The latest medical research on Nuclear Radiology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about nuclear radiology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Successful fusion versus pseudarthrosis after spinal instrumentation: a comprehensive imaging review.


Following spinal instrumentation and fusion, differentiating between successful arthrodesis and pseudoarthrosis on imaging can be challenging. Interpretation of such examinations requires understanding both the expected evolution of postoperative findings and the subtle indicators of pseudoarthrosis across multiple imaging modalities. Due to this level of intricacy, many clinicians lack familiarity with the subject beyond the more rudimentary concepts.

This review provides an in-depth overview of the imaging of the post-operative spine, with particular emphasis on differentiating between pseudoarthrosis and arthrodesis.

A comprehensive overview of imaging of the post-operative spine is given, including the most common imaging modalities utilized, the expected post-operative findings, imaging findings in pseudoarthrosis, and imaging definitions of fusion.

Differentiating between pseudoarthrosis and arthrodesis in the postoperative spine is complex, and requires a robust understanding of various findings across many different modalities.

Multicenter survey clarifying phrases in emergency radiology reports.

Emergency Radiology

Interactions between radiologists and emergency physicians are often diminished as imaging volume increases and more radiologists read off site. We explore how several commonly used phrasings are perceived by radiologists and emergency physicians to decrease ambiguity in reporting.

An anonymous survey was distributed to attendings and residents at seven academic radiology and emergency departments across the USA via a digital platform as well as to an email group consisting of radiologists across the country with an interest in quality assurance. Physicians were asked to assign a percent score to probabilistic phrases such as, "suspicious of," or "concerned for." Additional questions including, "how often the report findings are reviewed," "what makes a good radiology report," and "when is it useful to use the phrase 'clinical correlation are recommended.'" Median scores and confidence intervals were compared using an independent Student's T-test.

Generally, there was agreement between radiologists and emergency room physicians in how they interpret probabilistic phrases except for the phrases, "compatible with," and "subcentimeter liver lesions too small to characterize." Radiologists consider a useful report to answer the clinical question, be concise, and well organized. Emergency physicians consider a useful report to be concise, definitive or include a differential diagnosis, answer the clinical question, and recommend a next step. Radiologists and emergency physicians did not agree on the usefulness of the phrase, "clinical correlation recommended," in which radiologists found the phrase more helpful under particular circumstances.

The survey demonstrated a wide range of answers for probabilistic phrases for both radiologists and emergency physicians. While the medians and means of the two groups were often different by statistical significance, the actual percent difference was minor. These wide range of answers suggest that use of probabilistic phrases may sometimes lead to misinterpretation between radiologist and emergency room physician and should be avoided or defined if possible.

MRI findings differentiating tonsillar herniation caused by idiopathic intracranial hypertension from Chiari I malformation.


Some patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) have cerebellar tonsillar herniation ≥ 5 mm mimicking Chiari malformation I (CMI), which can result in misdiagnosis and unjustified treatment. Our purpose was to identify IIH patients with tonsillar herniation ≥ 5 mm (IIHTH) and compare with CMI patients to assess imaging findings that could distinguish the two conditions.

Ninety-eight patients with IIH, 81 patients with CMI, and 99 controls were retrospectively assessed. Two neuroradiologists blindly reviewed MR images. IIHTH patients were compared with CMI patients and controls regarding the extent of tonsillar herniation (ETH), bilateral transverse sinus stenosis (BTSS), hypophysis-sella ratio (HSR), and bilateral tortuosity of optic nerve (BTON).

13/98 (13.2%) IIH patients had tonsillar herniation ≥ 5 mm (IIHTH) and were significantly younger and had higher BMI compared with CMI patients and controls. ETH was significantly less in the IIHTH than CMI (6.5 ± 2.4 mm vs. 10.9 ± 4.4 mm; p < 0.001). BTSS and HSR < 0.5 were more common in IIHTH than CMI (p < 0.001 and p = 0.003, respectively). No differences were seen between CMI and controls. BTON was significantly more common in IIHTH compared to control (p = 0.01) but not to the CMI (p = 0.36). Sensitivity and specificity to differentiate IIHTH from CMI were 69.2% and 96.1% for BTSS and 69.2% and 75.3% for HSR < 0.5.

