The latest medical research on Heart Failure

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about heart failure gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Longitudinal Risk of Death, Hospitalisations for Atrial Fibrillation and Cardiovascular Events Following Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation: A Cohort Study.

European Heart Journal

Population studies reporting contemporary long-term outcomes following catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) are sparse.

To evaluate long-term clinical outcomes following AF ablation and examine variation in outcomes by age, sex, and the presence of heart failure.

We identified 30,601 unique patients (mean age 62.7±11.8y, 30.0% female) undergoing AF ablation from 2008-17 in Australia and New Zealand using nation-wide hospitalisation data. The primary outcomes were all-cause mortality; and re-hospitalisations for AF or flutter, repeat AF ablation, and cardioversion. Secondary outcomes were re-hospitalisations for other cardiovascular events. During 124,858.7 person-years of follow-up, 1,900 patients died (incident rate 1.5/100 person-years) with a survival probability of 93.0% (95%CI 92.6%-93.4%) by 5 years and 84.0% (95%CI 82.4%-85.5%) by 10 years. Re-hospitalisations for AF or flutter (13.3/100 person-years), repeat ablation (5.9/100 person-years), and cardioversion (4.5/100 person-years) were common with respective cumulative incidence of 49.4% (95%CI 48.4%-50.4%), 28.1% (95%CI 27.2%-29.0%), and 24.4% (95%CI 21.5%-27.5%) at 10-years post-ablation. Re-hospitalisations for stroke (0.7/100 person-years), heart failure (1.1/100 person-years), acute myocardial infarction (0.4/100 person-years), syncope (0.6/100 person-years), other arrhythmias (2.5/100 person-years), and new cardiac device implantation (2.0/100 person-years) occurred less frequently. Elderly patients and those with comorbid heart failure had worse survival but were less likely to undergo repeat ablation, while long-term outcomes were comparable between sex.

Patients undergoing AF ablations had good long-term survival, a low incidence of re-hospitalisations for stroke or heart failure, and about half remained free of re-hospitalisations for AF or flutter, including for repeat AF ablation, or cardioversion.

Impact of multicomponent integrated care on mortality and hospitalization after acute coronary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

European Heart Journal

Multicomponent integrated care is associated with sustained control of multiple cardiometabolic risk factors among patients with type 2 diabetes. There is a lack of data in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We aimed to examine its efficacy on mortality and hospitalization outcomes among patients with ACS in outpatient settings.

A literature search was conducted on PubMed, EMBASE, Ovid and Cochrane library databases for randomized controlled trials, published in English language between January 1980 and November 2020. Multicomponent integrated care defined as two or more quality improvement strategies targeting different domains (the healthcare system, healthcare providers and patients) for one month or more. The study outcomes were all-cause and cardiovascular-related mortality, hospitalization and emergency department visits. We pooled the risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between multicomponent integrated care and study outcomes using the Mantel-Haenszel test. 74 trials (n = 93,278 patients with ACS) were eligible. The most common quality improvement strategies were team change (83.8%), patient education (62.2%) and facilitated patient-provider relay (54.1%). Compared with usual care, multicomponent integrated care was associated with reduced risks for all-cause mortality (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.77-0.90; p<0.001; I2 = 0%), cardiovascular mortality (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.73-0.89; p<0.001; I2 = 24%) and all-cause hospitalization (RR 0.88, 95% CI, 0.78-0.99; p = 0.040; I2 = 58%). The associations of multicomponent integrated care with cardiovascular-related hospitalization, emergency department visits and unplanned outpatient visits were not statistically significant.

In outpatient settings, multicomponent integrated care can reduce risks for mortality and hospitalization in patients with ACS.

Outcomes of guideline-based medical therapy in patients with acute heart failure and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction: Observations from the Gulf acute heart failure registry (Gulf CARE).

European Heart Journal

This study aimed to report on the use, predictors and outcomes of guideline-based medical therapy (GBMT) in patients with acute heart failure (HF) ...

Cost-effectiveness of CYP2C19-guided P2Y12 inhibitors in Veterans undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary syndromes.

European Heart Journal

CYP2C19-guided P2Y12 inhibitor selection can reduce cardiovascular events and bleeding in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) post-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The 12-month cost-effectiveness of CYP2C19-guided P2Y12 inhibitor selection for Veterans post-ACS/PCI was evaluated from the Veteran Health Administration's (VHA) perspective.

