The latest medical research on Urology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about urology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Optimizing the Implementation of Surgical Coaching Through Feedback From Practicing Surgeons.

JAMA Surgery

Surgical coaching is maturing as a tangible strategy for surgeons' continuing professional development. Resources to spread this innovation are not yet widely available.

To identify surgeon-derived implementation recommendations for surgical coaching programs from participants' exit interviews and ratings of their coaching interactions.

This qualitative analysis of the Surgical Coaching for Operative Performance Enhancement (SCOPE) program, a quality improvement intervention, was conducted at 4 US academic medical centers. Participants included 46 practicing surgeons. The SCOPE program ran from December 7, 2018, to October 31, 2019. Data were analyzed from November 1, 2019, to January 31, 2020.

Surgeons were assigned as either a coach or a coachee, and each coach was paired with 1 coachee by a local champion who knew the surgeons professionally. Coaching pairs underwent training and were instructed to complete 3 coaching sessions-consisting of preoperative goal setting, intraoperative observation, and postoperative debriefing-focused on intraoperative performance.

Themes from the participants' exit interviews covering 3 major domains: (1) describing the experience, (2) coach-coachee relationship, and (3) facilitators and barriers to implementing surgical coaching. Surgeons' responses were stratified by the net promoter score (NPS), a scale ranging from 0 to 10 points, indicating how likely they were to recommend their coaching session to others, with 9 to 10 indicating promoters; 7 to 8, passives; and 0 to 6, detractors.

Among the 46 participants (36 men [78.3%]), 23 were interviewed (50.0%); thematic saturation was reached with 5 coach-coachee pairs (10 interviews). Overall, coaches and coachees agreed on key implementation recommendations for surgical coaching, including how to optimize coach-coachee relationships and facilitate productive coaching sessions. The NPS categories were associated with how participants experienced their own coaching sessions. Specifically, participants who reported excellent first sessions, had a coaching partner in the same clinical specialty, and were transparent about each other's intentions in the program tended to be promoters. Participants who described suboptimal first sessions, less clinical overlap, and unclear goals with their partner were more likely detractors.

These exit interviews with practicing surgeons offer critical insights for addressing cultural barriers and practical challenges for successful implementation of peer coaching programs focused on surgical performance improvement. With empirical evidence on optimizing coach-coachee relationships and facilitating participants' experience, organizations can establish effective coaching programs that enable meaningful continuous professional development for surgeons and ultimately enhance patient care.

Long-term Oncologic Outcomes of Immediate Breast Reconstruction vs Conventional Mastectomy Alone for Breast Cancer in the Setting of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

JAMA Surgery

An increasing number of patients with breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) undergo immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) with nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) or skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) as surgical treatment. However, the oncologic efficacy and safety of this treatment sequencing strategy is unclear.

To compare the long-term oncologic outcomes of IBR with NSM/SSM and conventional mastectomy (CM) alone for breast cancer in the NACT setting.

A retrospective, propensity score-matched case-control study was conducted at Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. A total of 1266 patients with breast cancer who underwent NACT followed by mastectomy with or without breast reconstruction between January 1, 2010, and November 30, 2016, were included. Data analysis was performed from July 1, 2019, to January 24, 2020. After propensity score matching, 323 patients who underwent IBR with NSM/SSM and 323 who underwent CM alone were selected for comparison of long-term oncologic outcomes.

The 5-year local recurrence-free survival, disease-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, and overall survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using log-rank tests. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards regression model.

After matching, the median follow-up periods were 67 (range, 17-125) months for the IBR group and 68 (range, 17-126) months for the CM-alone group. Median age of the women in the IBR group was 42 (range, 23-72) years; median age of those in the CM-alone group was 46 (range, 30-75) years. No significant differences were observed between the IBR and CM-alone groups in local recurrence (3.7% vs 3.4%; P = .83), regional recurrence (7.1% vs 5.3%; P = .33), or distant metastasis (17.3% vs 18.6%; P = .68) rates. There was also no significant difference between the IBR and CM-alone groups in 5-year local recurrence-free survival (95.6% vs 96.7%; HR, 1.124; 95% CI, 0.495-2.549; P = .78), disease-free survival (76.5% vs 79.9%; HR, 1.089; 95% CI, 0.790-1.500; P = .60), distant metastasis-free survival (82.5% vs 82.5%; HR, 0.941; 95% CI, 0.654-1.355; P = .74), or overall survival (92.0% vs 89.3%; HR, 0.847; 95% CI, 0.530-1.353; P = .49) rates.

