process, growing interest in surgical management for elderly men has emerged. Recently, Aquablation was approved for treatment of BPH associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and utilizes robotic ultrasound guided surgeon-controlled waterjet ablation. We assessed the differences in functional and surgical outcomes between elderly and young men undergoing Aquablation for BPH/LUTS.

We retrospectively assessed prospectively collected data from the WATER I (NCT02505919) and WATER II (NCT03123250) clinical trials reporting safety and efficacy of Aquablation in the treatment of LUTS/BPH in men 45-80 years with a prostate between 30 and 80 cc, and 80 cc and 150 cc, respectively. Men ≥ 65 years were defined as elderly and men < 65 years as young.

Of 217 patients included, 83 (38.2%) were young and 134 (61.8%) were elderly. Mean age (SD) was 59.3 (± 3.4) years and 71.2 (± 4.2) years for young and elderly men, respectively. At 3 years of follow-up compared to baseline, elderly men showed similar reductions in total IPSS (7.68 points vs 7.12 points, p > 0.05) and similar increases in Qmax (20.6 mL/s vs 19.3 mL/s, p > 0.05) compared to young men. The ejaculatory dysfunction rate was similar for both cohorts (12.0% vs 9.7%, p > 0.05). Elderly men experienced similar annual retreatment rates compared to young men (1.5% vs 0.8% p > 0.05).

Elderly men undergoing Aquablation have similar functional and surgical outcomes as young men. Elderly patient BPH surgical counseling should, therefore, consider Aquablation as a treatment option for LUTS/BPH.

CD47 (don't eat me signal) expression levels and its relationship with clinicopathologic features in early-stage prostate carcinoma.


Prostate cancer is a cancer with poor host immune response and could be defined as a non-T-cell inflamed tumor. Therefore, immunotherapy treatments could not be included in the treatment of prostate cancer until recently. Inadequate antitumoral response is one of the main reasons why tumor cells multiply rapidly and cause lethal results. It was shown that CD47 molecule, which is secreted at high levels by leukemia cells, reduces macrophage-mediated phagocytosis and thus facilitates escape from the antitumoral immune response. The aim of this study was to show don't eat me signaling in prostate carcinoma tissues and its relationship with macrophage polarization.

A total of 263 patients with a diagnosis of prostatic adenocarcinoma after radical prostatectomy between 2015 and 2020 at our institute were included in the study. CD47, CD68, and CD163 expression levels were examined immunohistochemically (IHC) in these tissues. The relationship of these expression levels with unfavorable prognostic factors and survival for prostate carcinoma was investigated.

In this study, all the operated prostate carcinoma cases had CD47 expression in tumor tissue, but only 52.5% had a high level of expression. Of 263 prostate cancer tissues, 135 (51.3%) showed high expression of CD68 protein and 189 (71.9%) showed high expression of CD163 protein. There was a statistically strong relationship between CD47, CD68, and CD163.

The CD47 molecule is basically a molecule that inhibits macrophage activation. CD68 is mostly used for macrophage classification, while CD163 is used for tumor-associated macrophage classification. Unlike others, we IHC examined CD47, CD68, and CD163 expressions in the surgical materials of patients who were operated for prostate carcinoma. In addition, we concluded that strong CD47 expression was closely associated with strong CD68 and CD163 expression in all tumor samples. However, a significant relationship between these expression levels and survival could not be demonstrated.

A Deception Study to Avoid Recall Bias Confirms Similar Scores for 3 Validated Questionnaires in the Office or over the Phone in Women with or without Urinary Incontinence.

J Urol

With increasing telehealth technology, confirming the validity of non-office administration of questionnaires intended for office use only is important. We studied three validated questionnaires: Urinary Distress Inventory 6-Short Form (UDI-6), International Incontinence 7- Short Form (IIQ-7), and one Quality of Life Survey (QoL) using a deception model.

Following IRB approval and power calculations, these 3 questionnaires were prospectively administered in women with and without incontinence by phone and then again in person about 2 weeks later. To avoid recall bias, participants were not informed of the study over the phone. After completing their office visit questionnaire scores, they were told about the study and invited to consent for comparison of their phone and in-person questionnaire scores. Non-English speakers and those with an active urinary tract infection, impaired mental competency, or on fluid diets were excluded.