Using average annualized PCI volumes and P2Y12 inhibitor use from VA data, a decision-analytic model simulated CYP2C19 testing versus no testing outcomes in 2800 hypothetical Veterans receiving PY212 inhibitor for 12 months post-ACS/PCI (74% clopidogrel, 5% prasugrel, 21% ticagrelor use at baseline without testing). CYP2C19 loss-of-function (LOF) carrier prevalence was 28%. Model inputs were from studies (bleeding/ischemic events, CYP2C19-guided therapy effect, health state utilities, CYP2C19 LOF carrier prevalence) and VHA administrative data (costs of events, drugs, CYP2C19 testing; PCI volumes, P2Y12 inhibitor prescriptions). The primary outcome was cost (2020 US${\$}$) per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Base-case scenario, probabilistic sensitivity analyses, and scenario analyses were completed. CYP2C19-guided therapy resulted in 496 (24%) escalations (clopidogrel to prasugrel/ticagrelor) and 465 (65%) de-escalations (prasugrel/ticagrelor to clopidogrel). CYP2C19 testing averted 1 stroke, 27 myocardial infarctions, 8 cardiovascular-related deaths, and caused 3 bleeds. CYP2C19 testing (vs no testing) was dominant in base-case scenario (0.0027 QALYs gained, ${\$}$527 saved/person) and in 97.1% of simulations, making it cost-effective and high-value. In scenario analyses, de-escalation in conjunction with escalation is required for CYP2C19 testing to be cost-effective and high-value.

In Veterans post-ACS/PCI, CYP2C19-guided P2Y12 inhibitor selection can improve cardiovascular outcomes and lower costs for the VHA within 12 months of implementation.

Adverse Cardiovascular Effects of Anti-tumor Therapies in Patients With Breast Cancer: A Single-center Cross-sectional Analysis.

European Heart Journal

Cardiotoxicity due to antitumor therapy is a dreaded complication and could thus impact the prognosis of patients with breast cancer. This study sought to analyze the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular events and to identify potential risk factors.

A total of 136 patients with breast cancer were divided into two groups based on the occurrence of treatment-related cardiovascular toxicity [event 47 (35%) vs. no event 89 (65%)]. Patients were followed over a median of 45 months (range=37-83 months).

Most common events were thromboembolic complications (26%), followed by heart failure (15%) and acute toxic cardiomyopathy (5%), with a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF (%), no event 59±5.0 vs. event 55±11, p=0.01 ]. Patients with leftsided breast cancer and an advanced stage disease had a higher risk of developing adverse cardiovascular events. The highest risk was found for patients with a high number of cardiovascular risk factors. In addition to LVEF, mitral annular plane systolic excursion was also significantly reduced in the event group, while there was a trend for higher global longitudinal strain. During follow-up, 26 patients (19.1%) deceased, whereof 12 had a treatment-related cardiovascular event, but without statistical difference.

Treatment-related cardiovascular events are relatively common in about one third of patients with breast cancer. Women with a cardiovascular risk profile or an advanced stage disease had a higher risk for adverse events. Despite the treatment-related cardiac deterioration, no difference in mortality was observed during follow up.

Economic evaluation of Restrictive Vs. Liberal Transfusion Strategy Following Acute Myocardial Infarction (REALITY): trial-based cost effectiveness and cost utility analyses.

European Heart Journal

To estimate the cost effectiveness and cost utility ratios of a restrictive vs liberal transfusion strategy in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients with anemia.

Patients (n = 666) with AMI and hemoglobin between 7-8 and 10 g/dL recruited in 35 hospitals in France and Spain were randomly assigned to a restrictive (n = 342) or a liberal (n = 324) transfusion strategy with 1-year prospective collection of resource utilization and quality of life using the EQ5D3L questionnaire. The economic evaluation was based upon 648 patients from the per-protocol population. The outcomes were 30-day and 1-year cost-effectiveness, with major adverse cardiovascular event averted (MACE) as the effectiveness outcome; and 1-year cost utility ratio.The 30-day incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was €33,065€ saved per additional MACE averted with the restrictive versus the liberal strategy, with an 84% probability for the restrictive strategy to be cost-saving and MACE reducing (i.e.dominant). At 1-year, the point estimate of the cost-utility ratio was 191,500 € saved per QALY gained; however cumulated MACE were outside the pre-specified non-inferiority margin, resulting in a decremental cost effectiveness ratio with a point estimate of €72,000 saved per additional MACE with the restrictive strategy.

In patients with acute myocardial infarction and anemia, the restrictive transfusion strategy was dominant (cost-saving and outcome-improving) at 30 days. At 1 year, the restrictive strategy remained cost-saving but clinical noninferiority on MACE was no longer maintained. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02648113.

The Clinical Approach to Diagnosing Peri-procedural Myocardial Infarction after Percutaneous Coronary Interventions according to the Fourth Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction - from the Study Group on Biomarkers of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Association for Acute CardioVascular Care (ACVC).

European Heart Journal

This review intends to illustrate basic principles on how to apply the Fourth Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction (UDMI) for the diagnosis of peri-procedural myocardial infarction (MI) after percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) in clinical practice.