The presence of BTSS and/or HSR < 0.5 in patients with ETH ≥ 5 mm should suggest further evaluation to exclude IIH before considering CMI surgery.

Natural history of MRI brain volumes in patients with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 3: a sensitive imaging biomarker.


Grey matter (GM) atrophy due to neuronal loss is a striking feature of patients with CLN3 disease. A precise and quantitative description of disease progression is needed in order to establish an evaluation tool for current and future experimental treatments. In order to develop a quantitative marker to measure brain volume outcome, we analysed the longitudinal volumetric development of GM, white matter (WM) and lateral ventricles and correlated those with the clinical course.

One hundred twenty-two MRI scans of 35 patients (21 females; 14 males; age 15.3 ± 4.8 years) with genetically confirmed CLN3 disease were performed. A three-dimensional T1-weighted sequence was acquired with whole brain coverage. Volumetric segmentation of the brain was performed with the FreeSurfer image analysis suite. The clinical severity was assessed by the Hamburg jNCL score, a disease-specific scoring system.

The volumes of supratentorial cortical GM and supratentorial WM, cerebellar GM, basal ganglia/thalamus and hippocampus significantly (r =  - 0.86 to - 0.69, p < 0.0001) decreased with age, while the lateral ventricle volume increased (r = 0.68, p < 0.0001). Supratentorial WM volume correlated poorer with age (r =  - 0.56, p = 0.0001). Supratentorial cortical GM volume showed the steepest (4.6% (± 0.2%)) and most uniform decrease with strongest correlation with age (r =  - 0.86, p < 0.0001). In addition, a strong correlation with disease specific clinical scoring existed for the supratentorial cortical GM volume (r = 0.85, p =  < 0.0001).

Supratentorial cortical GM volume is a sensitive parameter for assessment of disease progression even in early and late disease stages and represents a potential reliable outcome measure for evaluation of experimental therapies.

Multiple hypointense veins on susceptibility weighted imaging as a promising biomarker of impaired cerebral hemodynamics in chronic steno-occlusive disease: a multiparametric MRI study.


Patients with steno-occlusive arterial disease may develop cerebral hypoperfusion with possible neurologic sequelae. The aim of the study is to verify the possible role of SWI, as a marker of cerebral hypoperfusion, in the identification of patient subgroups with significant chronic occlusions/stenoses at risk of critical cerebral hypoperfusion.

We retrospectively identified 37 asymptomatic patients with chronic intra-extracranial occlusion/stenosis of the anterior circulation from a prospective brain MRI register between 2016 and 2020. All patients underwent 3 Tesla MRI. The imaging protocol included the following: SWI, 3D-FLAIR, DWI sequences, and 3D-TOF MRA. SWI findings were graded for the presence of asymmetric intracranial cortical veins (grades 1 to 4). The presence of collateralization was assessed with concomitant multiphase-CTA. FLAIR was evaluated for the presence of distal hyperintense vessels (DHVs), a described marker of flow impairment, and possible collateralization. Cerebral blood flow and arterial transit artifacts (ATAs) were evaluated at pCASL in 29 patients.

SWI showed multiple hypointense vessels (MHVs) in 22/37 patients in the cerebral hemisphere ipsilateral to vessel occlusion/stenosis. SWI-MHV grade 1 was found in 15 patients (40.5%), grade 2 in 18 patients (48.7%), and grade 3 in 3 patients (8.1%); in one patient, SWI was graded as 4 (2.7%). A significant relationship was found among MHV, DHV, collaterals, ATAs, and hypoperfused areas on pCASL and with patients' previous neurological symptoms.

SWI-MVH correlates with chronic cerebral flow impairment and is related to hypoperfusion and collateralization. It may help identify a subgroup of patients benefitting from revascularization.

Prospective assessment of aneurysmal rupture risk scores in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage: a multicentric cohort.


In a large prospective multicentric European cohort, we aimed to evaluate whether the PHASES, UCAS, and ELPASS scores in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage would have predicted a high risk of aneurysmal rupture or growth.