From June to September 2021, 86 women, including 40 incontinent (30-85) and 46 control (30-85), with similar demographic parameters, met all study criteria. Of the 14 questions studied, only two, the UDI6: Q1 (p=0.033) and IIQ-7: Q7 (p=0.036), showed rather minimal but statistically significant differences in scores. For incontinent women, only the IIQ-7: Q7 (p=0.012) showed a significant score difference.

The three questionnaire scores were overall comparable when obtained over the phone or during office visit. Women with incontinence, who may otherwise be lost to follow-up or only reachable by telehealth calls, can benefit from the remote administration of these 3 questionnaires.

Evidence-based circumcision policy for Australia.

Journal of Men's Health

The aim was (1) to perform an up-to-date systematic review of the male circumcision (MC) literature and (2) to determine the number of adverse medi...

Biomarkers of disease recurrence in stage I testicular germ cell tumours.

Nature Reviews Urology

Stage I testicular cancer is a disease restricted to the testicle. After orchiectomy, patients are considered to be without disease; however, the t...

Future directions in systemic treatment of metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer.

World Journal of Diabetes

The landscape of advanced prostate cancer treatment has evolved tremendously in past decades. The treatment paradigm has shifted from androgen depr...

A comparison among RIRS and MiniPerc for renal stones between 10 and 20 mm using thulium fiber laser (Fiber Dust): a randomized controlled trial.

World Journal of Diabetes

We performed a prospective randomized comparison among Retrograde IntraRenal Surgery (RIRS) and MiniPerc (MP) for stones between 10 and 20 mm to evaluate outcomes with the same laser device: Fiber Dust.

Patients with a single renal stone between 10 and 20 mm were randomized to RIRS (Group A) versus MP (Group B). Exclusion criteria were age < 18 or > 75, presence of acute infection, coagulation impairments, cardiovascular or pulmonary comorbidities. In both groups, the Fiber Dust laser was used. A CT scan after 3 months was performed. A negative CT scan or asymptomatic patients with stone fragments < 3 mm and a negative urinary culture were the criteria to assess the stone-free status. A statistical analysis was carried out to assess success, complication and retreatment rates and need for auxiliary treatments.

Between January 2021 and January 2022, 186 patients were enrolled (90 in Group A and 96 in Group B). Mean stone size was 15.8 mm and 14.9 mm in Group A and B, respectively (p = 0.23). The overall stone-free rate (SFR) was 73.3% for Group A and 84.4% for Group B. A higher SFR was reached for upper calyceal stones in Group A (90.4%) lower calyceal stones in Group B (91.6%). Retreatment rate (p = 0.31) and auxiliary procedure rate (p = 0.18) were comparable. Complication rate was 5.5% and 5.2% for Groups A and B, respectively.

RIRS and MP are both effective to obtain a postoperative SFR with Fiber Dust. According to the stone position one treatment is superior to the other one.

Posterior urethral stenosis: a comparative review of the guidelines.

World Journal of Diabetes

We aimed to provide a thorough comparative review of the available guidelines on the diagnosis, management, and follow-up for patients with posterior urethral stenosis by the American Urologic Association (2016), Société Internationale d'Urologie (2010), and European Urologic Association (2022).

The AUA, SIU, and EAU guidelines were evaluated for recommendations on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of posterior urethral stenosis. We also included the EAU and AUA urologic trauma guidelines for the trauma-related stenosis. The level or strength of recommendations is included in case of disparity between the guidelines.

The three guidelines align considerably in recommendations provided for the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of patients with posterior urethral stenosis. SIU and EAU emphasize the role of repeat endoscopic treatment in guidelines compared to AUA.

The preferred method to repair bulbo-membranous stricture/stenosis following radiation therapy remains an area of active interest, focusing on continence preservation. Additionally, there may be a role for advanced endoscopic treatments with or without adjunct therapies to manage even obliterated stenoses.