The long-term oncologic outcomes of IBR with NSM/SSM for breast cancer in this study appeared to be comparable to those of CM alone after NACT, suggesting the feasibility of IBR with NSM/SSM in the NACT setting.

Evaluation and Treatment of Patients With Hypercortisolism: A Review.

JAMA Surgery

With the potential for severe adverse effects of hypercortisolism, the need to limit the development and unrecognized persistence of sequelae from cortisol excess is of great importance on individual and population health levels. This review discusses the evaluation and treatment of patients with hypercortisolism. Pathophysiology; pitfalls in the diagnosis of hypercortisolism; and preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative management considerations are discussed. The association of hypercortisolism with population health and the potential role surgeons and surgery can play in the future of patients with hypercortisolism are also discussed. Higher-level considerations are put forth to encourage a long-term view of future work needed to optimally care for these patients.

Although classic signs and symptoms of hypercortisolism are evident in some patients, mild autonomous cortisol secretion is likely more prevalent and more difficult to detect despite having the potential to cause significant adverse effects, such as increased risk of mortality, and overt hypercortisolism. With treatment, some adverse effects of hypercortisolism may resolve, although not in all patients. Thus, the need for early diagnosis and treatment is of great importance.

More attention in the future on early treatment of hypercortisolism, whether subclinical or overt, and prevention of adverse effects is warranted for the sake of the individual and the population.

HoloYolo: A proof-of-concept study for marker-less surgical navigation of spinal rod implants with augmented reality and on-device machine learning.

Int J Med

Existing surgical navigation approaches of the rod bending procedure in spinal fusion rely on optical tracking systems that determine the location of placed pedicle screws using a hand-held marker.

We propose a novel, marker-less surgical navigation proof-of-concept to bending rod implants. Our method combines augmented reality with on-device machine learning to generate and display a virtual template of the optimal rod shape without touching the instrumented anatomy. Performance was evaluated on lumbosacral spine phantoms against a pointer-based navigation benchmark approach and ground truth data obtained from Computed Tomography.

Our method achieved a mean error of 1.83±1.10 mm compared to 1.87±1.31 mm measured in the marker-based approach, while only requiring 21.33±8.80 s as opposed to 36.65±7.49 s attained by the pointer-based method.

Our results suggests that the combination of augmented reality and machine learning has the potential to replace conventional pointer-based navigation in the future. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma: biology, natural history and management.

Nature Reviews Urology

Sarcomatoid dedifferentiation is an uncommon feature that can occur in most histological subtypes of renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) and carries a dec...

Tea and coffee consumption and pathophysiology related to kidney stone formation: a systematic review.

World Journal of Diabetes

To explore the mechanisms behind the potential protective effect of coffee and tea consumption, regarding urinary stone formation, previously demonstrated in large epidemiological studies.

A systematic review was performed using the Medline, Cochrane library (CENTRAL) and Scopus databases, in concordance with the PRISMA statement. English, French and Spanish language studies, regarding the consumption of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and tea, and the relationship to urinary stone formation were reviewed. Meta-analyses, systematic reviews, case reports and letters, unpublished studies, posters and comments abstracts were excluded.

As per the inclusion criteria, 13 studies were included in the final review. The major findings show that caffeine increases urinary excretion of calcium, sodium and magnesium, in addition to a diuretic action with consumption > 300-360 mg (approximately four cups of coffee). Together with other components of coffee, this beverage might have potential protective effects against the formation of urinary stones. Tea exerts many protective effects against stone formation, through the accompanying water intake, the action of caffeine and the effects of components with antioxidant properties.

Caffeine has a hypercalciuric effect, balanced partially by a diuretic effect which appears after consumption of large quantities of caffeine. The current available literature supports in general, a potentially protective role for tea against stone formation, mainly for green tea. Additional standardization in this field of research, through specification of tea and coffee types studied, and their respective compositions, is needed for further clarification of the relation between coffee, tea and urinary stones.

Immunotherapy in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer: current status and future directions.

World Journal of Diabetes

Patients harboring high-grade non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) experience high rates of both recurrence and progression. Currently, few treatment options besides cystectomy exist for this at-risk population, especially those with BCG-unresponsive disease. The purpose of this review is to present the current status and describe future directions of immunotherapy in NMIBC.

The PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched for articles pertaining to immunotherapy in NMIBC. Relevant planned and ongoing clinical trials were identified using . Published randomized control trials, reviews, other retrospective and prospective studies deemed relevant were used in this review paper.

Novel immunotherapies used in the treatment of high-grade NMIBC and BCG-unresponsive disease allow patients more options and have the potential to reduce the need for radical cystectomy. Currently, several options target the programmed death 1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) axis as this mechanism of immunotherapy has been shown to be effective in several cancers, including bladder, melanoma, and lung cancers. In addition, other immunotherapy options for the treatment of NMIBC include viral gene therapies, interleukin-15 superagonists, small molecule inhibitors of indoleamine (2,3)-dioxygenase 1, and vaccines.

The current landscape of immunotherapy in bladder cancer is rapidly evolving, with much literature pertaining to muscle-invasive and metastatic disease. However, the implementation of these treatment options in high-grade NMIBC may allow patients to avoid life-altering surgery. Reliable biomarkers for response are needed to further select patients who may benefit from such therapies.

Comparison of scoring systems for predicting stone-free status and complications after retrograde ıntrarenal surgery.

World Journal of Diabetes

To compare the effectiveness of scoring systems in predicting stone-free rates (SFR) and complications following retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS).

We retrospectively analyzed 280 patients who underwent RIRS for kidney stones between 2016 and 2019. The Resorlu-Unsal Stone score (RUSS), Modified Seoul National University Renal Stone Complexity (S-ReSC) score, and R.I.R.S. scoring system score were calculated for each patient who was enrolled in the study. Subsequently, stone scoring systems were compared as to their predictive capability for SFR using receiver-operating characteristic curves. Furthermore, multivariate analysis was done to determine whether the scoring systems associated with SFR and complications.

The median patient age was 44 (35--56). The median RUSS, S-ReSC, and R.I.R.S scores were 0 (0-1), 1(1-2), and 6 (5-7), respectively. The overall SFR was 76.7%. The R.I.R.S. scoring system was found to have a higher predictive value in predicting postoperative SFR than the other two scoring systems (p < 0.001, AUC = 0,816). RUSS, R.I.R.S. score, and stone size were found to be independent predictive factors for SFR (p = 0.049, p = 0.024, p = 0.033, respectively). Complications were observed in 3.2%(9/280) of patients. Stone scoring systems were not statistically associated with complications. Operation duration was the only independent risk factor for complications (p = 0.010).

The R.I.R.S. scoring system was found to have a higher predictive value than RUSS and S-ReSC to predict SFR following RIRS in our study. However, none of the stone scoring systems was directly proportional to complications of RIRS.

The impact of low pressure pneumoperitoneum in robotic assisted radical prostatectomy: a prospective, randomized, double blinded trial.

World Journal of Diabetes

Robotic surgery has revolutionized postoperative outcomes across surgical specialties. However, the use of pneumoperitoneum comes with known risks given the change in physiological parameters that accompany its utilization. A recent internal review found a 7% decrease in postoperative ileus rates when utilizing a pneumoperitoneum of 12 mmHg over the standard 15 mmHg in robotic assisted radical prostatectomies (RARP).

The purpose of this study is to prospectively evaluate the utility of lower pressure pneumoperitoneum by comparing 8 mmHg and 12 mmHg during RARP.

Patients were randomly assigned to undergo robotic assisted radical prostatectomy at a pneumoperitoneum pressure of 12 mmHg or 8 mmHg.

The primary outcome was development of postoperative ileus and secondary outcomes were length of operation, estimated blood loss and positive surgical margin status.

Lower pressure pneumoperitoneum during robotic assisted radical prostatectomy is non-inferior to higher pressure pneumoperitoneum levels and the experienced surgeon may safely perform this operation at 8 mmHg to take advantage of the proposed benefits.

Contemporary use of phytotherapy in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia: results from the EVOLUTION European registry.

World Journal of Diabetes

To use the European Association of Urology Research Foundation (EAURF) registry data to determine the proportion of contemporary Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms associated with Benign Prostatic Enlargement (LUTS/BPE) patients prescribed phytotherapy, and to determine their subjective quality of life and clinical progression responses.

This was a prospective multicenter multinational observational registry study, conducted over 2 years. Men ≥ 50 years seeking LUTS/BPE were divided at baseline into two cohorts, presently/recently untreated patients (PUP) commencing pharmacotherapy at baseline and presently/recently treated patients (c-PTP) continuing previously received pharmacotherapy, with 24-month follow-up (FU).

