The latest medical research on Nuclear Radiology
The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about nuclear radiology gathered by our medical AI research bot.
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Principal component analysis of texture features for grading of meningioma: not effective from the peritumoral area but effective from the tumor area.Neuroradiology
To investigate whether texture features from tumor and peritumoral areas based on sequence combinations can differentiate between low- and non-low-grade meningiomas.
Consecutive patients diagnosed with meningioma by surgery (77 low-grade and 28 non-low-grade meningiomas) underwent preoperative magnetic resonance imaging including T1-weighted imaging (T1WI), T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and contrast-enhanced T1WI (CE-T1WI). Manual segmentation of the tumor area was performed to extract texture features. Segmentation of the peritumoral area was performed for peritumoral high-signal intensity (PHSI) on T2WI. Principal component analysis was performed to fuse the texture features to principal components (PCs), and PCs of each sequence of the tumor and peritumoral areas were compared between low- and non-low-grade meningiomas. Only PCs with statistical significance were used for the model construction using a support vector machine algorithm. k-fold cross-validation with receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to evaluate diagnostic performance.
Two, one, and three PCs of T1WI, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and CE-T1WI, respectively, for the tumor area, were significantly different between low- and non-low-grade meningiomas, while PCs of T2WI for the tumor area and PCs for the peritumoral area were not. No significant differences were observed in PHSI. Among models of sequence combination, the model with PCs of ADC and CE-T1WI for the tumor area showed the highest area under the curve (0.84).
The model with PCs of ADC and CE-T1WI for the tumor area showed the highest diagnostic performance for differentiating between low- and non-low-grade meningiomas. Neither PHSI nor PCs in the peritumoral area showed added value.
Early gray matter atrophy and neurological deficits in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.Neuroradiology
To investigate early neurological deficits-related change patterns in gray matter (GM) volume in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning (COP) and GM volume differences between patients with and without delayed neurological sequelae (DNS) and those with and without T2 hyperintense lesions after COP.
Forty-one COP patients (24 patients with DNS) and 36 sex- and age-matched healthy controls (HC) were enrolled in this study. The neurological assessments were administered within 24 h after MRI scans. Voxel-based morphometry analysis was used to detect regional GM volume change.
The COP group had statistically significant GM atrophy in the bilateral prefrontal and temporal lobes, anterior cingulate (ACC), thalamus, posterior cerebellum, and right hippocampus compared to the HC group. Atrophy in the left medial orbital superior frontal gyrus (SFG), bilateral ACC, and bilateral thalamus were related to lower Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores and higher Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale subsection III and neuro-psychiatric inventory scores. Atrophy in the hippocampus and posterior cerebellum were also related to decrease MMSE scores. The DNS subgroup had greater GM atrophy in the limbic system than the non-DNS subgroup. Compared to the subgroup without T2 hyperintense lesions, greater GM atrophy in the limbic system, motor and visual cortex, and default network was observed in the subgroup with T2 hyperintense lesions.
GM atrophy in the medial orbital SFG, ACC, thalamus, hippocampus, and posterior cerebellum is associated with early neurological deficits in patients with COP. Greater atrophy occurred in patients with DNS and those with T2 hyperintense lesions.
Diagnostic yield of emergency MRI in non-traumatic headache.Neuroradiology
Non-traumatic headache is one of the most common neurological complaints in emergency departments. A relatively low diagnostic yield of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) among outpatients has been previously reported, but studies of emergency patients are lacking. We sought to determine the diagnostic yield of emergency MRI among outpatients presenting to the emergency department with non-traumatic headache.
In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed emergency MRI referrals in a tertiary hospital for non-traumatic headache over a five-year period. We recorded patient characteristics, relevant clinical information from the referrals, and imaging outcomes.
In total, 696 emergency patients with non-traumatic headache underwent MRI, most within 24 h of presentation. Significant findings related to headache were found in 136 (20%) patients, and incidental findings in 22% of patients. In a multivariate model, the predisposing factors of the significant findings were age, smoking, nausea, and signs/symptoms of infection. The protective factors were numbness and history of migraine. A predictive clinical score reached only moderate performance.
Although emergency MRI shows headache-related findings in one in five patients, accurate prediction modeling remains a challenge, even with statistically significant predictors and a large sample size.