Review of routine case-based events. Increases in cardiac troponin (cTn) concentrations are common after elective PCI in patients with chronic coronary syndrome (CCS). Peri-procedural PCI-related MI (type 4a MI) in CCS patients should be diagnosed in cases of major peri-procedural acute myocardial injury indicated by an increase in cTn concentrations of >5-times the 99th percentile upper reference limit (URL) together with evidence of new peri-procedural myocardial ischemia as demonstrated by electrocardiography (ECG), imaging, or flow-limiting peri-procedural complications in coronary angiography. Measurement of cTn baseline concentrations before elective PCI is useful. In patients presenting with acute MI undergoing PCI, peri-procedural increases in cTn concentrations are usually due to their index presentation and not PCI-related, apart from obvious major peri-procedural complications, such as persistent occlusion of a large side branch or no-reflow after stent implantation.

The distinction between type 4a MI, PCI-related acute myocardial injury, and chronic myocardial injury can be challenging in individuals undergoing PCI. Careful integration of all available clinical data is essential for correct classification.

Reperfusion therapy for ST-elevation myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock: the European Society of Cardiology EurObservational programme acute cardiovascular care-European association of PCI ST-elevation myocardial infarction registry.

European Heart Journal

To determine the current state of the use of reperfusion and adjunctive therapies and in-hospital outcomes in European Society of Cardiology (ESC) member and affiliated countries for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) complicated by cardiogenic shock (CS).

ESC EurObservational Research Programme prospective international cohort study of admissions with STEMI within 24 h of symptom onset (196 centres; 26 ESC member and 3 affiliated countries). Of 11 462 patients enrolled, 448 (3.9%) had CS. Patients with compared to patients without CS, less frequently received primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (65.5% vs. 72.2%) and fibrinolysis (15.9% vs. 19.0), and more often had no reperfusion therapy (19.0% vs. 8.5%). Mechanical support devices (intraaortic ballon pump 11.2%, extracoporeal membrane oxygenation 0.7%, other 1.1%) were used infrequently in CS. Bleeding definition academic research consortium 2-5 bleeding complications (10.1% vs. 3.0%, P < 0.01) and stroke (4.2% vs. 0.9%, P < 0.01) occurred more frequently in patients with CS. In-hospital mortality was 10-fold higher (35.5% vs. 3.1%) in patients with CS. Mortality in patients with CS in the groups with PCI, fibrinolysis, and no reperfusion therapy were 27.4%, 36.6%, and 62.4%, respectively.

In this multi-national registry, patients with STEMI complicated by CS less frequently receive reperfusion therapy than patients with STEMI without CS. Early mortality in patients with CS not treated with primary PCI is very high. Therefore, strategies to improve clinical outcome in STEMI with CS are needed.

Defects in the Proteome and Metabolome in Human Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

Circulation. Heart failure

Defects in energetics are thought to be central to the pathophysiology of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM); yet, the determinants of ATP availability are not known. The purpose of this study is to ascertain the nature and extent of metabolic reprogramming in human HCM, and its potential impact on contractile function.

We conducted proteomic and targeted, quantitative metabolomic analyses on heart tissue from patients with HCM and from nonfailing control human hearts.

In the proteomic analysis, the greatest differences observed in HCM samples compared with controls were increased abundances of extracellular matrix and intermediate filament proteins and decreased abundances of muscle creatine kinase and mitochondrial proteins involved in fatty acid oxidation. These differences in protein abundance were coupled with marked reductions in acyl carnitines, byproducts of fatty acid oxidation, in HCM samples. Conversely, the ketone body 3-hydroxybutyrate, branched chain amino acids, and their breakdown products, were all significantly increased in HCM hearts. ATP content, phosphocreatine, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and its phosphate derivatives, NADP and NADPH, and acetyl CoA were also severely reduced in HCM compared with control hearts. Functional assays performed on human skinned myocardial fibers demonstrated that the magnitude of observed reduction in ATP content in the HCM samples would be expected to decrease the rate of cross-bridge detachment. Moreover, left atrial size, an indicator of diastolic compliance, was inversely correlated with ATP content in hearts from patients with HCM.

HCM hearts display profound deficits in nucleotide availability with markedly reduced capacity for fatty acid oxidation and increases in ketone bodies and branched chain amino acids. These results have important therapeutic implications for the future design of metabolic modulators to treat HCM.

Eligibility of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation on in-hospital cardiac arrests in Sweden: a national registry study.

European Heart Journal

Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) for refractory cardiac arrest (CA) is used in selected cases. The incidence of ECPR-eligible patients is not known. The aim of this study was to identify the ECPR-eligible patients among in-hospital CAs (IHCA) in Sweden and to estimate the potential gain in survival and neurological outcome, if ECPR was to be used.