Academic centers treating patients with intracranial aneurysms were invited to prospectively collect de-identified data from all patients admitted at their institution for a subarachnoid hemorrhage-related to intracranial aneurysmal rupture between January 1 and March 31, 2021 through a trainee-led research collaborative network. Each responding center was provided with an electronic case record form (CRF) which collected all the elements of the PHASES, ELAPSS, and UCAS scores.

A total of 319 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were included at 17 centers during a 3-month period. One hundred eighty-three aneurysms (57%) were less than 7 mm. The majority of aneurysms were located on the anterior communicating artery (n = 131, 41%). One hundred eighty-four patients (57%), 103 patients (32%), and 58 (18%) were classified as having a low risk of rupture or growth, according to the PHASES, UCAS, and ELAPSS scores, respectively.

In a prospective study of European patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, we showed that 3 common risk-assessment tools designed for patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms would have not identified most patients to be at high or intermediate risk for rupture, questioning their use for decision-making in the setting of unruptured aneurysms.

Pediatric trauma and the role of the interventional radiologist.

Emergency Radiology

While interventional radiologists occupy a critical role in adult trauma management, the role of interventionalist in pediatric trauma continues to evolve. The indications for transarterial embolization (TAE) are significantly different in pediatric patients in whom non-operative management (NOM) has a much more prominent role than in adults. Contrast extravasation on imaging may not require acute surgical or interventional management as it would in an adult. There are also areas in which pediatric interventional radiology is increasingly useful such as pelvic TAE in failed management, or splenic embolization to treat bleeding without the loss of splenic function inherent to surgical splenectomy. The rapid evolution of techniques and devices in pediatric patients is also changing what interventions are possible in pediatric trauma management which necessitates frequent reassessment of the guidelines and interventional radiology's role in caring for these patients.

This review seeks to consolidate the recent literature to describe the evolving role of the interventional radiologist in pediatric trauma management.

Imaging characteristics and neurosurgical outcome in subjects with agenesis of the corpus callosum and interhemispheric cysts.


To explore the relationships between clinical-radiological features and surgical outcomes in subjects with interhemispheric cysts (IHC) and corpus callosum anomalies.

We reviewed the clinico-radiological and neurosurgical data of 38 patients surgically treated with endoscopic fenestration, shunting, or combined approaches from 2000 to 2018 (24 males, median age 9 years). Pre- and postoperative changes in IHC volume were calculated. Outcome assessment was based on clinico-radiological data. Group comparisons were performed using χ2, Fisher exact, Mann-Whitney U, and Kruskal-Wallis tests.

Median age at first surgery was 4 months (mean follow-up 8.3 years). Eighteen individuals (47.3%) required > 1 intervention due to IHC regrowth and/or shunt malfunction. Larger preoperative IHC volume (P = .008) and younger age at surgery (P = .016) were associated with cyst regrowth. At last follow-up, mean cystic volume was 307.8 cm3, with IHC volume reduction > 66% in 19/38 (50%) subjects. The neurological outcome was good in 14/38 subjects (36.8%), fair in 18/38 (47.3%), and poor in 6/38 (15.7%). There were no differences in the postoperative cyst volume with respect to either the type of first surgery or overall surgery type. Higher absolute postoperative IHC reduction was observed in subjects who underwent both IHC fenestration and shunting procedures (P < .0001). No differences in neurological outcome were found according to patient age at surgery or degree of IHC reduction.

Endoscopic fenestration and shunting approaches are both effective but often require multiple procedures especially in younger patients. Larger IHC are more frequently complicated by cyst regrowth after surgery.

Costal cartilage fractures in blunt polytrauma patients - a prospective clinical and radiological follow-up study.

Emergency Radiology

To assess the healing of costal cartilage fractures (CCFX) in patients with blunt polytrauma with follow-up imaging and clinical examination. Effect on physical performance and quality of life (QoL) was also evaluated.

The study group comprised twenty-one patients with diagnosed CCFX in trauma CT. All the patients underwent MRI, ultrasound, ultra-low-dose CT examinations, and clinical status control. The patients completed QoL questionnaires. Two radiologists evaluated the images regarding fracture union, dislocation, calcifications, and persistent edema at fracture site. An attending trauma surgeon clinically examined the patients, with emphasis on focal tenderness and ribcage mobility. Trauma registry data were accessed to evaluate injury severity and outcome.