Spectrum of qualitative and quantitative imaging of pilomyxoid, intermediate pilomyxoid and pilocytic astrocytomas in relation to their genetic alterations.Neuroradiology
Pilomyxoid astrocytomas (PMA) are pediatric brain tumors predominantly located in the suprasellar region, third ventricle and posterior fossa, which are considered to be more clinically aggressive than pilocytic astrocytomas (PA). Another entity, intermediate pilomyxoid tumors (IPT), exists within the spectrum of pilocytic/pilomyxoid astrocytomas. The 2021 WHO CNS classification refrained from assigning grade 1 or 2 status to PMA, thereby reflecting the need to further elucidate their clinical and imaging characteristics.
We included a total of 15 patients with PMA, IPT and suprasellar PA. We retrospectively evaluated immunohistochemistry, imaging findings and diffusion characteristics within these tumors as well as whole exome sequencing for three of the cases.
87% of the tumors were supratentorial with 11 cases suprasellar in location, 1 case located in the frontal white matter and 1 in the hippocampus. 6 cases demonstrated intraventricular extension. ADC values were higher in PMA and IPT than PA. 3 cases demonstrated KIAA1549-BRAF-fusion, 2 had BRAF[Formula: see text]-mutation and 6 were BRAF-wildtype. All cases had recurrence/progression on follow-up.
PMA and IPT do not demonstrate aggressive imaging characteristics in respect to their diffusion imaging with ADC values being higher than PA. Lack of BRAF-alteration in PMA corresponded to atypical location of tumors with atypical driver mutations and mechanisms.
Brain functional connectivity differences between responders and non-responders to sleeve gastrectomy.Neuroradiology
To compare resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) of obese patients responders or non-responders to sleeve gastrectomy (SG) with a group of obese patients with no past medical history of metabolic or bariatric surgery.
MR images were acquired at 1.5 Tesla. Resting-state fMRI data were analyzed with statistical significance threshold set at p < 0.05, family-wise error (FWE) corrected.
Sixty-two subjects were enrolled: 20 controls (age range 25-64; 14 females), 24 responders (excess weight loss > 50%; age range 23-68; 17 females), and 18 non-responders to sleeve gastrectomy (SG) (excess weight loss < 50%; age range 23-67; 13 females). About within-network RSFC, responders showed significantly lower RSFC with respect to both controls and non-responders in the default mode and frontoparietal networks, positively correlating with psychological scores. Non-responders showed significantly higher (p < 0.05, family-wise error (few) corrected) RSFC in regions of the lateral visual network as compared to controls. Regarding between-network RSFC, responders showed significantly higher anti-correlation between executive control and salience networks (p < 0.05, FWE corrected) with respect to both controls and non-responders. Significant positive correlation (Spearman rho = 0.48, p = 0.0012) was found between % of excess weight loss and executive control-salience network RSFC.
There are differences in brain functional connectivity in either responders or non-responders patients to SG. The present results offer new insights into the neural correlates of outcome in patients who undergo SG and expand knowledge about neural mechanisms which may be related to surgical response.
Clinical and imaging features of spinal extradural arachnoid cysts: a retrospective study of 50 cases.Neuroradiology
Spinal extradural arachnoid cysts (SEDACs) are thought to arise from leakage of CSF through a spinal dural defect. This study investigates the demographics and imaging spectrum of SEDACs at our academic institution and compares them with those reported in the literature.
Fifty cases with documented MRI diagnosis of SEDAC, Nabors criteria type I meningeal cyst (MC), were identified from retrospective review of imaging records between 1999 and 2020. Patient demographics, presenting symptoms, cyst characteristics, and management outcomes were studied. Statistical analysis was performed to determine associations between maximum cyst size and presenting symptoms along with other imaging findings.
In all 50 subjects, SEDACs were solitary (single) and sporadic (non-familial). The majority were incidental (62%), located posteriorly (92%) and laterally (80%) in the thoracic and thoracolumbar regions (34%, 30%). They were associated with mild mass effect upon the thecal sac (50%) and bone remodeling (92%). Among symptomatic SEDACs, back pain and radiculopathy were the most reported (68%). Larger cysts were located caudally in the spinal canal, and were associated with greater thecal mass effect, bone remodeling, and septations. Four out of six subjects who underwent surgical management had complete or partial remission. One had cyst recurrence.
In this largest series of SEDACs, most were discovered incidentally, stable over time, and located in the thoracic spine dorsal to the thecal sac. When symptomatic, back pain and radiculopathy were the most common presenting symptoms. Treatment with complete surgical excision may yield the best results for symptomatic lesions.
Paramaxillary CT-guided fine needle aspiration of head and neck lesions: technique, diagnostic yield, and safety profile.Neuroradiology
Computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous biopsy of deep-seated head and neck lesions can be a less invasive and equally effective alternative t...