Data between 1 January 2015 and 30 August 2019 were extracted from the Swedish Cardiac Arrest Register (SCAR). Two arbitrary groups were defined, based on restrictive or liberal inclusion criteria. In both groups, logistic regression was used to determine survival and cerebral performance category (CPC) for conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (cCPR). When ECPR was assumed to be possible, it was considered equivalent to return of spontaneous circulation, and the previous logistic regression model was applied to define outcome for comparison of conventional CPR and ECPR. The assumption in the model was a minimum of 15 min of refractory CA and 5 min of cannulation. A total of 9209 witnessed IHCA was extracted from SCAR. Depending on strictness of inclusion, an average of 32-64 patients/year remains in refractory after 20 min of cCPR, theoretically eligible for ECPR. If optimal conditions for ECPR are assumed and potential negative side effects disregarded of, the estimated potential benefit of survival of ECPR in Sweden would be 10-19 (0.09-0.19/100 000) patients/year, when a 30% success rate is expected. The benefit of ECPR on survival and CPC scoring was found to be detrimental over time and minimal at 60 min of cCPR.

The number of ECPR-eligible patients among IHCA in Sweden is dependent on selection criteria and predicted to be low. There is an estimated potential benefit of ECPR, on survival and neurological outcome if initiated within 60 min of the IHCA.

Effect of glutamate infusion on NT-proBNP after coronary artery bypass grafting in high-risk patients (GLUTAMICS II): A randomized controlled trial.

European Heart Journal

ClinicalTrials.gov https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02592824. European Union Drug Regulating Authorities Clinical Trials Database (Eudra CT number 2011-006241-15).

A prospective, randomized, double-blind study enrolled patients from November 15, 2015 to September 30, 2020, with a 30-day follow-up at 4 academic cardiac surgery centers in Sweden. Patients underwent CABG ± valve procedure and had left ventricular ejection fraction ≤0.30 or EuroSCORE II ≥3.0. Intravenous infusion of 0.125 M L-glutamic acid or saline at 1.65 mL/kg/h started 10 to 20 minutes before releasing the aortic cross-clamp, then continued for another 150 minutes. Patients, staff, and investigators were blinded to the treatment. The primary endpoint was the difference between preoperative and day-3 postoperative NT-proBNP levels. Analysis was intention to treat. We studied 303 patients (age 74 ± 7 years; females 26%, diabetes 47%), 148 receiving glutamate group and 155 controls. There was no significant difference in the primary endpoint associated with glutamate administration (5,390 ± 5,396 ng/L versus 6,452 ± 5,215 ng/L; p = 0.086). One patient died ≤30 days in the glutamate group compared to 6 controls (0.7% versus 3.9%; p = 0.12). No adverse events linked to glutamate were observed. A significant interaction between glutamate and diabetes was found (p = 0.03). Among patients without diabetes the primary endpoint (mean 4,503 ± 4,846 ng/L versus 6,824 ± 5,671 ng/L; p = 0.007), and the incidence of acute kidney injury (11% versus 29%; p = 0.005) was reduced in the glutamate group. These associations remained significant after adjusting for differences in baseline data. The main limitations of the study are: (i) it relies on a surrogate marker for heart failure; and (ii) the proportion of patients with diabetes had almost doubled compared to the cohort used for the sample size estimation.

Infusion of glutamate did not significantly reduce postoperative rises of NT-proBNP. Diverging results in patients with and without diabetes agree with previous observations and suggest that the concept of enhancing postischemic myocardial recovery with glutamate merits further evaluation.

Impact of Age on Outcomes after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

European Heart Journal

Usage of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) for treatment of severe aortic stenosis is increasing across age groups. However, literature on age-specific TAVI outcomes is lacking. The purpose of this study is to assess the risks of procedural complications, mortality, and readmission in patients undergoing TAVI across different age groups.

The Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD) was used to identify 84,017 patients undergoing TAVI from 2016-2018. Patients were stratified into four age groups: younger than 70, 70 to 79, 80 to 89, and older than 90. Complications, mortality, and readmission rates were compared between groups in a proportional hazards regression model. Risk of post-procedural stroke, acute kidney injury, and pacemaker or implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation increased with incremental age grouping. Compared to patients younger than 70, patients aged 70 to 79 had no significant difference in mortality, whereas patients aged 80 to 89 and older than 90 had an increased mortality risk (odds ratio (OR) 1.39; CI 1.14-1.70; p = .001, and OR 1.68; CI 1.33-2.12; p < .001, respectively). Patients aged 80 to 89 and older than 90 had increased overall readmission as compared to patients younger than 70 (HR 1.09; CI 1.03-1.14; p = 0.001 and HR 1.33; CI 1.25-1.41; p < .001, respectively). Cardiac readmissions followed the same trend.

Patients aged 80 to 89 and greater than 90 undergoing TAVI have increased risk of readmission, complications, and mortality compared to patients younger than 70.