The patients were imaged at an average of 34.1 months (median 36, range 15.8-57.7) after the initial trauma. In 15 patients (71.4%), CCFX were considered stable on imaging. Cartilage calcifications were seen on healed fracture sites in all the patients. The fracture dislocation had increased in 5 patients (23.8%), and 1 patient (4.8%) showed signs of a non-stable union. Four patients (19.0%) reported persistent symptoms from CCFX.

Non-union in CCFX is uncommon but may lead to decreased stability and discomfort. Both clinical and radiological examinations play an important part in the post-traumatic evaluation of CCFX. CT and MRI visualize the healing process, while dynamic ultrasound may reveal instability. No significant difference in QoL was detected between patients with radiologically healed and non-healed CCFX. Post-traumatic disability was mostly due to other non-thoracic injuries.

A practical overview of CT and MRI features of developmental, inflammatory, and neoplastic lesions of the sphenoid body and clivus.


The sphenoid bone is an unpaired bone that contributes to the formation of the skull base. Despite the enormous progress in transnasal endoscopic v...

Volumetric study of brain MRI in a cohort of patients with neurotransmitter disorders.


Inborn errors of neurotransmitters are rare monogenic diseases. In general, conventional neuroimaging is not useful for diagnosis. Nevertheless, advanced neuroimaging techniques could provide novel diagnosis and prognosis biomarkers. We aim to describe cerebral volumetric findings in a group of Spanish patients with neurotransmitter disorders.

Fifteen 3D T1-weighted brain images from the International Working Group on Neurotransmitter related Disorders Spanish cohort were assessed (eight with monoamine and seven with amino acid disorders). Volumes of cortical and subcortical brain structures were obtained for each patient and then compared with those of two healthy individuals matched by sex and age.

Regardless of the underlying disease, patients showed a smaller total cerebral tissue volume, which was apparently associated with clinical severity. A characteristic volumetric deficit pattern, including the right Heschl gyrus and the bilateral occipital gyrus, was identified. In severe cases, a distinctive pattern comprised the middle and posterior portions of the right cingulate, the left superior motor area and the cerebellum. In succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency, volumetric affection seems to worsen over life.

Despite the heterogeneity and limited size of our cohort, we found novel and relevant data. Total volume deficit appears to be a marker of severity, regardless of the specific neurotransmitter disease and irrespective of the information obtained from conventional neuroimaging. Volumetric assessment of individual brain structures could provide a deeper knowledge about pathophysiology, disease severity and specific clinical traits.

Clinical and radiological outcomes following insertion of a novel removable percutaneous interspinous process spacer: an initial experience.


To evaluate clinical and radiological outcomes of a series of patients treated with a removable percutaneous interspinous process spacer (IPS) (LobsterProject® Techlamed®) for symptomatic degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS).

All patients treated in two centres with this IPS during 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. Procedures were performed under deep sedation or general anaesthesia by two interventional radiologists. Patients were clinically evaluated before intervention and at 3-month follow-up with Visual Analog Scales for pain (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and radiologically with MRI or CT scans. Neural foramina were independently measured for each patient on pre- and post-procedural CT scans by two radiologists.

Fifty-nine patients were treated in the selected period of which fifty-eight had complete documentation (mean age 71.2 ± 9.2 years [55-92], 32 males, 26 females). Forty-eight interventions were performed under deep sedation and ten under general anaesthesia, without procedural complications. Clinical follow-up at 3 months showed a significant reduction of pain (VAS from 83 ± 9 to 29 ± 19, - 65%; p < 0.001) and an improvement in functional outcomes (ODI from 31 ± 12 to 13 ± 10%, - 58%; p < 0.001). There was one case of unsatisfactory positioning post procedure, two cases of posterior migration at 3-month follow-up and one case of spinous process fracture. Mean neural foramina area increased from 77 ± 23 to 95 ± 27 mm2 (+ 26%; p < 0.001) with very good inter-observer reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.899).

Percutaneous minimally invasive insertion of a removable IPS device demonstrates a favourable safety profile, good clinical outcomes at 3 months, and apparent anatomical increase in foraminal dimensions. Identifier: NCT05203666-Release Date: 21st January 2022, retrospectively registered.