Overall, 2175 patients were enrolled with 1838 analyzed. Of the PUP cohort (n = 575), 92 (16%) received phytotherapy and 65 (71%, n = 65/92) completed 24-month FU, with France prescribing 34% (n = 30/89) the highest proportion of phytotherapy among all LUTS/BPE medications. In the c-PTP group (n = 1263), only 69 (5%) patients were using phytotherapy, falling to n = 35/69 (51%) at 24-month FU (highest in France 20% (n = 43/210)). Though defined disease progression occurred in ≤ 20%, with only 1% proceeding to surgical intervention, in both groups, clinically meaningful improvement was lower and symptom persistence was higher in PUP but similar in the treated (c-PTP) patients on phytotherapy compared to the other LUTS/BPE medication.

Low heterogeneous prescribing rates for phytotherapy were reported in both PUP and c-PTP cohorts over the 24-month FU. Although phytotherapy led to subjective improvements, healthcare practitioners should prescribe them with caution until higher quality evidence and guideline recommendations supporting its use are available.

Pre-therapy serum albumin-to-globulin ratio in patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical nephroureterectomy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma.

World Journal of Diabetes

The accurate selection of patients who are most likely to benefit from neoadjuvant chemotherapy is an important challenge in oncology. Serum AGR has been found to be associated with oncological outcomes in various malignancies. We assessed the association of pre-therapy serum albumin-to-globulin ratio (AGR) with pathologic response and oncological outcomes in patients treated with neoadjuvant platin-based chemotherapy followed by radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) for clinically non-metastatic UTUC.

We retrospectively included all clinically non-metastatic patients from a multicentric database who had neoadjuvant platin-based chemotherapy and RNU for UTUC. After assessing the pretreatment AGR cut-off value, we found 1.42 to have the maximum Youden index value. The overall population was therefore divided into two AGR groups using this cut-off (low, < 1.42 vs high, ≥ 1.42). A logistic regression was performed to measure the association with pathologic response after NAC. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses tested the association of AGR with OS and RFS.

Of 172 patients, 58 (34%) patients had an AGR < 1.42. Median follow-up was 26 (IQR 11-56) months. In logistic regression, low AGR was not associated with pathologic response. On univariable analyses, pre-therapy serum AGR was neither associated with OS HR 1.15 (95% CI 0.77-1.74; p = 0.47) nor RFS HR 1.48 (95% CI 0.98-1.22; p = 0.06). These results remained true regardless of the response to NAC.

Pre-therapy low serum AGR before NAC followed by RNU for clinically high-risk UTUC was not associated with pathological response or long-term oncological outcomes. Biomarkers that can complement clinical factors in UTUC are needed as clinical staging and risk stratification are still suboptimal leading to both over and under treatment despite the availability of effective therapies.

Quality of life and functional outcomes after radical cystectomy with ileal orthotopic neobladder replacement for bladder cancer: a multicentre observational study.

World Journal of Diabetes

Ileal orthotopic neobladder (IONB) reconstruction is the preferred urinary diversion among selected patients who have undergone radical cystectomy (RC) for bladder cancer (BCa). There is insufficient data regarding patients' quality of life (QoL), sexual and urinary outcomes. Our objectives were to assess QoL in a multicentre cohort study, and to identify related clinical, oncological and functional factors.

Patients who underwent RC with IONB reconstruction for BCa from 2010 to 2017 at one of the three French hospitals completed the following self-reported questionnaires: European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) generic (QLQ-C30) and bladder cancer specific instruments (QLQ-BLM30). To assess urinary symptoms, patients completed the Urinary Symptom Profile questionnaire (USP) and a three-day voiding diary. Univariate and multivariate analyses were computed to identify clinical, pathological, and functional predictors of global QoL score.

Seventy-three patients completed questionnaires. The median age was 64 years and 86.3% were men. The median interval between surgery and responses to questionnaires was 36 months (range 12-96). Fifty-five percent of patients presented a high global QoL (EORTC-QLQC30, median score 75). A pre-RC American Society of Anesthesiologists score > 2, active neoplasia, sexual inactivity, and stress urinary incontinence were associated with a worse QoL. After a multivariate analysis, sexual inactivity was the only independent factor related to an altered QoL.

Patients with IONB reconstruction after RC have a high global QoL. Sexual activity could independently impact the global QoL, and it should be assessed pre- and post-operatively by urologists.