Altered time-varying local spontaneous brain activity pattern in patients with high myopia: a dynamic amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations study.Neuroradiology
To investigate the abnormal time-varying local spontaneous brain activity in patients with high myopia (HM) on the basis of the dynamic amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (dALFF) approach.
Age and gender matching were performed based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 86 HM patients and 87 healthy controls (HCs). Local spontaneous brain activities were evaluated using the time-varying dALFF method. Support vector machine combined with the radial basis function kernel was used for pattern classification analysis.
Inter-group comparison between HCs and HM patients has demonstrated that dALFF variability in the left inferior frontal gyrus (orbital part), left lingual gyrus, right anterior cingulate and paracingulate gyri, and right calcarine fissure and surrounding cortex was decreased in HM patients, while increased in the left thalamus, left paracentral lobule, and left inferior parietal (except supramarginal and angular gyri). Pattern classification between HM patients and HCs displayed a classification accuracy of 85.5%.
In this study, the findings mentioned above have suggested the association between local brain activities of HM patients and abnormal variability in brain regions performing visual sensorimotor and attentional control functions. Several useful information has been provided to elucidate the mechanism-related alterations of the myopic nervous system. In addition, the significant role of abnormal dALFF variability has been highlighted to achieve an in-depth comprehension of the pathological alterations and neuroimaging mechanisms in the field of HM.
MRI features predict tumor grade in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutant astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma.Neuroradiology
Nearly all literature for predicting tumor grade in astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma pre-dates the molecular classification system. We investigated the association between contrast enhancement, ADC, and rCBV with tumor grade separately for IDH-mutant astrocytomas and molecularly-defined oligodendrogliomas.
For this retrospective study, 44 patients with IDH-mutant astrocytomas (WHO grades II, III, or IV) and 39 patients with oligodendrogliomas (IDH-mutant and 1p/19q codeleted) (WHO grade II or III) were enrolled. Two readers independently assessed preoperative MRI for contrast enhancement, ADC, and rCBV. Inter-reader agreement was calculated, and statistical associations between MRI metrics and WHO grade were determined per reader.
For IDH-mutant astrocytomas, both readers found a stepwise positive association between contrast enhancement and WHO grade (Reader A: OR 7.79 [1.97, 30.80], p = 0.003; Reader B: OR 6.62 [1.70, 25.82], p = 0.006); both readers found that ADC was negatively associated with WHO grade (Reader A: OR 0.74 [0.61, 0.90], p = 0.002); Reader B: OR 0.80 [0.66, 0.96], p = 0.017), and both readers found that rCBV was positively associated with WHO grade (Reader A: OR 2.33 [1.35, 4.00], p = 0.002; Reader B: OR 2.13 [1.30, 3.57], p = 0.003). For oligodendrogliomas, both readers found a positive association between contrast enhancement and WHO grade (Reader A: OR 15.33 [2.56, 91.95], p = 0.003; Reader B: OR 20.00 [2.19, 182.45], p = 0.008), but neither reader found an association between ADC or rCBV and WHO grade.
Contrast enhancement predicts WHO grade for IDH-mutant astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas. ADC and rCBV predict WHO grade for IDH-mutant astrocytomas, but not for oligodendrogliomas.
Natural history of pediatric morphine leukoencephalopathy on CT and MRI.Emergency Radiology
An increased awareness of opioids and the imaging appearance in opioid overdose-related leukoencephalopathy has rapidly become crucial with respect...
CT vascular territory mapping: a novel method to identify large vessel occlusion collateral.Neuroradiology
This descriptive study explores typical patterns of vascular territory mapping (VTM) in ischaemic stroke patients with proximal vessel occlusion. VTM is a novel process using CT perfusion that can identify the source and extent of collateral blood flow in patients with vessel occlusion. It functions by determining which vessel provides dominant blood flow to a brain voxel.
A total of 167 consecutive patients were analysed from INSPIRE (International Stroke Perfusion Imaging Registry) with their CT perfusion reprocessed through VTM software. We explored the typical territory maps generated by this software relating to common large vessel occlusion location sites (ACA/MCA/PCA).
In the presence of occlusion, VTM demonstrated a reciprocal increase in collateral vessel territories.
Know your way around acute unenhanced CT during global iodinated contrast crisis: a refresher to ED radiologists.Emergency Radiology
Due to a contrast shortage crisis resulting from the decreased supply of iodinated contrast agents, the American College of Radiology (ACR) has iss...